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BLI-224: ICT Fundamentals

BLI-224: ICT Fundamentals

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BLI-224 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject ICT Fundamentals, you have come to the right place. BLI-224 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BLIS courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BLI-224/AST/TMA/Jul.2023/Jan.2024

Course Code: BLI-224

Assignment Name: ICT Fundamentals

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

I) Answer all the questions in not more than 250 words each.


Q1) What is DBMS? Explain Database Project Environment in detail.

Ans) A Database Management System (DBMS) is software that provides an interface for managing databases and interacting with the data stored in them. It serves as an intermediary between users and the database, ensuring efficient data organization, retrieval, and maintenance. Key components of a DBMS include data definition, data manipulation, data storage, and data security.


A Database Project Environment refers to the comprehensive set of elements and activities involved in the development and management of a database system for a specific project. It encompasses various stages and considerations:


Project Planning:

a)     Define the purpose and scope of the database project.

b)     Identify stakeholders, including end-users and administrators.

c)     Establish project timelines and milestones.


Requirements Analysis:

a)     Understand and document the data requirements of the project.

b)     Identify entities, relationships, and attributes that need representation in the database.

c)     Determine data integrity and security requirements.


Conceptual Design:

a)     Develop a conceptual data model using techniques like Entity-Relationship Diagrams (ERD).

b)     Define high-level structures without focusing on implementation details.

c)     Ensure alignment with project goals and user needs.


Logical Design:

a)     Translate the conceptual model into a logical data model.

b)     Choose a suitable data model (relational, hierarchical, etc.).

c)     Normalize data to eliminate redundancies and ensure data integrity.


Physical Design:

a)     Define how data will be stored on the physical storage devices.

b)     Consider indexing, partitioning, and clustering for performance optimization.

c)     Choose appropriate data types and storage structures.



a)     Create the database using a Database Definition Language (DDL).

b)     Populate the database with initial data.

c)     Establish data access mechanisms and security measures.


Testing and Quality Assurance:

a)     Conduct thorough testing to ensure the database meets requirements.

b)     Validate data integrity, security features, and query performance.

c)     Address and rectify any identified issues.


Deployment and Maintenance:

a)     Deploy the database system to production environments.

b)     Monitor and optimize performance.

c)     Implement ongoing maintenance procedures and updates.


Q2) What do you mean by NEIS? Explain the major NEIS Services and Applications.

Ans) A National Energy Information System is a comprehensive platform designed to collect, manage, and disseminate energy-related data at a national level. It serves as a crucial tool for policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders to analyse and formulate energy policies.

The major services and applications of NEIS typically include:

a)     Data Collection and Integration: NEIS gathers data from various sources, including government agencies, energy companies, and research institutions. Integration of diverse datasets enables a holistic view of the national energy landscape.

b)     Energy Consumption Analysis: Provides detailed insights into energy consumption patterns across different sectors, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation.

c)     Renewable Energy Monitoring: Tracks and monitors the contribution of renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal, to the national energy mix.

d)     Emission Monitoring: Monitors and analyses greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants associated with energy production and consumption.

e)     Policy Support: Assists policymakers by providing data-driven insights for the formulation and evaluation of energy policies and regulations.

f)      Forecasting and Planning: Utilizes historical data to forecast future energy demands and trends, aiding in long-term energy planning.

g)     Public Access and Awareness: Provides a user-friendly interface for the public to access information on energy consumption, sources, and environmental impact.

h)     Research and Development: Supports energy-related research initiatives and facilitates collaboration between research institutions and policymakers.

i)       Energy Efficiency Programs: Identifies opportunities for improving energy efficiency across sectors and supports the implementation of energy-saving programs.


Q3) Explain various types of search tools and also describe various features of search tools.

Ans) Types of search tools are the following:

a)     Search Directory: Search directories like Librarians’ Internet Index, Google Directory, and Yahoo! offer pre-classified collections of documents. These are beneficial for contextual searches and browsing. They are divided into Academic and Professional Directories (e.g., INFOMINE) created by subject experts for researchers and Commercial Directories (e.g., Yahoo!, Google) catering to the public.

b)     Search Engines: Search engines like Google and Yahoo! facilitate information retrieval on the World Wide Web. They use automated tools to search databases using stored metadata. These engines help manage, filter, and retrieve information efficiently in the vast expanse of the internet.

c)     Meta-search Engines: Meta-search engines, exemplified by Dogpile, conduct simultaneous searches on multiple search engines, aggregating results into a single list categorized by source. Examples include Dogpile, WebCrawler, and Browses.


Features of search tools:

a)     Keyword Search: Searching using keywords provides high recall value, as keywords may appear anywhere in the document or metadata.

b)     Boolean Search: Logical operators (AND, OR NOT) in Boolean searches help combine words with specific conditions, enhancing search precision.

c)     Proximity Search: Proximity searches check the nearness of words, offering near and exact proximity results based on the specified distance.

d)     Truncation Search: Truncation involves searching the root string to find derivatives, with left or right truncation techniques.

e)     Case Sensitive Search: Search tools can differentiate between upper and lower cases, allowing case-sensitive searches.

f)      Limiting Search: Conditions like field search, file type search, and stop words help narrow down searches.

g)     Ranking: Search tools rank results based on relevancy, prioritizing the most relevant documents.

h)     Family Filters: Filters like Safe Search prevent objectionable content, ensuring a family-friendly search environment.

i)       Fuzzy Search: Fuzzy search employs error correction algorithms (e.g., Soundex, Metaphone, Levenshtein distance) for approximate results, correcting misspellings.


II) Write short notes on the following in not more than 200 words each.


Q1) Wireless Technology .

Ans) Wireless technologies, a rapidly growing field, play a crucial role in providing ubiquitous network access. These networks consist of portable computers communicating through radio transmission, aiming to ensure uninterrupted connectivity anytime, anywhere. The desire for seamless network access has led to the development of mobile computing labs with laptops equipped with wireless Ethernet cards.


Significant progress has addressed challenges like disparate standards, low bandwidth, and high infrastructure costs, promoting the widespread adoption of wireless technologies. They offer cost-effective solutions for remote monitoring, data acquisition, access control, and security, especially in environments where wired solutions are impractical.


Wireless networks deploy strategically placed base stations interconnected by optical Fiber cables. Properly adjusting the transmission power of base stations ensures ubiquitous wireless access. Unlike cellular systems, each cell in wireless networks typically covers the entire available bandwidth, with a bandwidth ranging from 1 to 2 Mbps.


Wi-Fi, a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance, is based on IEEE 802.11 standards. While often unofficially referred to as Wireless Fidelity, its official meaning is undefined, providing a versatile solution for diverse connectivity needs.


Q2) Computer Hardware.

Ans) Computer hardware refers to the physical components of a computer system that can be touched and interacted with. It encompasses all the tangible parts necessary for a computer to function. Key elements include the central processing unit (CPU), memory modules (RAM), storage devices (like hard drives or SSDs), motherboard, graphics processing unit (GPU), power supply unit (PSU), and peripheral devices such as keyboard, mouse, and monitor.


The CPU is often considered the brain of the computer, executing instructions, and performing calculations. Memory (RAM) provides temporary storage for data that the CPU is actively using. Storage devices store data permanently, with hard drives and SSDs being common examples.


The motherboard serves as the main circuit board connecting all components, while the GPU handles graphics rendering. The PSU supplies power to the components. Peripheral devices facilitate user interaction.


Understanding computer hardware is essential for troubleshooting, upgrading, and maintaining a computer system, ensuring optimal performance and functionality. Advances in hardware technology contribute to the ongoing evolution and improvement of computing devices.


Q3) Print Vs Multimedia.

Ans) Difference between print vs media is explained below:

Q4) Number Portability.

Ans) Number Portability, often referred to as Mobile Number Portability (MNP) or Local Number Portability (LNP), is a telecommunication feature that enables users to retain their existing phone numbers when switching between different service providers or types of phone services. This functionality allows individuals to keep their phone numbers even if they decide to change their mobile carrier, landline provider, or switch between fixed-line and mobile services.


Number Portability has become increasingly important in the telecommunications industry, fostering competition and empowering consumers with the flexibility to choose the best service provider for their needs without the hassle of changing their phone numbers. This system involves a complex process of routing calls and messages between carriers, ensuring a seamless transition for users.


The implementation of Number Portability has played a significant role in promoting fair competition among telecom operators, encouraging them to enhance their services to retain customers. It has become a standard practice in many countries, contributing to a more dynamic and consumer-centric telecommunications environment.


Q5) Tree Topology.

Ans) Tree Topology is a network architecture that combines characteristics of both star and bus topologies, forming a hierarchical structure resembling an inverted tree. This topology is used in computer networks where flexibility and scalability are essential. The arrangement includes a central main bus, often referred to as the backbone or root, which is connected to multiple levels of branching subnetworks.


In a tree topology, each branching level consists of nodes or hubs, forming a subtree connected to the main bus. This hierarchical structure allows for efficient management and expansion of the network. Information travels from the root to the leaves or from one node to its connected nodes.

Advantages of tree topology include its scalability, as new branches or leaves can be added without affecting the existing network. Additionally, it provides a good balance between the star and bus topologies, offering both centralized control and decentralized accessibility.


Q6) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).

Ans) Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a widely used protocol for managing and monitoring network devices and systems. It operates in the application layer of the Internet Protocol (IP) suite, facilitating the exchange of management information between network devices like routers, switches, servers, and other hardware.


SNMP enables network administrators to monitor and manage network performance, detect, and address faults, and plan for network growth. The protocol works on a client-server model where the managed devices act as servers and the management systems as clients. SNMP employs a set of standards for communication, including the SNMP manager (client) and SNMP agent (server).


Key components of SNMP include Management Information Base (MIB), which defines the data structure for the managed objects, and SNMP traps, which are asynchronous notifications sent by agents to managers in response to specific events.


With its simplicity and effectiveness, SNMP has become a fundamental tool for network management, allowing administrators to ensure optimal performance and troubleshoot issues promptly.


Q7) Online Document Repositories.

Ans) Online Document Repositories serve as centralized digital platforms for storing, managing, and sharing documents over the internet. These repositories have become integral for collaborative work, knowledge sharing, and efficient document management.


Typically hosted on cloud-based servers, these repositories provide secure access to documents from any location with an internet connection. Users can upload, download, and collaborate on documents in real-time, fostering teamwork and reducing geographical limitations.


Popular features of online document repositories include version control, ensuring that users work with the latest document versions. Access controls and permission settings enable administrators to manage who can view, edit, or delete specific documents, enhancing security and privacy.


Examples of online document repositories include Google Drive, Dropbox, and SharePoint. These platforms cater to various needs, from personal file storage to enterprise-level collaboration, offering a convenient and scalable solution for document management in the digital age.


Q8) Markup Languages.

Ans) Markup languages are systems for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text. They use tags or codes to define elements within a document, indicating how the document should be structured or formatted. The primary purpose is to provide instructions on how the document should be presented, rather than dictating how it should look.


HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is one of the most well-known markup languages and is widely used for creating web pages. HTML uses tags such as <p> for paragraphs, <h1> for headings, and <a> for hyperlinks.


XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is another widely used markup language designed for storing and transporting data. Unlike HTML, XML allows users to define their own tags, making it more flexible for representing various types of data.


Markup languages facilitate the creation of structured and semantically meaningful documents, enabling efficient information exchange between systems and providing a foundation for web development, content creation, and data representation.


Q9) Types of Email Account.

Ans) Email accounts vary in types, each serving specific purposes:

a)     POP/IMAP Account: POP Account: Uses Post Office Protocol, downloads emails to a client, deletes them from the server.

b)     IMAP Account: Uses Internet Message Access Protocol, allows online/offline access, and retains emails on the server.

c)     Email Forwarder: Forwards incoming emails to another specified email address.

d)     Mailing List: Consists of subscribers' email addresses; emails sent to the list are distributed to all subscribers.

e)     Auto Responder: Sends automated replies to incoming emails, like acknowledging receipt or vacation messages.

f)      Email Bouncer: Sends a fake bounce message to the sender, making them think the email account is inactive or unrecognized.

g)     Email Blackhole: Filters out and discards emails from specific addresses to avoid spam.


Q10) Metadata Storage.

Ans) Metadata storage is the process of organizing and managing metadata, which is essential information that provides context and describes other data. Metadata helps in the efficient discovery, understanding, and use of data. In the context of information systems and databases, metadata storage plays a crucial role in enhancing data management and retrieval processes.


Metadata includes various types of information, such as file names, creation dates, file sizes, and descriptions. It provides insights into the characteristics, quality, and usage of data. In the realm of digital content, metadata storage is employed in libraries, archives, content management systems, and databases.


Metadata storage systems use databases or dedicated repositories to store this information. Database’s structure metadata for easy querying and retrieval, enabling users to search, filter, and manage large volumes of data effectively. This organized metadata aids in data governance, ensuring data integrity, security, and compliance with standards.


Effective metadata storage enhances data interoperability, making it easier to share and exchange information across different platforms and systems. As organizations increasingly rely on data-driven decision-making, robust metadata storage practices become fundamental for optimizing data management and maximizing the utility of digital assets.

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