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BLIE-229: ICT in Libraries

BLIE-229: ICT in Libraries

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: BLIE- 229/AST/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BLIE- 229

Assignment Name: ICT in Libraries

Year: 2021-2022 Verification Status: Verified by Professor

I. Answer all the questions in not more than 500 words each.

Q1) Discuss the features of an integrated library system. (5)

Ans) The software that manages an integrated library system is called integrated library management software (LMS). On the basis of a shared database, LMS maintains many functional modules (for various library subsystems) (with different tables for Library Automation different modules in relational model). A LMS like this allows for seamless data exchange (bibliographic data, financial data, member data, and so on) across the various subsystems of an integrated library system. Before choosing software, it's important to understand what characteristics an ILS (or LMS) should include. These characteristics should be present in all modules of any modern LMS and include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • The LMS must be fully integrated, with all processes using a single, common database and a single operator interface across all modules.

  • With one central computer system sharing a shared database, the LMS should be capable of supporting many branches or independent libraries.

  • The LMS must support an unlimited number of records, users, and organization-specific parameters (such as loan period rules, fine calculation criteria, and hold parameters), among other things.

The following completely designed and operational facilities at numerous customer sites should be included in the package:

  1. Control of bibliographic and inventory information

  2. Control by the authorities

  3. Catalogue available to the general public

  4. User interface for a web catalogue

  5. Gateway to information

  6. Management of acquisitions

  7. Serials are in charge.

  8. Interchange of electronic data

  9. Booking of materials and reservations

  10. Controlling the flow of information

  11. Reports and usage statistics are generated according to your specifications.

  12. Administrative parameter with only one step Setting Z39.50 sever (minimum version 3 and bath profile level complaint) and Z39.50 client Z39.50 copy cataloguing client Marc 21 bibliographic and authority record import/export utility

  13. Services to the public

  14. Bills and fines, as well as a digital media archive system and Multimedia Fund accounting

  15. Inter library loan

  16. Interoperability and crosswalk

  17. Web 2.0 supports

  • The LMS must maintain a continuous backup on appropriate media (as determined by the libraries' preferences) so that all transactions can be recovered to the point of failure.

  • The LMS should be built on a web-centric architecture and support a variety of multi-user and multitasking operating systems as well as RDBMSs.

  • The LMS must be UNICODE compliant for multilingual support, as well as RFID compliance for inventory management and self-issue/return functionality.

  • The vendor/developing group should provide training to help library staff become familiar with system functions and operation, as well as full and current system documentation in hard copy and machine-readable form suitable for online distribution. The LMS should also include extensive online help for users and staff.

  • In terms of server, network infrastructure, PC-workstations, and peripheral devices, the LMS must handle a variety of hardware architectures.

  • Regular maintenance and on-call service, periodic software upgrades, ongoing R & D, troubleshooting of third-party software such as database and library automation packages, distribution of problem fixes/patches, and emergency services for system failures and disaster recoveries are all required for LMS.

  • The package must provide security to prevent accidental or unauthorised modification of records by establishing access privileges unique to each user on the system and restricting specific functions to specific users; the LMS should provide a graphical user interface that includes, but is not limited to, extensive online help, user self-service, and personalization features; and the LMS should provide a graphical user interface that includes, but is not limited to, extensive online help, user self-service, and personalisation features.

  • The system should be supported by a PC-based alternative that allows circulation to continue in the event of system failure, communication failure, or maintenance downtime; the LMS should be compliant with web 2.0 features to support an interactive, collaborative, and participatory platform; and the LMS should be updated on a regular basis to take advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as cloud computing, linked open data, and semantic web.

Q2) Explain metadata management in D Space. (5)

Ans) The digital information in DSpace is organised into a Community and Collections tree structure. Individual objects can be found by browsing the tree structure or searching using the built-in Java freeware search engine Lucene. Each item has a metadata description as well as files that can be downloaded.

Metadata Management

About archived content, DSpace stores three sorts of metadata:

  1. Descriptive Metadata: By default, a qualified Dublin Core metadata schema is provided, which is loosely based on the Library Application Profile collection of elements and qualifiers. To describe objects, however, one can build different schemas and select metadata fields from a mix of specified schemas.

  2. Administrative metadata comprises metadata about preservation, provenance, and permission policies.

  3. Structural Metadata: This comprises details on how to show an item, or bitstreams inside an item, to a user, as well as the relationships between the object's constituent pieces.

DSpace Content


It's crucial to think about the types of content DSpace can expect to receive and handle today and in the future when choosing schemas for usage with DSpace. Because DSpace is an institutional repository, it will have to support a wide range of disciplines from all of MIT's schools, departments, labs, and centres. DSpace has also committed to processing a wide range of digital media, including text, data, images, audio, and video.

It's improbable that one descriptive metadata format would fit all DSpace material in such a diverse environment. It's also impossible to predict which forms of material will become increasingly popular in the future. Different metadata formats have been adopted to fulfil the demands of communities who collect or produce various sorts of information items. As we approached potential DSpace contributors, we took note of the various types of metadata schemas utilised by various communities, as well as the data formats that motivated them to use them. We've also mentioned when metadata records for certain collections already exist.

Batch Submissions:

Several of our early adopter groups will be submitting batches of electronic objects that have been transformed from print to digital. A collection of pdf pictures of MIT Press out-of-print books will be the first significant batch of DSpace material. Following that, collections of scanned pdf images of print technical reports and working paper series from various labs, centres, and schools on campus will be sent to DSpace in batches. We will have access to MARC format metadata entries for most of the objects in these collections because they have already been catalogued by MIT librarians.

Individual Submissions

It is envisaged that the majority of frequent and ongoing submissions to DSpace will be made on an individual basis, either by the content object's creator or by a member of the community's administrative team. During the submission process, each submitter will be required to complete a metadata form with at least basic information about the document being submitted. Any schema DSpace adopts must be simple enough for non-cataloguers to understand while simultaneously capturing the information pieces required for adequate searches. The metadata entry templates must be simple to use and short in length so that potential DSpace contributors are not put off by the submission procedure.

Q3) State technical features of GSDL and explain any two of them. (5)

Ans) The following are GSDL's technological features:

User-Friendly Application on Multiple Platforms

Greenstone is compatible with all Windows, Unix/Linux, and Mac OS X versions. The installation procedure is straightforward. There is no need to configure Windows when it comes out of the box. End users install Greenstone on their personal laptops or workstations on a regular basis. Institutional users, on the other hand, typically run it on their primary web server, where it interacts with common web server software such as Apache.


It is highly interoperable and adheres to current industry standards. Greenstone can use OAI-PMH to gather documents and add them to a collection. METS (Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard) documents can be ingested by Greenstone. The DSpace batch import application makes it easy to export and import any collection to and from DSpace.

The Reader and Librarian interface

The Reader interface and the Librarian interface are two independent interactive interfaces in Greenstone. The Reader interface, which runs in a web browser, allows users to access the digital library. The Librarian interface is a Java-based graphical user interface (also available as an applet) that makes it simple to gather material for a collection (including downloading it from the web), enrich it with metadata, design the collection's searching and browsing capabilities, and build and serve the collection. Formats for metadata The Librarian interface allows users to define metadata interactively. Unlike DSpace, Greenstone permits the merging of multiple types of metadata, including locally supplied metadata.

Formats of Documents

In order to ingest documents, plug-ins are also used. There are plugins for PDF, PostScript, Word, RTF, HTML, Plain text, Latex, ZIP files, Excel, PPT, Email (different formats), and source code for textual documents. There are plug-ins for images (any format, including GIF, JIF, JPEG, TIFF), MP3 audio, Ogg Vorbis audio, and a generic plug-in that may be customised for audio formats, MPEG, MIDI, and other multimedia formats for multimedia documents.


Greenstone's multilingualism is one of its distinguishing features. The following languages are supported by the reader's interface: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Catalan, Croatian, Dutch, English, Farsi, Finnish, French, Galician, Georgian, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Latvian, Maori, Mongolian, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese

In GSDL, the server (library.exe) creates web pages and forms to interface with the document library and its indexes using PERL scripts. The documents are saved in their original format (PDF, DOC, HTML, XML, and so on), and then converted ('imported') as XML in a collection with their text-only content. Words from documents are extracted by 'plugins' for each type of content and passed to the indexing engine. XML is also used to store metadata. Searching, perusing results, and opening full-text documents in their original or converted format are all possible through a web interface.

Unlike DSpace, GSDL allows multiple sets of metadata to be integrated, including locally supplied metadata. Dublin Core (v.1.1) is included, as well as RFC 1807, Development Library Subset, and the Learning Object Model (LOM), which is required for indexing learning objects. All metadata is kept with the documents in XML format and can be extracted from XML statements inside the documents. The GSDL Librarian interface makes it simple to assign metadata. One drawback is that because GSDL does not use a database to store its XML data, it is extremely slow.

II. Write short notes on the following in not more than 200 words each. Each question

carries 2 marks.

Q1) Circulation subsystem (2)

Ans) The ILSs circulation module is a useful tool for easily and swiftly managing issues, returns, renewals, reservations, and fine calculations. A circulation subsystem in an ILS records loan transactions to specify: What items are in the library stock or readily available on ILL; Which materials are on loan, and from whom or where they can be recovered; and When materials on loan will be available in the library for other users. The transaction or loan database is the heart of the circulation subsystem of an ILS. Each transaction is represented by a record in this database. Each record has a small dataset that contains information about the document (such as the accession number), the user (via the membership code), and the transaction (e.g. date of issue & date of return are extracted from the system date, and due date is calculated automatically).

In an integrated setup, the catalogue database is used to extract bibliographical facts (e.g. author, title edition, place, and year of publication) of documents on loan, while the membership database is used to collect user information. In the first example, document accession numbers are employed as key data elements, but in the second situation, membership codes serve as a reference to the member database. Data is often captured via barcodes (to encode/decode both the accession number for books and the member ID from the member card), however the usage of RFID technology in circulation is growing rapidly, especially in underdeveloped nations' libraries.

Q2) Evergreen ILS (2)

Ans) Evergreen, like Koha, came from the public library domain in 2006. (released in 2000 as open-source ILS). The Georgia Public Library System launched the Evergreen Project in 2006 to help 275 public libraries across the state of Georgia. This Client-Server open-source ILS is built on Open SRF, a robust, scalable, message-passing framework that is now utilised by over 1000 libraries throughout the world and is accessible under the GNU GPL, version 2. 102 Automating the Library It includes modules for circulation (including advanced fiscal management), cataloguing (including a comprehensive MARC 21-based catalogue editor), Web catalogue, statistical reporting, acquisition, and serials control. For self-check, it also supports the SIP2 protocol. Version 2.6 (issued in April 2014) is the current release, and version 2.7 (coming in September 2014) is the following release. It comes with extensive documentation, a wiki, and a feature request system.

Special Features

The Evergreen open-source ILS began as a library consortia ILS and has a number of distinctive or unique characteristics, including:

  1. Open SRF (a message routing network with little development and deployment overhead that provides scalability and failover support for individual services and entire servers);

  2. TPAC allows you to link a web page to a library (for example, to link a library's information page, library regulations, or journal portals);

  3. Auto-suggest option during OPAC searching (users can enable or stop this feature);

  4. OPAC is compliant with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, allowing physically challenged individuals to access it.

  5. Access to group formats and editions, as well as a list of numerous constituent records, via a meta-record search capability.

  6. Support for the MARC format for displaying holdings and connection with the OPAC for journal holdings;

  7. Support for EDI for library material acquisition and SIP2 for self-checkout;

  8. Support for administrator-created templates and user-selected skins.

Q3) Doc plug-ins in GSDL (2)

Ans) With the papers, all metadata is saved in XML format. Metadata can also be derived from the documents' XML-statements. Greenstone's Metadata Set Editor makes it simple to assign it through the GSDL Librarian interface. XML, MARC, CDS/ISIS, ProCite, BibTex, Refer, OAI, DSpace, and METS are all examples of "plug-ins" that are used to ingest externally supplied metadata in various formats.

In order to ingest documents, plug-ins are also used. There are plugins for PDF, PostScript, Word, RTF, HTML, Plain text, Latex, ZIP files, Excel, PPT, Email (different formats), and source code for textual documents. There are plug-ins for images (any format, including GIF, JIF, JPEG, TIFF), MP3 audio, Ogg Vorbis audio, and a generic plug-in that may be customised for audio formats, MPEG, MIDI, and other multimedia formats for multimedia documents.

In GSDL, the server (library.exe) creates web pages and forms to interface with the document library and its indexes using PERL scripts. The documents are saved in their original format (PDF, DOC, HTML, XML, and so on), and then converted ('imported') as XML in a collection with their text-only content. For each category of material, 'plugins' extract terms from documents and send them to the indexing engine. XML is also used to store metadata. Searching, perusing results, and opening full-text documents in their original or converted format are all possible through a web interface.

Q4) Audio/video compression (2)

Ans) Audio compression algorithms are implemented as audio codecs in computer software. A codec is a device or software application that can encode and decode digital data streams or signals. Generic data compression algorithms struggle with audio data, rarely lowering file sizes below 87 percent of the original and not built for real-time use.

There are five MPEG standards for video compression, each optimised for a certain application and bit rate. They are as follows:

  1. MPEG-1 is a video CD format developed for applications requiring up to 1.5 megabits per second and sent as.mpg files.

  2. MPEG-2 is a format for compressing and transmitting digital broadcast television at speeds ranging from 1.5 to 15 megabits per second. This standard is used in digital television set-top boxes and DVD compression.

  3. MPEG-4 is an object-based compression technology for multimedia and web compression.

  4. MPEG-7, also known as the Multimedia Content Description Interface, is a multimedia content framework that includes information on content transformation, filtering, and personalisation, as well as the content's integrity and security.

  5. MPEG-21, also known as the Multimedia Framework, tries to explain the pieces required to construct an infrastructure for the distribution and consumption of multimedia material, as well as how they would interact. This standard is still being worked on.

Q5) OPAC 2.0 (2)

Ans) OPAC 2.0, also known as next generation, third generation, or twenty-first century catalogues, is the use of Web 2.0 to online catalogues. In the 1970s, the first wave of online catalogues offered computerised access to catalogue records in the MARC bibliographic format. Keyword searching and Boolean operators to combine keyword search phrases were introduced in the next OPAC development. The early Web graphical interfaces and hypertext linking switched command-driven online catalogues to mouse-driven navigation in the 1990s, while the core search and retrieval or discovery functions remained largely unchanged.

The majority of ILSs now have web-based OPACs. Users can interact, collaborate, and participate in library workflows such as describing resources (folksonomy), tagging subject descriptors, rating documents, creating a personalised information environment, posting on the library blog, suggesting new documents, commenting on library services, publishing book reviews, posting likes on Facebook for library books, and many other features. Web 2.0 technologies and services are increasingly being used by ILSs to convert static OPACs into dynamic OPAC 2.0.

Web 2.0 technologies have enabled two strands of OPAC 2.0 developments:

  1. Increasing the catalogue’s use and search capabilities by including more bibliographic MARC and circulation data for searching, as well as smoothly incorporating data from other sources;

  2. To give a deeper discovery experience, social networking with customisation and user community tagging and reviewing is used.

Q6) Automated versus digital library system (2)

Ans) The differences between automated and digital library system are as follows:

Digital Library

Automated Library

The Internet and Web technologies have many applications, and digital libraries are one of them. Next-generation library services are what these are referred to as. To put it another way, digital libraries are collections of digital artefacts that are controlled. These entities make it possible to create, organise, manage, access, share, and preserve digital knowledge-bearing objects or document collections. Many institutes and agencies are creating digital libraries nowadays for various target groups and in many disciplines such as agriculture, cultural heritage, education, health, governance, science, social sciences, social development, and so on. A digital library system, in its final form, will be a federated search interface with a single window for a varied range of information resources collected or optimised by a library system.

The term "automated library" refers to a library that has a machine-readable catalogue, computerised acquisition, circulation, and OPAC. These types of libraries have the same holdings as traditional libraries.

Only metadata (cataloguing data) is finely searchable.

Both metadata set and full-text resources are finely searchable.

Provides document description data set, not documents.

Provides a data set of document descriptions as well as source documents.

Based on Z39.50 standard for cross system catalogue search/retrieve.

Based on OAI/PMH protocol for metadata harvesting.

Supports standard bibliographic formats (MARC 21, CCF) for document description.

Supports generic and domain-specific metadata schemas (e.g. Dublin Core, LOM, GILS etc.) for resource description.

Processes global resources for local users.

Processes global and local resources for local and global users.

Generally follows centralised processing – distributed access architecture.

Generally follows distributed processing – distributed access architecture

Q7) e Granthalaya ILS (2)

Ans) e-Granthalaya has lately improved significantly as a result of ongoing upgrades. The current version (version 3.0) includes sophisticated features such as e-book management, Web-OPAC, predictive serials control, Unicode-compliant language support, simple data migration, and MARC 21 compatibility for both bibliographic and authority data. This ILS is a product of the National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology's Department of Electronics and Information Technology. The sole issue of e-Granthalayas is its reliance on Microsoft products (commercial closed source software) such as VB.NET or ASP.NET, as well as Microsoft SQL Server 2005. The software can be used as a stand-alone application or as a client-server application. The database and WebOPAC are installed on the server PC, while the data entry programme is installed on the client PCs, in client-server mode. e-Granthalaya version 3.0 now enables union catalogue output.

The following are the main features of this freeware ILS:

  1. Technical specifications (runs on Windows Platform Only (Win XP/vista/7/8/Server 2003/2008) in a LAN/WAN environment, UNICODE Compliant, enables data entry in local language);

  2. Administration (Module - Software User Permissions, Workflow for Indian Libraries, Retro-Conversion and Full Cataloguing Data Entry Modes, Library Statistics Reports);

  3. Cataloguing (Authority Files/Master tables for Authors, Publishers, Subjects, and so on, Multi-Vol, Multi-Copy, and Child-Parent Relationship pattern, Data Entry Statistics Built-In, e-Books management with digital files in pdf or other formats)

Q8) Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (2)

Ans) The National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources is implementing the Traditional Knowledge Digital Library, a well-known Indian digital library effort (NISCAIR). The main goal is to provide knowledge about Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Yoga, Naturopathy, and Tribal Medicine, which are all Indian medical systems.

At the CSIR, TKDL is being implemented. Traditional medicine professionals (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and Yoga), scientists, patent examiners, IT experts, and technical officers all contributed to the creation of the TKDL for Indian Systems of Medicine.

The TKDL is a digital repository of publicly available traditional knowledge (TK) related to Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Sowa Rigpa, and Yoga, with millions of pages of digital data.

Traditional knowledge becomes public domain knowledge if it is recorded in the TKDL. This qualifies it as previous art for the purposes of patent law. This condition eliminates the potential to patent it. Patent examiners can quickly search this database and reject any patent application that is most likely a carbon copy of prior art. As a result, TKDL aids in the prevention of bio-piracy.

The TKDL Access Agreement is one-of-a-kind, with built-in non-disclosure protections to protect India's interests from any abuse. However, because of its high level of confidentiality, it has received some criticism.

Q9) Web 2.0 features in KOHA. (2)

Ans) Technology is advancing with vim and vitality, making room for its application. The notion of two-way communication is at the heart of Web 2.0 technology. Every system must have a high level of exposure and applicability. Web 2.0 is a time-worthy development in the current era's communication area to fulfil this aspect. Web 2.0 is an interactive application technology that can be applied in a variety of industries, particularly if the demands of customers are prioritised. Library and information centres are run and organised with the requirements of its patrons in mind. Web 2.0 is particularly useful in this field of academic study, particularly in ILMS. It emphasises the collaborative aspect of information exchange throughout the management hierarchy's many levels. Blogs, tagging, information mashups, social networking, bookmarking, and other industries can all benefit from this technology.

The following are some of the characteristics of Web 2.0:

  1. Supports information mashup (OPAC can be integrated with book jacket service, book rating/review from Amazon, Google books, Syndicate Library Thing, Open Library, etc.) Can produce RSS (including ATOM) feed for search query

  2. Users can leave comments, rate items, and tag them from any device (mobile OPAC)

  3. Many Web 2.0 tools, such as zoreto, yummy, and others, can be simply integrated. Important Web Addresses

Q10) Librarians interface in GSDL. (2)

Ans) The core premise of open source is that when programmers may read, redistribute, and alter a piece of software's source code, the software evolves. People improve it, modify it, and correct the bugs. And it may happen at a rate that, if you're used to traditional software development's glacial pace, appears incredible.

Greenstone Digital Library Software allows you to create and distribute digital document collections in new and fascinating ways. It enables us to make digitised collections available on the Internet or on CD-ROM. For any collection of digital documents, full text search indexes and browsing classifiers can be built in a matter of minutes. Once started, the collection construction process is automated, and it can take several hours or days to build a large collection.

The Workspace file tree displays the data sources available to the Librarian Interface, including the local file system, existing Greenstone collections, and the cache of downloaded items if Web mirroring is enabled. With the exception of the downloaded files, which can be erased, you can copy and read these files but not move, delete, or change them. Use this area to locate the files you want to add to the collection.

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