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BLI-223: Organising and Managing Information

BLI-223: Organising and Managing Information

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: BLI-223/AST/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BLI-223

Assignment Name: Organising and Managing Information

Year: 2021-2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Note: Answer all questions.

I) Answer the following questions in not more than 500 words each. (4x10= 40 Marks)

Q1) Explain enumerative and faceted systems of classification. Discuss with examples their historical development, main classes, notation, and extent of use. (10)

Ans) The historical development, main classes, notation, and extent of use of enumerative and faceted systems of classification:

Enumerative Systems

A classification is a top-down map of knowledge that lists every subject and its subgroups. Each subdivision is identified by a notational mark. This notation, or a cluster of digits, is assigned to a document with that topic as its specific subject and is known as a class number. These systems are also referred to as 'mark and park' systems. Enumerative classifications are pre-defined, frozen lists of past, present, and near-future themes. These just serve as pre-made pigeonholes for papers rather than allowing them to be uniquely identified based on their subjects and various documentation features. Usually, these turn out to be square holes for round pegs. These classification systems are now regarded to be outdated.

Systems with Multiple Facets

An enumerative system generates a list of subjects that is both systematic and linear. Knowledge is multi-dimensional and ever-evolving. At any given time, an enumerative classification can only represent one aspect of a specific subject. Many details must be omitted. A simple subject like "Anatomy of Dogs" could be classed as "Zoology of Dogs" or "Anatomy of Animals" in previous editions of the DDC. Both issues could not be considered at the same time. As a result, such systems fail to classify current information in a comprehensive manner, let alone future themes. Although the UDC (1895+) had made some advancements in the DDC to denote certain more auxiliary characteristics of a document, these enumerative models were not very efficient by the beginning of the twentieth century.

S.R. Ranganathan devised a new way to categorise multidimensional knowledge thrown by the twentieth-century industrial society after extensive research and testing in the late 1920s. Faceted systems are the name given to these types of systems. Any of a cut diamond's numerous sides is referred to as a facet. This phrase was coined by Ranganathan to classify several elements of a single subject. He separated a subject horizontally into numerous categories and then vertically into diverse subcategories known as facets and isolates, rather than compiling a long list of subjects in some logical sequence. For example, library science could be split into facets such as 'Kind of Library,' 'Kind of Document,' 'Kind of Operation,' and 'Kind of Service.'

Circulation services, reference services, current awareness services, reprographic services, and so on are examples of service types. The facets of space and time are retained as universal facets that apply to all types of subjects. Ranganathan later established the "Five and Only Five Fundamental Categories" philosophy. Personality, Matter, Energy, Space, and Time are the five categories. His thesis is that any subject may be divided into one or more of these groups. Any of these categories can be used to create a subject. Nothing is too much for them. These facets are transformed to digits, which are then concatenated in a predetermined order to give unique class numbers that correspond to the document's specific subject. As a result, rather of allocating a class number to a book from a vast list of premade class numbers as in an enumerative classification, a class number can be created to exactly fit the document. By combining and permuting a limited set of facets, a large number of class numbers can be generated. It ushered in a new era of library classification.

Q2) What is MARC? Explain the structural design of a MARC record giving an example. (10)

Ans) A Machine-Readable Cataloguing record (MARC) is a record that can be read by machines. It is a machine-readable format for storing and exchanging bibliographic records and related data. Machine-readable: "Machine-readable" means that the data in the catalogued record can be read and interpreted by a single machine, such as a computer.

The common record format is essential for machine readability. MARC has a physical structure and a set of control mechanisms that allow the machine to recognise and process data elements as needed. This physical data structure method, which was originally established as a carrier for MARC data, is currently being adopted as a standard by other communication formats for bibliographic information transfer, such as UNIMARC, CCF, national MARCs, and others, both nationally and globally. They're all based on the ANSI Z39.2 / ISO 2709 standard.

MARC: Structure

The MARC structure has the following elements:


The first 24 characters of the records make up the leader. Each position has a distinct meaning, yet much of the information in the leader is intended for use by computers. The leader gives information about the following record, such as its overall length, record code type, and bibliographic level.

Directory of Records:

The directory begins immediately after the leader. The directory identifies which variables are present in the record and where they are located. Each variable field has a record directory of 12 characters. The record directory is useful for retrieving certain fields from a record. A field terminator character marks the conclusion of the directory.

The MARC format, both in terms of structure and content designators, has ushered in a worldwide revolution in bibliographic database design. The presence of other formats based at least on the ideas of the MARC format attests to MARC's influence. The MARC framework was utilised as the foundation for the establishment of various databases such as INIS, AGRIS, and INSPEC's proprietary communication format. Why is there only one standard? One may design his or her own technique of organising bibliographic data, but this would isolate his or her library, limit its alternatives, and add to his or her workload. The MARC standard or format eliminates duplication of effort and allows libraries to share bibliographic resources more effectively.

By opting for MARC, libraries can obtain cataloguing data that is predictable and dependable. If a library developed a "home-grown" system that didn't use MARC records, it would be ignoring an industry-wide standard whose principal goal is to facilitate information sharing.

Libraries that adopt the MARC standard or format can also use commercially available library automation tools to manage their operations. Many technologies are designed to operate with the MARC format and are available for libraries of all sizes. The vendor maintains and improves the systems so that libraries can take advantage of the most recent breakthroughs in computer technology. The MARC standard or format also allows libraries to switch from one system to another while maintaining data compatibility.

Variable Field:

The length of each variable field can be established by looking at the directory entry's length-of-field section or looking for the field terminator character [1E(16), 8-bit]. The logical record length element in Leader/00-04 or the appearance of the record terminator character [1D(16), 8-bit] can be used to calculate the length of a record. Each variable field's placement is specified directly in the directory entry's commencing character position element.

Q3) Define an indexing language. State its different types. Discuss how different types of relations are represented in a thesaurus. (10)

Ans) An indexing language is a set of phrases and devices that are used to establish the relationship between terms that describe document content and user queries. Controlled vocabulary, syntax, and semantics are the three basic components. Controlled vocabulary is defined as a limited set of terms that illustrate their links and indicate how they can be combined to give a subject index for documents and to search for these documents in a specific system. Syntax is a grammatical framework or collection of rules that governs the order in which terms/words appear in a document to convey its content. The systematic study of how meaning is constructed, expressed, and understood in the use of an indexing language is known as semantics.

Different Types of Indexing Language

Classification Schemes:

In the form of its notation, a classification scheme employs coded vocabulary. Libraries have traditionally used notational methods of library classification to organise information resources on shelves and to give a way of discovering information resources through bibliographical tools like catalogues, bibliographies, abstracting, and indexing documents.

Subject Heading Lists:

A subject heading is a word or combination of words (identifying a subject) under which all items dealing with the same theme are placed in a catalogue or bibliography or are organised in a file. A master list of words/terms that can be given to documents is used by a vocabulary control device. A list of subject headings is a comprehensive list of terms like this. A topic heading list is an alphabetical list of terms and phrases that can be used as a source of subject headings to represent the subject matter of a document, complete with cross references and annotations.

General Principles:

In his 1876 book 'Principles for a Dictionary Catalog,' Charles Ammi Cutter defined the rules for subject headings in a dictionary catalogue. The influence of Cutter's principles on subject heading building and maintenance may still be seen today. When it came to assigning subject headings to documents, both the LCSH and the SLSH followed Cutter's guidelines.


According to the principles of specific and direct entry, a document must be assigned to the most particular subject heading that accurately and precisely conveys its content. If a paper is about penguins, it should be filed under the subject 'Penguins,' not 'Birds,' or even 'Water Birds, which includes Penguins.'

Common Usage:

The word(s) employed to express a subject must represent general usage, according to this notion. When the same notion is stated by two or more terms, selecting subject headers might be difficult. Subject headings should be chosen based on the needs of users who are likely to utilise the index file, according to this approach. If a dialectal choice must be made, the most frequently accepted spelling of the words, as determined by users, should be selected.


To ensure consistency in the usage of subject headings, the uniform heading principle is used. To ensure that each notion is represented by a single chosen term, a topic heading list must be exceedingly specific and exact. Synonyms and homographs are both should be avoided. Other synonyms and variants should be listed as nonpreferred words with USE references to the preferred term. One standard term must be chosen from a list of synonyms and other variations, and it must be used consistently throughout all papers on the subject.

Consistent and Current Terminology:

As has already been stated in relation to the arguments for uniform headings, the principle stipulates that the term(s) used as subject headings should be both consistent and contemporary. When there is a choice between synonymous terms and different alternatives, common usage takes precedence. Changes in usage also pose a number of practical challenges.

Form Heading:

The words or phrases that indicate the literary or creative form are referred to as form headings. The words or phrases that appear after a subject heading and are denoted by a dash. These terms or phrases are used to narrow down the subject. The assignment of form headings to individual works, collections, and materials concerning the form allows libraries to give users with access to various types of items. There are several types of library items about literary forms that require subject headers in addition to literary works themselves.

Cross Reference:

Cross-references lead the user from a term or phrase that isn't used as a heading to the one that is, and from broader and related themes to the one chosen to represent a certain subject.

Q4) Explain the concept of interoperability. How is it achieved? Discuss the protocols or interoperability. (10)

Ans) The term "interoperability" refers to the ability to work together. Different resources collaborate to produce a common service or objective in a distributed service environment. Understanding different modules or services of an object/product is quite prevalent.

Methods for Achieving Interoperability


One of the strategies for establishing interoperability is mapping. Mapping refers to the process of linking or correlating two groups of items one to one. Mappings between two ontologies entails establishing semantic relationship between each entity of ontology A and entities of ontology B. The mapping does not result in the creation of new entities; rather, it results in correspondence.


Ontology alignment is the process of bringing distinct ontologies into agreement with one another. This procedure entails combining ontologies in such a way that redundancies are removed, and logical elements are preserved. As a result, the procedure necessitates the modification of the ontologies involved. Any element that is expected in the mutual ontology, however, may be included. As a result, alignment could result in a completely different view of ontology.


Transformation causes the original ontology to alter completely. The modification could be in the form of elements, attributes, or concepts. As a result, the resulting ontology would be a brand new one based on the prior one. However, depending on the situation, the degree of change in structure or semantics may vary. Depending on the needs of the original, the transformation process can be additive or subtractive.


It is not uncommon for ontology to be employed in a variety of settings. A change in environment can be caused by a shift in the topic domain, software, or language. In such a circumstance, it is necessary to modify the original ontology to fit the new environment. However, it is intended that the original's conceptual meaning or semantics will not alter and will remain as near to the original as possible.


Merging or integrating ontologies occurs when two or more ontologies are combined to generate a new ontology. As a result of this process, an entirely new ontology based on the prior one emerges.

Interoperability Protocols

Many online resources are available on the Internet, including materials in various formats such as text, images, audio, and video. Different metadata standards may be used by different resources that host these materials. A search engine will be used to find these documents. As a result, a cross-platform mechanism in the form of protocols has been devised to search many resources in one go. The system as a whole is scattered and entirely untamed. Creating search agents for such a system is a major undertaking. Protocols enable users to search several data sources with a single effort, regardless of the metadata standard in use. Interoperability approaches are continually being updated and refined in order to give searchers greater power and capabilities.

The protocol takes advantage of Z39.50 features as well as web technology. The requirement to search many sites utilising the WWW prompted Z39.50's expansion. The SRU is a simple Web search method that uses the GET method and HTTP. The URL carries the request as a name and value pair. The SRW transports a request in the form of a Simple Object Application Protocol packet. In both circumstances, the result is returned in XML format. SRW and SRU vary in that SRW returns an XML stream contained in a SOAP wrapper. A standard Common Query Language, a language for database querying, is used to query the databases. The protocol is supported by a number of library-specific search agents. The Library of Congress is the most important.

II) Answer the following questions in not more than 250words each. (6x5=30 Marks)

Q1) Discuss the need for ISBD. Describe the structure of an ISBD record. (5)

Ans) The ISBDs seek to serve the following primary purpose:

  1. First, and most importantly, they are designed to allow records from various sources to be interchanged. The ISBDs serve as an afterthought.

  2. Second, records produced for users of one language can be interpreted by users of another language because bibliographic items in each record can be easily identified through specialised punctuation and their place in the record, allowing records produced for users of one language to be interpreted by users of another language.

  3. Finally, they've made it easier to convert bibliographic records to electronic format.

  4. The ISBD's fourth goal was to create a standard form of bibliographic description that could be used to interchange records on a global scale. This would help IFLA's Universal Bibliographic Control programme.

Structure of an ISBD Record

The ISBD specifies eight different types of descriptions. Except for area 7, each region is made up of many elements. The title proper, general material designation GMD, other title information, parallel title, and declarations of responsibility, for example, are all found in area 1. The description excludes elements and places that do not pertain to a certain resource. To distinguish and divide the elements and sections, standardised punctuation (colon, semicolon, slashes, dashes, commas, and periods) is employed. When one does not understand the description's language, the arrangement of elements and standardised punctuation make it easier to analyse bibliographic entries.

These are the eight areas:

  1. Title and statement of responsibility area;

  2. Edition area;

  3. Material or type of resource specific area;

  4. Publication, production, distribution, etc., area;

  5. Physical description area;

  6. Series area;

  7. Notes area; and

  8. Resource identifier and terms of availability area.

Q2) Explain the problems of cataloguing non book material. Show by an example how is a

video catalogued according to AACR2R. (5)

Ans) Because of their unique nature, new media products frequently cause serious issues in terms of arranging, cataloguing, and retrieving the information they contain. As a result, the cataloguer may run across the following issues:

  1. Information from the documents to be categorised may be more difficult to gather than from traditional documents with a title page.

  2. Information gathered from one source in the NBM may differ from information gathered from another document source.

  3. It may be more difficult to achieve cataloguing decisions with regard to access point selection, i.e. heading determination, or, in other words, determining the person responsible for the intellectual content of the document, which is less experienced in the case of books and serials.

  4. Rather than the physical description of distinct types of NBM, information about physical description of different types of NBM causes issues for cataloguers.

  5. It is not possible to gather information with the naked eye because it necessitates the use of specialised equipment.

In comparison to books, cataloguing NBM presents a number of unique challenges. Eric J. Hunter has highlighted some specific issues, such as the frequent fluctuation in its physical forms and the difficulty in obtaining the original equivalent. Along with the two concerns mentioned by Hunter, John Horner explored several possible problems in his book Special Cataloguing at the same time.

Horner's issues are as follows:

  1. It's possible that using the documents will necessitate the usage of machinery.

  2. The materials may be more fragile, scarce, and costly than those used in traditional books.

  3. To classify the contents comprehensively and promptly, special subject knowledge and awareness of the appropriate regulations in catalogue code may be required.

  4. It's possible that specialised knowledge and experience with the physical form will be required.

  5. It's possible that special cataloguing techniques, such as codes and thesauri, will be required.

  6. vAs a result, due of the range of materials available, it may be essential to create one's own aids.

Q3) What is keyword indexing? Explain its various versions. (5)

Ans) Keyword indexing is based on the generation of index entries using natural language terminology. The phrase 'keyword' refers to a prominent or memorable word that serves as a key in identifying the subject, usually from the document's title, but occasionally from the abstract or text. Because it is wasteful, common words like articles and conjunctions are not treated as keywords.

Natural or Free Indexing Language is another name for this system. It should be noted that keyword indexing is not a new concept; it was first introduced in the eighteenth century as 'catchword indexing.' In 1958, Hans Peter Luhn, an IBM engineer, developed a computer-produced index that became known as KWIC indexing, which was introduced with the arrival of computers in information retrieval in the 1950s.

Variations of Keyword Indexing

In the literature, there are several types of keyword indexes that differ solely in terms of format, but the indexing techniques and principles are mostly the same. The following are some of the most common types of keyword indexing:

Key Word Out of Context (KWOC):

Each index word is taken from its context in KWOC and printed independently in the left-hand margin, with the unaltered title displayed to the right in its normal arrangement. Consider the following scenario:

Cancer Chemical treatment of cancer in the hospitals of Chennai - 614

Chemical treatment of cancer in the hospitals of Chennai - 614

Chennai Chemical treatment of cancer in the hospitals of Chennai - 614

Hospitals Chemical treatment of cancer in the hospitals of Chennai - 614

Keywords are sometimes positioned and printed like headings, with the title appearing on the next line below the header rather than on the same line as illustrated above.

Keyword Augmented-in-Context Index (KWAC):

In KWAC, the title's keywords are supplemented with extra keywords derived from the abstract or the document's original text, which are placed into the title or added at the end to generate additional index entries. The enrichment of KWIC or KWOC is what KWAC is. Additional terms are incorporated into the title or added at the conclusion of an expanded KWIC or KWOC index entry. The selection of extra phrases necessitates mental effort.

Q4) What is an online catalogue? Discuss its characteristics and advantages. (5)

Ans) A library catalogue that consists of a collection of bibliographic records in machine-readable format is known as an online catalogue. To put it another way, it is both a machine-readable catalogue and something more. It must be kept on a dedicated computer that allows for continuous interactive access via terminals or workstations in direct, uninterrupted communication with the central computer. In a nutshell, it's an electronic catalogue that can be accessed over the internet. When you connect to the Internet, for example, you are online, and when you search the British Library Catalogue, you are searching for an online database.

Characteristics of Online Catalogue:

  1. It is designed for end-users who have little or no experience with web searching.

  2. Typically, database records are in MARC format or are derived from MARC format.

  3. The entries are concise bibliographic descriptions supplemented by a small number of regulated subject descriptors from Sears or LC Subject Headings, as well as a classification number from DDC or LC.

Advantages of Online Catalogue:

All of the operations of a library catalogue are performed more efficiently and quickly by the machine-readable catalogue than by any other method. We'll go over these benefits in detail:

A computer readable catalogue:

  1. Can be kept up to date in a timely and efficient manner.

  2. Any bibliographical element, such as author, subject, publisher, and price, can be searched for.

  3. Is user-friendly, with the ability to add new access points and search features as needed.

  4. It's simple to multiply.

  5. It is feasible to create a union catalogue among several libraries via electronic communication.

  6. It's simple to put together if the cataloguer is skilled in the process, and the user feels at ease because he or she has immediate access to a wealth of information and is well-versed in the necessary instructions.

  7. Provides a comprehensive search function and combines the best features of both DDC and CC.

  8. Catalogue records have become more consistent, uniform, and standardised as a result of interchanging them.

  9. If the computer system is linked to a computerised system for issuing and returning reading materials, it determines if the requested item is available on the shelf or on loan.

Q5) What is postulational approach? Discuss the canons for arrays giving examples. (5)

Ans) The postulational approach entails approaching categorization with the help of a predetermined theory in the form of Laws, Canons, Principles, and Postulates. Ranganathan created his Colon Classification between, despite the fact that he did it without any formalised theory. Indeed, under his most esteemed teacher W.C.B Sayers' categorization seminars, he had learned several classification canons. After the release of his CC in 1933, Ranganathan began to consider the hypothesis that had been lurking in the back of his mind when building the CC.

That theory was so extensive and objective that it was adopted as the general theory of classification. To create a categorization system, he formulated objective, even mechanical procedures. He developed 55 Canons, 22 Principles, 13 Postulates, and 10 Devices for the synthesis of class numbers and the evaluation of classification systems in addition to the Five (Normative) Laws. He accomplished this by dividing the work into three planes: idea, verbal plane, and notational plane. He meticulously separated the job to be done in each plane. Ranganathan therefore elevated categorization design to the rank of a science, freeing it from the elusive flair and intuition.

An array is a collection of items of equal rank that are ordered in a logical order. For example, all of a father's children form an array. In a similar vein, the continents of the world are arranged in a grid. The array includes all of India's states, as well as all of a state's district towns. For their formation,

Ranganathan has proposed the following Canons:

  1. Canon of Exhaustiveness

  2. Canon of Exclusiveness

  3. Canon of Helpful Sequence

  4. Canon of Consistent Sequence

Q6) What is ontology? Discuss its different types. (5)

Ans) Ontology is the study or concern with what kinds of things exist – what entities exist in the cosmos – in general. Ontology is the working model of entities and interactions in some domain of knowledge or practises, such as electronic commerce or "planning activity," in information technology.

Different Types of Ontologies

Generic Ontologies

Generic ontologies encompass a wide range of knowledge topics. They define notions at a high level of abstraction. The broad concepts and their relationships are represented by generic ontology. These ontologies are re-usable. Generic ontologies are a type of library that can be used to a variety of problem areas and environments. These ontologies are similar to an umbrella ontology that can be used in conjunction with more particular ontologies for more specific purposes.

Core Ontologies

There are two schools of thinking on ontological content. According to one theory, content is extremely dependent on context, and so any ontology developed can only operate with the same content or concept. The opposite school, on the other hand, claims that there are ontologies that use a minimum of standard terminology. The terms used are philosophical or cognitive science terms. As a result, the terminology utilised is domain agnostic, or in other words, it is exclusively influenced by philosophy and cognitive science.

Domain Specific Ontologies

Ontologies are created with certain goals in mind, such as identifying distinct components and explaining specific functions. Ontologies tailored to a given knowledge sphere, sector, field, region, or realm are frequently required. Domain specific ontologies are the name for these types of ontologies. The ontology of an organisational chart, for example, can be considered a domain specific ontology.

Task Oriented Ontologies

The processes are divided down into different levels in a more complicated system, such as top level, middle level, and innermost level. According to the system analyst, each level may have its own set of goals. As a result, each level completes its own duty before passing the output to the next. Task Oriented Ontology is a conceptual framework for the stated system. It has taxonomy and axioms, just as other ontologies.

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