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BLIE-226: Management of Library and Information Centre

BLIE-226: Management of Library and Information Centre

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: BLIE-226/AST/TMA/Jul.22-Jan.23

Course Code: BLIE-226

Assignment Name: Management of Library and Information Centre

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


I) Answer the following questions in not more than 500 words each. 4×10


1. Explain the general principles of management as proposed by different thinkers.

Ans) Scientific management thinkers, practitioners, and authors have developed important guidelines for management practises. Some fundamental ideas offered by F.W. Taylor, Henry Fayol, and Charles Barnard, who represent the scientific management school, operational management theory, and systems theory, respectively, are described in this part.


Taylor’s Principles

The following can be used to summarise the key ideas Taylor believed to underlie the scientific management approach:

  1. Substituting science for common sense;

  2. Achieving harmony in group activities as opposed to conflict;

  3. Achieving human cooperation rather than haphazard individualism;

  4. Working to produce as much as possible rather than a limited amount; and

  5. To the best extent possible, all employees should be developed for both their personal and the company's highest levels of profitability.


Fayol’s Principles

  1. Division of work: By specialising, employees and managers can develop skills, certainty, and accuracy that will boost production. With the same effort, more and better work will be created.

  2. Authority: The core of authority is the ability to issue commands and demand compliance. It has its roots in the individual and the role. It is inextricably linked to responsibility.

  3. Discipline: Obedience, application, effort, behaviour, and overt displays of respect between employers and employees make up discipline. Any firm needs it to succeed. Without it, no business can succeed. It is what its creators intend.

  4. Unity of command: An employee should only take directions from one superior for any kind of action. One boss, one guy. A social organism does not ever adapt to a dualistic system of command.

  5. Unity of direction: An activity group should be led by one person with one plan. It is essential that everyone has the same goal, which is to have one head and one plan.

  6. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: A business should not allow one person's or one group's interests to trump those of the organisation.

  7. Remuneration of personnel: The cost of the services supplied should be reasonable and satisfy both the employer and the employees.

  8. Centralisation: Centralization is the process of minimising the significance of each subordinate's position. Decentralization is something that elevates the subordinate's status. In every circumstance, a balance between these two perspectives is required.

  9. Scalar chain: A scalar chain, also known as a chain of command, is the line of supervisors that runs from highest to lowest in an organisation. The chain's links are the managers.

  10. Order: This principle simply promotes the ideas of "everyone has a place, and everything has a place," or "everything has a place, and everything has a place." To prevent loss and waste, order is the goal.


Barnard’s Principles

Along with scientific management and the manager's responsibilities, many academics and professionals considered researching and writing on industrial psychology and social theory, both of which were frequently sparked by the scientific management movement. By briefly examining the birth of industrial psychology, the expansion of personnel management, and the development of a sociological approach to human interactions and management, we may gain a sense of these trends. In deciding that maintaining a system of cooperative effort in a formal organisation was the responsibility of executives (by which he meant all types of management), Barnard initially focused on the causes of and characteristics of cooperative systems. The following steps show how her/his analysis made sense. Although the fundamental constraints are physical and biological, once people cooperate, psychological and social restrictions of individuals also play a factor in causing collaboration. Physical and biological limitations of individuals drive people to cooperate and work in groups.


2. Identify different methods of procurement of documents in a library. Explain in detail the method of acquisition through monetary payment.

Ans) Libraries obtain documents in a variety of ways. These methods can be divided into two main categories: payment-based acquisition and acquisition without payment. Payment for acquisition falls under two categories: monetary payment and payment in kind.


  1. Acquisition through Monetary Payment.

a) Standing vendor method.

b) Books on approval method.

c) Regular order to publisher/agent/open purchase.

d) Standing order method.

e) Blanket order method.

f) Tender system, Quotation method and Dealer Library Plan.


2. Acquisition through Payment in Kind.

a) Acquisition under Institutional Membership.

b) Acquisition under Exchange Arrangement.


3. Acquisition through Gift, Donation and Deposit.

4. Free Access Electronic Sources


Acquisition through Monetary Payment


Standing vendor: According to the method, the library chooses one or two businesses to meet all of its needs for a specific time frame. After requesting quotes via a tender that includes the supply terms and conditions, the winner is chosen. The company with the best terms is given approval for the predetermined time. The business secures all necessary resources. Often, shrewd businesses outbid rivals by providing the highest discount rate and winning approval.


Books on Approval: Under the approval approach, local businesses are encouraged to deliver books from new consignments to the library on a set day each month or week and leave them there until they have been approved. It allows libraries the chance to invite individuals with selection authority to look closely at the books and find those that are relevant to their fields of study. The library is spared from having to choose books from printed catalogues and create a list for subject-matter approval. It also facilitates quick book delivery to libraries.


Direct order to Publisher: The most crucial strategy for collection development is acquisition through direct orders to publishers. After receiving approval from the relevant authority, the library creates a list of its requirements from publisher catalogues and places orders directly with publishers. Particularly international books, which may arrive with significant delay if ordered through an agent, are delivered more quickly.


Standing Order: The following kinds of publications are purchased using the standing order method:

  1. books that are released in a series at regular intervals.

  2. Multivolume novels having a time gap between each volume's publication ,

  3. Books that are released in instalments until each part is finished.


Standing orders only require payments upon material receipt, and once all volumes have been received, the order is automatically cancelled.


Blanket Order: Libraries use the blanket order strategy when they want to build up their collection on a specific geographic region or subject area. According to the approach, publishers or distributors in a field or subject are given a broad order to provide the library with all publications as soon as they are released. A few years ago, because no American stockist was dealing with these topics, specific American libraries gave the Library of Congress, Delhi office permission to buy all of the volumes on those topics.


Tender System, Quotation Method and Dealer Library Plan: These are occasionally referenced in relation to procurement techniques. A list of chosen books is compiled and floated as part of the tender system in order to offer the books at the greatest possible discount. Books are requested from the company offering the greatest discount off the printed price. This is a time-consuming, somewhat unrealistic approach. Every time a list is ready for acquisition, the library must complete all the procedures that order copy passes through.


3. Mention different section of a university library. Explain in detail various functions of a circulation section.

Ans) For the functional convenience, the library is divided into 10 sections Circulation Section, Acquisition Section, Classification Section, Catalogue Section, Periodical Section, Information Technology Section, Reference Section, Stack Area, Theses/Dissertation Section.


The primary goal of the circulation department is to maximise the use of the library's resources, and the circulation service's top priority is to carry out this duty as cheaply and effectively as possible.


Core Functions


Users/Members Registration: Organizing circulation activity in a library begins with identifying its target audience. The general population who live in a specific geographic area makes up a public library's customer. Clientele in the case of an academic library consists of faculty members, administrators of the institution, and students. To confirm their identity and enhance library services, patrons must register with the library. The completion of regulating operations like holds, recalls, overdue charges, etc. depends on the identification. The first point of interaction with potential library users is during registration. Understanding the kind and calibre of service that potential members will need from the library is helpful. Additionally, it gives the library a chance to explain to its users their obligations to maintain the collection's materials as well as their rights and privileges.


Potential users are typically handed a card in the shape of a postcard with the application language printed on it and vacant spots for the user's name, address, qualifications, etc. There is also room for an official or other prominent public figure to make an introduction. In the case of a university, the administration transmits a list of accepted students to the library.


Charging and Discharging: In a library, the charging/discharging function makes up the majority of the circulation labour. It refers to the borrowing and return of books for temporary use away from the library. The billing procedures have changed over time. Anyone who has signed up to become a member of the library is eligible for the programme. It all started with the straightforward Day book technique, in which each book issued on a given day was recorded in a register in the order that it was issued. The library used a register system in which a page was allotted to each patron because the books did not carry information about the date they were released, making it difficult to locate the record for cancellation. Because the record of issuance was only made using the borrowers' names, this technique made it difficult to locate a specific book that was out on loan. For each book issued, a slip was created as a solution to the problem. The book's author organised these slips and stored them at the counter. The cards used as present books take the place of the slips. The book card includes the title, call number, author, and accession number. Although there are several improvised techniques for charging and discharging of documents, the Browne circulation system and the Newark circulation system are the two most widely used systems based on a combination of book card and membership card.


Normally, books that have been obtained by libraries are moved to the stack area after being made up with the necessary stationary materials, such as a library label, a due date slip, a book pocket for a book card, and book cards containing the book's details, etc. Nowadays, issue counters are equipped with a charging station, with enough room to store books that members have returned, as well as numerous records and a set of printed stationary objects that are needed for usage at the counter.


4. Explain the meaning of non-book material. Describe the tools for their selection in a library.

Ans) Libraries now also keep a variety of non-book items like audio-visuals and electronic publications in addition to books. If they are digital versions of printed items, offline electronic publications have the same bibliographic information as the printed version. Online content without a corresponding printed source, however, presents a different issue. Technically, a library does not own things; rather, it just has access to them, hence the issue of whether to acquire them does not exist. NBMs are items that don't fit the definition of a book, periodical, or pamphlet and need specific storage, such as audio-visual resources, microforms, or computer data. It is usually accepted to be any reference material that supports learning but is not a printed book.


Some new categories of furniture have become necessary due to the expansion of non-book items and electronic publications in library collections. The updated specifications for furniture now include reading tables for microfilms and microfiche, as well as furniture for computer hardware, audio and video storage, and use. The furnishings in a reading room for electronic publications should be suited for video conferences as well. When Wi-Fi enabled laptops replace the current workstations in the future, the reference desk, circulation desk, and OPAC desk should be equipped to handle electronic equipment and wiring adequate for that time period.


To fully utilise the information from those formats, the NBM needs specific consideration when it comes to their bibliographic description. Non-book is defined as "anything other than a book; being a manuscript, microfilm, or map on other library holding that is not a book" in Webster's Third New International Dictionary. NBM is defined as "those library resources that fall under the definition of special holding, i.e., audio-visual materials, vertical file materials, microforms, or computer software" in Harrold's

Librarian's Glossary.


Firms that specialise in the production of microforms, particularly microfilms and microfiches, as well as those that specialise in educational instruction and learning materials, respectively, generate non-book materials. Major publishing organisations, such as the American Chemical Society, Institute of Scientific Information, Engineers Joint Council, and others, generate machine-readable databases in their particular fields of expertise. These products, especially audio-visual materials, are stocked by library wholesalers. These manufacturers mostly market their products through trade magazines and other publications, and they occasionally publish catalogues and other marketing materials like folders and brochures. For machine-readable data bases like chemical abstracts, citation index, etc., video cassettes and tape-slide kits are available, aiding in the use process. All of these offer good resources to learn about these non-print materials and make purchasing decisions,


In addition to contemporary physical media, the arrival of electronic media has altered the idea of a library's function in society. These include the optical media, such as CD-ROM, WORM, and rewritable magneto optical disc, as well as the magnetic media, such as magnetic tape, magnetic disc, and floppy disc. Due to their numerous unique advantages and the fact that they have developed into one of the most important components for assuring the effectiveness of libraries and information centres, these are increasingly being produced by businesses and being purchased by modern libraries.


II) Answer the following questions in not more than 250 words each. 5×6


1. Describe the changing role of library professionals. Mention the types of skills required by LIS professional in the changing scenario.

Ans) Before, librarians were just thought of as the guardians of books, and it was believed that no special skills were needed to manage a library. It is a dated notion that libraries have rigid organisational structures, hierarchical leadership, centralised decision-making, administrative command and control, guarded and rare communication, etc. In today's libraries, librarians must behave like managers and use the proper management ideas and procedures. Like any manager managing his organisation, a librarian runs a library. As a result, the role is unchanged. The same fundamental abilities required for running any other business or industrial organisation also apply for running a library. But because libraries are service-oriented businesses, it goes without saying that their staff must possess both general and managerial skills as core competencies. Libraries also benefit from flexible, decentralised organisations, empowered staff, and a culture of teamwork, interpersonal communication, shared vision, and lifelong learning.

With these changes in mind, it becomes crucial for library managers to possess knowledge in and concentrate on the following management areas:

  1. Change administration.

  2. Entrepreneurship.

  3. Planning strategically.

  4. Centred on the user.

  5. Control over technology.

  6. Management of projects.


The staff of the library must possess the following abilities:

  1. Handling of information and libraries.

  2. A focus on service.

  3. ICT knowledge and abilities.

  4. Talents in training and communication.

  5. Presentation and marketing abilities.

  6. Knowing about cultural variety.

  7. Talents in knowledge mapping.


To effectively manage a library in the changing environment, a library manager needs to possess the following four essential professional competencies:

  1. Organizing information resources.

  2. Managing the resources of information.

  3. In charge of information services.

  4. Using technologies and tools for information.


In addition to the primary professional competences listed above, librarians should possess the following characteristics:

  1. Adaptability.

  2. Ability and skill.

  3. Personal growth

  4. Taking risks, capacity.

  5. Exemplary leadership.

  6. Ability to make decisions.

  7. Flexibility.

  8. Being innovative and a change agent.

2. Explain the process of implementing change in libraries.

Ans) Due to their complexity and diverse behaviour, strict management rules are considered as being inapplicable in all types of organisations. It is relevant in the context of libraries. Both traditional books and journals and internet resources must be handled by libraries. They must deal with users of both the comfortable and uncomfortable varieties of information and communication technologies. Dealing with harsh circumstances is necessary. Sometimes users request electronic resources, while other times consumers are forced into using electronic formats against their will. Innovation in user expectations and experiences has been the main focus of change in libraries. In this situation, librarians' responsibilities include not just adapting to change but also initiating it and creating new paradigms.


Due to the nature of the task, technical sections are where libraries encounter the most resistance. Additionally, the libraries will occasionally employ a change agent to implement changes. The responsibility for managing change in libraries falls on all librarians and workers, not only senior librarians.


The following steps must be taken to implement the Change in Libraries:

  1. Make a choice diagnose what needs to be changed

  2. Think About Change Nature & Scope of Change, Right Time to introduce change

  3. Get the library ready for change Communicate about Change

  4. Set up the planning committee Identify group and group leader

  5. Organize the change Vision, strategy, goals, objectives and deadline are decided

  6. Bring about the change is formally introduced and controlling resistance is very important

  7. Review the modification If necessarily make required adjustments


3. Describe the reasons and importance of keeping financial records in a library.

Ans) The library is no exception to the general rule that all institutions that want to exist must meet certain standards of business organisations. Its budget and financial records should be established in conformity with the primary accounting practises of the parent office. Maintaining a separate library account that is managed by the librarian is no longer regarded as best practise. Most institutions have a central office where all library payments are made. The organization's finance department manages the library account, and the library keeps track of detailed accounting, including unfulfilled orders, invoices sent, and other items.


As was previously mentioned, the primary goal of library accounting is to maintain expenses within the budget. Additionally, accounting aids in the creation of the annual report and budget, provides a solid financial foundation for decision-making, helps departments use funds wisely and systematically, and provides data for surveys, reports, and research for libraries.


The majority of libraries use a single-entry system to maintain their financial information. Although there is some variability in how different libraries maintain their financial records, it is important to keep in mind that these records should be as straightforward and efficient as possible and should allow for quick and convenient comparison with office ledgers. the benefits of and significance of library financial records. Cash Books, Ledgers, Allotment Registers, Monthly Expenditure Statements, Salary Bill Registers, Records of Petty Cash, Equipment Records or History Cards, etc. are some of the tools that some record libraries typically use to manage financial records.


4. Explain how ZBB is different from PPBS.

Ans) Traditional Budgeting refers to the process of planning and budgeting in which previous year’s budget is taken as a base to prepare a budget. On the other hand, zero-based budgeting is a technique of budgeting, whereby, each time the budget is created, the activities are re-evaluated and thus started from scratch.


The traditional budgeting stresses on the former expenditure level. On the contrary, zero-based budgeting concentrates on making a new economic proposal, whenever the budget is set.

Traditional Budgeting is accounting oriented, as it works on the basic cost accounting principles. As against this, the zero-based budgeting process is decision oriented.


In the preparation of the traditional budget, justification of the existing project is not at all required. In contrast, in zero-based budgeting, the justification of the existing and proposed project is required, taking into account the cost and benefit.


In traditional budgeting, the decision on why a particular amount is spent on a decision unit is taken by the top management. Unlike, zero-based budgeting, the decision regarding the spending a specified sum on a decision unit, is on the managers.


In traditional budgeting, the primary reference is made to previous spending level, followed by demand for inflation and new programmes. As opposed, in zero-based budgeting, a decision unit is split into decision packages which are comprehensive in nature and then they are prioritized on the basis of their relevance, to facilitate top management to concentrate on the decision packages only, which got preference over others.


When it comes to clarity and responsiveness, zero-based budgeting is better than traditional budgeting.


Traditional budgeting follows a routine approach, whereas zero-based budgeting follows a straight-forward approach.

5. Discuss the need and objectives of binding and preservation of materials in libraries.

Ans) The parts of librarianship that are commonly overlooked are preservation and binding. It is widely agreed that the preservation of documents has gotten too little attention in the current obsession with "using library items." You need to respect and appreciate the collector's feelings about books in order to create a strong collection. Some believe that in addition to books' usefulness as knowledge sources, the profession as a whole has to show a greater appreciation for books as works of art.


Unlike private collections, books at libraries—whether a public library or an academic library—are meant to be utilised by numerous groups, necessitating extra care in handling and preservation. The selection at the library is no longer just books on paper. It now includes non-book products including movies, discs, and magnetic cassettes. However, as books still make up the majority of the library's collection, binding procedures demand special care.


Books that have been withdrawn or weeded in accordance with an illustration may be tracked tabularly. Before any withdrawal or weeding is actually carried out, authorisation from the pertinent parent body must be obtained in all such circumstances. Consumable goods include books. They must be saved for future generations. The thin paper used to create such book is prone to tearing. It needs some sort of covering material to protect it from all of its numerous adversaries, including bugs, moisture, dirt, heat, and cold.


The fundamental goal of binding is to provide a book strength so that it can withstand the stress and rigours of library use. The preservation of written, printed, or nearly printed material is ensured by binding. The goals of library binding are as follows:


  1. help prolong the life of library books by protecting them from damage.

  2. to make library items more enduring, i.e., keep them in good condition while being used.

  3. to enhance their aesthetic features through the publication of a new book, drawing people to them.


6. Describe the disaster preventive measures to be kept in mind while designing a library building.

Ans) Libraries take a variety of preventative measures to deal with any negative scenario. Before the situation, certain actions are taken. These steps are required to mitigate the harm caused by disaster situations. During this phase, libraries anticipate disaster scenarios and make plans to prevent material and human damage. Here are some methods that libraries can take to reduce crime:

  1. Determine and compile a list of potential risk factors that could harm libraries.

  2. The building should be regularly inspected and maintained, notably its drains and roof. A construction engineer should handle this work.

  3. Trees surrounding the library are regularly sorted and chopped down. Cleaning crew should perform this task.

  4. installation of exterior security lights and ongoing maintenance and inspection of it. Libraries cannot function without security. Therefore, it is crucial to create and adhere to a unified security policy on the issuance and return of keys, the careful inspection of users and visitors upon entry and exit from the library,

  5. the provision of full-time security personnel who will patrol and inspect the entire library complex.

  6. installation of the alarm system and routine maintenance of it.

  7. Racks should not have a long height and should be kept at least 150 mm off the ground. Two racks should have adequate space between them.

  8. Regular inspection of the building's humidity-sensitive areas All water-carrying machinery should undergo routine maintenance.

  9. To prevent fire occurrences, a regular inspection procedure for electrical equipment and circuits should be used. At the time of closing, one should make sure that all electrical equipment is turned off. There should be fire extinguisher equipment or suppression systems installed in various locations throughout the library, and they should be frequently inspected and maintained.

  10. Libraries should be covered by insurance policies that can pay for all forms of damage costs, including building structural repairs, shelf replacement costs, electrical equipment replacement costs, etc.

  11. There should be an emergency gate in every library. Make careful to maintain regular inspection and cleaning.

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