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BLI-224: ICT Fundamentals

BLI-224: ICT Fundamentals

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: BLI-224/AST/TMA/ Jul.2022-Jan.2023

Course Code: BLI-224

Assignment Name: ICT Fundamentals

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


I) Answer all the questions in not more than 500 words each. 5×3


1. What is networking? Explain topologies used in wide area network with diagrams.

Ans) The concept of networking is wide but we can define it as the interconnection of two or more networks in different places. In the simplest sense, networking means connecting computers so that they can share files, printers, applications, and other computer-related resources.


WAN Topologies

WAN topologies use LAN and enterprise-wide topologies as building blocks, but they are more complex due to the greater number of users they must support, the greater distance they must cover, and the volume of traffic they frequently handle. We shall discuss WAN topologies in this section. These resemble LAN in nearly every way. However, we connect one network to the WAN rather than a single node or workstation. These networks could have diverse topologies, connectivity, and technology foundations. Additionally, the various networks may communicate with the WAN via various sorts of connections.


Single link: Bus topology may not be feasible or very expensive to implement in WAN scenarios. To transmit and receive traffic, each network site relies on every other site in the network. In contrast to the WAN peer-to-peer architecture, which employs many sites connected to one another via dedicated channels, peer-to-peer LANs use computers that share access to a single cable.

Ring: WAN Ring topology connects locations rather than local nodes by connecting each site to two more sites, forming a ring pattern over the whole WAN. Contrary to the Single-Link WAN, routers at any network location can switch data to an other route if the current one gets overloaded; nonetheless, a single cable can compromise the network's interconnection as a whole. Additionally, when growing, the single Link WAN needs at least one more link. As a result, WANs that employ the ring topology are only useful for tying up networks with less than four or five sites.

Star: The configuration of a star LAN is likewise used in the star WAN topology. A single network site serves as the primary connection point for a number of other stations. The set up offers distinct paths for data between any two sites. Star WANs are therefore more dependable than Single link or Ring WANs. A star WAN also has the benefit of shorter data pathways between any two sites when all of its dedicated connections are operational.

Mesh: Several network sites that are directly coupled together make up the mesh WAN topology. Data may be transported directly from its source to its destination thanks to every site's interconnection. Routers can rapidly and easily reroute data if a connection has a problem. A mesh WAN has one drawback: it is expensive to execute because it requires renting a lot of channels to connect every network site to every other. We can choose to create a partial mesh, in which crucial WAN networks are directly connected, in order to reduce costs.


2. What is convergence? Explain the major communication technologies of modern telecommunications system.

Ans) Because of the recent development of technology capabilities that make convergence more affordable and widely adopted, it is regarded as a new trend. Convergence is a straightforward idea that enables numerous jobs to be completed on a single device, significantly saving both space and power. For instance, each technology is converging on a single device, or smartphone, rather than carrying different gadgets, such as a cell phone, camera, and digital organiser. A high-definition TV and the Internet are an additional example.


Communication Technologies of Modern Telecommunications System


Modern telecommunications encompasses four main communication technologies:


Electrical communication system: Electronic communication is described as any form of communication that employs electronic means, such as computers, email, telephones, video calling, FAX machines, etc., to transmit information or messages. By exchanging information such as images, graphics, sound, photos, maps, software, and many other things, this style of communication can be produced. Numerous changes in the workplace, society, etc. have taken place as a result of e-communication. People can easily access global communication as a result without having to migrate.


Optical communication system: Long-distance optical fibre propagation is constrained to the fibre core. The light pulses are received by photodiodes at the other end of the system, where they are transformed back into electronic signals that, in telephone applications, produce sound. It is essential to transmit the light in such a system with little attenuation or optical loss. The use of the lowest-loss fibre and reducing loss at the source and detector ends have both been highly prioritised. If optical losses are severe, more, expensive repeater stations will need to be used to reamplify the optical signals. It is possible to understand the scope of the issue when transoceanic communications systems are involved. It has been discovered that silica-based fibres' minimal transmission losses happen at wavelengths between 1.3 and 1.55 m. The choice of appropriate semiconductors and the epitaxial deposition technology required to construct the necessary sources and detectors directly depend on the requirement to function inside this IR-wavelength window.


Radio or wireless communication system: Without the aid of wires, cables, or any other kind of electrical conductors, wireless communication entails the transmission of information across a large distance. Using a wireless signal to link and communicate with two or more devices using wireless communication methods and equipment falls under the broad category of wireless communication. For instance, a television remote control's communicated distance could be a few metres, whereas it could be thousands of kilometres with radio communication.


Satellite communication system: Using a communication satellite in orbit around the Earth, satellite communication is the transfer of information from one location to another. Without this, it would not have been possible for you to watch the English Premier League every weekend with your pals. An artificial satellite called a communication satellite establishes a channel between a transmitter and a receiver at various points on Earth in order to transmit a signal using a transponder. Satellite communications are used in telephone, radio, television, internet, and military applications. Unbelievably, there are more than 2000 man-made satellites whizzing above your heads. Radio and television broadcasting, for instance.


3.What do you understand by the protocols? Describe Remote Login in detail.

Ans) Depending on the situation, the word procedure might mean many things. In terms of governments, protocol refers to a rigidly adhered-to protocol in state affairs and diplomatic situations. For instance, in India, where the president serves as the head of state, etiquette governs how he or she may participate in official activities. These procedures outline the President's seating arrangement, who will accompany the President, how dignitaries will be introduced, etc. In other words, they outline the acceptable behaviour in specific circumstances. They might talk about things like dress, greetings, conversation, and eating manners. All of these guidelines support effective collaboration and communication.


In intergovernmental negotiations, the term "protocol" refers to the original version of a diplomatic document, particularly one that contains the conditions of a treaty that has been signed by the parties involved and agreed upon in a conference. You may be familiar with the Kyoto Protocol, which outlines the conditions that signatories must follow in order to manage and reduce global carbon emissions. A protocol is the name given to a formal record of scientific experiment observations. Protocols can also refer to instructions for doing scientific experiments or a record of the progress of any medical therapy.


The term "protocol" is frequently used in both computer and communication contexts. Computer protocols deal with message exchange, process interaction, and other issues. You may already be aware that a process is a programme running. In the exchange and transmission of information across entities in a network, protocols deal with signalling, switching, routing, forwarding, error management, monitoring, and recovery methods. The following is a key distinction between the two. While computing protocols specify guidelines for communication between computer processes, communication protocols specify guidelines for communication between computers. However, they both involve information sharing. Typically, protocols are computer programmes that carry out communication standards. Some protocol functions, particularly those involving the transfer of bits and bytes, are implemented in hardware.


Remote Login


A remote time-sharing computer can be accessed and used by an Internet user via Telnet to run programmes. The user invokes a Telnet client on his or her computer and gives the identify of the remote system for this reason. TCP is used by the Telnet client to connect to the distant computer. The remote computer assumes control of the user's display and sends a login command after the connection has been made. The user enters his or her account name and password in accordance with standard login procedures. Once that happens, the user computer continues to operate just like a terminal on the remote system. When a user logs out, the distant computer cuts off the Internet connection, and the local machine's Telnet client shuts down on its own.


A feature of general access is remote login. It is a useful tool on the Internet because of its generality. It makes the distant computer's programmes accessible without requiring any modifications to the actual programmes. All that is necessary is the installation of the Telnet server on the time-sharing system. The user computer appears on the distant system as a typical terminal when the telnet client and server are used together. Therefore, the programme on the remote machine does not need to be changed. This generality allows various computers of any brand to be connected to the distant system. Every machine connected to the Internet effectively has the ability to connect to any Telnet server as a Telnet client. Telnet enables dynamic interaction between the user and the remote system, in contrast to FTP or email. Telnet service is quite well-liked as a result.

II) Write short notes on the following in not more 200 words each. 10×2


1. Ubuntu operating system

Ans) Ubuntu is a Linux-based operating system. It is designed for computers, smartphones, and network servers. The system is developed by a UK based company called Canonical Ltd. All the principles used to develop the Ubuntu software are based on the principles of Open Source software development. Ubuntu aims to be secure by default. User programs run with low privileges and cannot corrupt the operating system or other users' files. For increased security, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, which allows the root account to remain locked and helps prevent inexperienced users from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security holes.


Significant Features of Ubuntu

  1. The desktop version of Ubuntu supports all the normal software on Windows such as Firefox, Chrome, VLC, etc.

  2. It supports the office suite called LibreOffice.

  3. Ubuntu has an in-built email software called Thunderbird, which gives the user access to email such as Exchange, Gmail, Hotmail, etc.

  4. There are a host of free applications for users to view and edit photos.

  5. There are also applications to manage videos and it also allows the users to share videos.

  6. It is easy to find content on Ubuntu with the smart searching facility.

  7. The best feature is, it is a free operating system and is backed by a huge open source community.


2. Advantages of LibreOffice

Ans) A free, feature-rich office productivity package is LibreOffice. It is an effective open-source office suite that offers tools for many kinds of office jobs, including composing texts, using spreadsheets, making graphics and presentations, and developing scientific calculations. You may use the same data across several computer systems with LibreOffice. Microsoft Office files, among others, can be opened, edited, and then saved again in LibreOffice format. Open Document Format, an open standard format that is being accepted by governments all over the world as a prerequisite file format for publishing and receiving documents, is its native file format. LibreOffice consists of a number of application modules that can communicate with one another. The functionality of these modules is the same, and they share the same graphical user interface.


Advantages of LibreOffice

  1. It's free (as in speech) which means you can change it and rebuild it should you desire.

  2. It's cross-platform in that it's written in Java, so it'll run on pretty much any platform.

  3. Since it and its file formats are open you will still have access to the source in years to come and won't be stuck with not being able to open old legacy documents, like MS Office et al have demonstrated in the past.

  4. It defaults to using open standards, rather than Microsoft's "open" standards which aren't really that open.

  5. It'll save PDFs without hassle.

  6. You can download it to your computer without having to give up any personal information

  7. It's not a gazillion gigabytes to download.

  8. You can install it on as many machines as you like.

  9. You can give a copy to your friends.

3. Relational database management system

Ans) On the other hand, a relational database includes several tables along with mechanisms enabling the tables to cooperate. In database forms, the relationships between table data can be compiled, combined, and shown. The majority of relational databases have features for sharing data:

  1. Between networks

  2. Use the internet.

  3. Using laptops and various electronic gadgets, such palm pilots.

  4. With different software programmes.


Compared to flat file databases, relational databases require more planning during design. You can add information to flat files as you see fit. You must be careful when using relational databases to store data in tables such that the relationships make sense. Your capacity to create a relational model will determine your ability to build a relational database. The data organisation, including data structure, integrity, querying, manipulation, and storage, must be completely described in the model.


With relational databases, you may create integrity constraints, execute search queries, join table records, and designate specific record attributes as keys or indexes. The use of indexed data in search queries results in faster and more precise results. The indexed values make it simple to link table records together. Table relationships can be validated by establishing integrity constraints. A relational database should be used if you can create a one-to-many relationship in your data tables since a flat file is insufficient to meet your data processing demands.


With report generators that filter and display certain fields, relational databases provide more comprehensive reporting. You can create your own reporting modules using relational databases. The majority of relational databases also allow for the import and export of data from other programmes.


4. Major areas of multimedia use

Ans) Systems for multimedia content might be made for general audiences or for a particular target market. Information on education, recreation, and leisure are major sectors. A number of these categories can be combined into one application. For instance, edutainment software, sometimes known as educational games, consists of games-like applications with educational objectives. Each of the aforementioned instances deals with how information is presented in various formats. The key benefit of multimedia is that it is interactive, giving the user control over the experience rather than the creator.

Multimedia is a helpful tool for all age groups due to the range of presentation techniques. By offering an interactive method of learning with more experienced users moving ahead, multimedia eliminates the restriction of requiring everyone to move at the same rate.


The Main Uses of Multimedia


Multimedia in Education and Training: A multimedia educational programme called "Reader Rabbit" offers interactive help for improving reading skills. Schoolchildren, teachers, parents, and siblings are all present. Students who are the direct users control the activities by selecting options from a menu.


Leisure and Entertainment: The most widely used types of multimedia apps include interactive movies, video games, and 3D adventures. Their interactive element is the secret to their popularity. The innovative levels of interaction and realism offered by the new game generations enthral the gamer.


Information Kiosks: Information centres have been utilised successfully to provide instruction using multimedia in places including museums, airports, shopping districts, and libraries.


Virtual Reality and Simulations: Virtual reality is an artificial world created by a computer that gives the impression of three dimensions to the user. Games of the arcade genre like Atlantis are getting more and more popular with virtual reality.


5. Mesh topology

Ans) A mesh topology is a network setup where each computer and network device is interconnected with one another. This topology setup allows for most transmissions to be distributed even if one of the connections goes down. It is a topology commonly used for wireless networks.


Types of Mesh topology

  1. In a full mesh topology, every computer in the network has a connection to each of the other computers in that network. The number of connections in this network can be calculated using the following formula (n is the number of computers in the network): n(n-1)/2

  2. In a partially-connected mesh topology, at least two of the computers in the network have connections to multiple other computers in that network. It is an inexpensive way to implement redundancy in a network. If one of the primary computers or connections in the network fails, the rest of the network continues to operate normally.


Advantages of a Mesh Topology

  1. Manages high amounts of traffic because multiple devices can transmit data simultaneously.

  2. A failure of one device does not cause a break in the network or transmission of data.

  3. Adding additional devices does not disrupt data transmission between other devices.


Disadvantages of a Mesh Topology

  1. The cost to implement is higher than other network topologies, making it a less desirable option.

  2. Building and maintaining the topology is difficult and time consuming.

  3. The chance of redundant connections is high, which adds to the high costs and potential for reduced efficiency.


6. Interactive television (ITV)

Ans) Interactive television refers to technology where traditional TV services are combined with data services. The major aim of interactive TV is to provide an engaging experience to the viewer.  Interactive TV allows various forms of interaction, such as:

  1. Interacting with the TV set

  2. Interacting with the program content

  3. Interacting with TV-related content

  4. Interactive TV services

  5. Closed-circuit interactive television


Interactive TV is similar to converged TV services but should not be confused with it. Interactive TV is delivered through pay-TV set-top boxes, whereas converged TV services are delivered using Internet connectivity and Web-based services with the help of over-the-top boxes like Roku or gaming consoles.


Interactive TV increases engagement levels by allowing user participation and feedback. It can also become part of a connected living room and be controlled using devices other than the remote control, like mobile phones and tablets.  The return path is the channel that is used by viewers to send information back to the broadcaster. This path can be established using a cable, telephone lines or any data communications technology.


The most commonly used return path is a broadband IP connection. However, when ITV is delivered through a terrestrial aerial, there is no return path, and hence data cannot be sent back to the broadcaster. But in this case, interactivity can be made possible with the help of appropriate application downloaded onto the set-top box.


7. Malicious software

Ans) Malicious software, commonly known as malware, is any software that brings harm to a computer system. Malware can be in the form of worms, viruses, trojans, spyware, adware and rootkits, etc., which steal protected data, delete documents or add software not approved by a user. Malware is software designed to cause harm to a computer and user. Some forms of malware “spy” on user Internet traffic. Examples include spyware and adware. Spyware monitors a user’s location and if enabled, it can capture sensitive information, e.g., credit card numbers, promoting identity theft. Adware also acquires user information, which is shared with advertisers and then integrated with unwanted, triggered pop-up ads.


Worms and viruses behave differently, as they can quickly proliferate and undermine an entire computer system. They also may perform unsavoury activities from a user’s computer without the user’s knowledge. In the wake of a virus or worm, a computer system can experience significant damage.  Anti-malware should determine if there are threats by scanning a computer and removing them, if found. Prevention is better than corrective action after infection. Although anti-virus programs should be continually enabled and updated, certain types of threats, like spyware, often make their way into a computer system.  At all times, a firewall should be in place for additional security. Multiple, compatible protective sources are encouraged as additional insurance against malware.


8. Messaging

Ans) Messaging is a way for two people or an organisation to communicate. Cell phones or the power of the Internet could be used for messaging. Messaging software links two people and makes it possible for them to communicate via text, voice, or both.


Two types of Messaging


Asynchronous messaging is a form of inter-program communication in which a programme simply leaves a message on a message queue after it has been delivered. It doesn't really matter how the message is conveyed. Even if the recipient is offline, message delivery is guaranteed by the infrastructure or the delivery agent. for instance, email delivery.


Synchronous messaging requires connectivity between the sender and the receiver at all times in order to send and receive messages. Taking a phone call as an illustration. As a result, a programme adds a message to a message queue and waits for a response before continuing.


Instant Messaging: Real-time communication between two or more people utilising typed text, voice, or video is known as instant messaging (IM). Devices linked by a network transmit the message.


Unified Messaging: Multiple media are combined into one channel for unified messaging. Using a single device, a user can access information in several media. Unified Messaging is typically used in mobile communication to allow access to voice, text, and fax messages through a single mailbox. It gives you the ability to contact people practically anywhere, at any time, and gives you the freedom to let individuals choose when you can contact them.


9. Features of search tools

Ans) The pattern matching algorithm is used by the search tools. Using search tools, a variety of searches can be conducted,

  1. Keyword Search: Keyword searching is the process of conducting a search using a keyword. Anywhere in the document or in the metadata field can contain a keyword.

  2. Boolean Search: Boolean operators are the logical AND, OR, and NOT. Boolean search is the term used when search is conducted using Boolean operators.

  3. Proximity Search: The proximity of two words is verified in this type of combinatorial search. The definition of proximity is "nearness of words."

  4. Truncation Search: Concatenation of words is known as truncation. In other words, when the word's root string is searched, all of its derivatives that are derived from the root string are returned.

  5. Case Sensitive Search: The ability to search words based on their case is one of the key characteristics of search tools.

  6. Limiting Search: The searches can be made more specific depending on a few criteria.

  7. Fields Search: A field search is a method of restricting your search to a specific database field. A specific context can be used to do a search.

  8. File Types Search: A file type search is one in which the search is limited to a specific file type, such as MS-Word, PDF, PPT, etc.

  9. Stop Words: Prepositions, conjunctions, and other commonly recurring terms should be avoided while looking for documents online or in a collection.

  10. Ranking: The search results are presented by search tools in a certain sequence. When the system is tiny, the results are often shown in alphabetical order.

  11. Family Filters: Family filters are intended to minimise, if not completely eliminate, the offensive content that appears in search results.

10. Packet switching

Ans) Two computing devices are not directly connected to one another in a WAN. A transfer link between the two devices is provided by a network of switching nodes. Data switching refers to the process of moving data blocks from one node to another. The three switching methods that are most frequently used are circuit, message, and packet switching.


The benefits of message switching and circuit switching are combined in packet switching. With packet switching, data is transmitted in blocks, held by the first switching node it encounters in the network, and then passed to the next and successive downstream nodes until it reaches its destination. This process is functionally similar to message switching. In a network that uses packet switching, the length of a data block is restricted. The typical range for packet lengths is 128 to 4096 bytes.


Two methods exist for packet switching:

  1. Datagram

  2. Virtual circuit


Each packet is handled independently and may take a distinct route via the network when using the datagram technique. Packets may be dropped, reordered, or sent in the wrong order. The packet sequencing for error recovery at the receiving device is provided by the communication protocols. Before any packets are exchanged, the virtual circuit approach establishes a set logical path from the sender to the recipient over the network. Throughout the session, this route does not vary. Similar to circuit switching, but with no resources set aside along the way. At intermediate nodes, packets are buffered before transmission.ASSIGNMENT INFORMATION

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