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BPAC-102: Administrative Thinkers

BPAC-102: Administrative Thinkers

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPAC-102 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Administrative Thinkers, you have come to the right place. BPAC-102 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAPAH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BPAC-102 / ASST /TMA / July 2021 & January 2022

Course Code: BPAC-102

Assignment Name: Administrative Thinkers

Year: 2021 -2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1. Discuss Kautilya’s thoughts on the principles of administration. 20

Ans) Some details in order to understand the principles given by Kautilya are described below:

Division of Work

Kautilya divides the job into numerous departments, emphasising the significance of allocating distinct duties to different people based on their expertise and experience, allowing them to complete their tasks efficiently and profitably. Kautilya split the task into 34 departments, each headed by a designated official, according to the structure of the governmental machinery.


Centralization of power and decision-making was essential for Kautilya's empire's safety, stability, and prosperity, as well as administrative loyalty to the King. Agriculture promotion, data collecting and maintenance, manufacturing and mining promotion, and marketplace construction all contributed to acceptance of the concentration of power. Stability and order, social well-being, and material wealth were all important to Kautilya, and he believed that these might be accomplished through a centralised governance system.

Authority and Accountability

Kautilya believed in a system of power and set forth a series of sanctions for both citizens and government officials who broke the law.

Precedence of Organisational Interests over Individual

The King's interests, according to Kautilya, were to be prioritised over all other considerations. The first and last conditions for anyone entering and remaining in the State's service were loyalty to the King and the realm. In the Arthashastra, the King signifies the organisation, the State, rather than a person.


The importance of good and competent leadership for the smooth operation of the government was recognised by Kautilya. Direction entails the leader's entire involvement in the organization's and employees' operations, among other things.


The quality of the leader who issues the directions has a lot to do with how the directive is carried out. When one considers the qualities that Kautilya ascribed to a good leader, this becomes clear. 'Like King, like Citizenry,' Kautilya believed. A good leader prioritises the people's and kingdom's interests over personal interests. This eloquently explains the proper relationship between a leader and his followers. "An ideal King is one who behaves like a sage monarch, who is ever active in advancing the Yogakshama of the people, and who endears himself to the people by enriching them," Kautilya writes of the traits of a transformational leader.

Supervision and Control

This principle has been part of the theory of administration developed by many Classical thinkers. Kautilya was not oblivious of the importance of supervision and control in an organisation.

Value-based Administration

When Kautilya defined a number of values in a leader (administrator) and noticed that in order to fulfil the primary purpose of the organisation, a leader should be virtuous, truthful, and devoid of vices, he introduced the notion of value-based management and administration. With the help of the elders, he should also summon dependability, gratitude, liberality, promptness, and long-term vision.

Q2. Make a critical evaluation of the theories of Chris Argyris. 20

Ans) Chris Argyris was a well-known social scientist who belonged to the Socio-psychological School of Thought and made a substantial contribution to it. He is a candidate for the most important and long-standing traditional organisational structure, which is based on mechanical and technocratic ideas.

These theories are discussed below:

Immaturity-Maturity Theory

Chris Argyris developed and presented this theory in his Personality and Organization work. It's one of several ideas attempting to explain the connection between human nature and behaviour and organisational structure. Chris Argyris compared bureaucratic/pyramidal values (the organisational counterpart to Theory "X" assumptions about people) that still dominate many organisations with a more humanistic/democratic value system (the organisational counterpart to Theory "Y" assumptions about people) in this article. A person's growth is processed along a continuum of immaturity to maturity, according to this theory.

According to Argyris, people are still seen as "immature" by age-old organisational systems, who are characterised by lethargy, lack of enthusiasm, and apathy. People are still stereotyped as money-hungry, wasteful, and prone to making mistakes. To keep them on track with the organization's aims, they're relying on ancient organisational principles like task specialisation, unity of direction, chain of command, and span of control, which demand that employees be obedient, submissive, reliant, and passive or subordinate to the leaders. These traditional organisational concepts rely on rigorous and stringent rules and regulations, as well as managerial controls, which make employees feel reliant on their superiors and scared of the staff members in charge of various forms of controls.

Chris Argyris believed that the most productive managers were those who treated their employees positively and as responsible adults. Argyris has proposed seven modifications that may assist the individual in progressing from an immature to a mature personality.

These changes are:

  1.  Individual will move from a passive state as an infant to active state as an adult.

  2.  Individual would grow from being dependant to independent.

  3.  Individual will be able to behave in lots of different ways than a few ways.

  4.  Individual’s interests would become deep and strong, whereas as children they had shallower interests.

  5.  Individuals have a better grasp at the long-term perspective, past and future more than just the short-term perspective.

  6.  Individuals move from only being subordinate to equal or super-subordinate positions.

  7. Adults have a higher level of awareness and have a stronger self-control.

In his opinion, these changes take place on a ‘continuum’ and the ‘healthy personality’ develops along the continuum from ‘immaturity’ to ‘maturity’.

Improving Interpersonal Competence

Argyris discovered that interpersonal competency was being overlooked. He believed that if members of an organisation were more interpersonally skilled, it would function better. Interpersonal competency is defined as the capacity to cope effectively with other people in a social setting.

He postulated that there are three conditions or requirements for the development of interpersonal competence:

  1. Self-acceptance: This refers to the degree to which the person values himself in a positive fashion.

  2. ) Confirmation: By ‘Confirmation’, Argyris means the reality-testing of one’s own self-image.

  3.  Essentiality: This third condition for interpersonal competence is defined by Argyris as one’s opportunity to ‘utilise the centra labilities and express his central needs’.

Assignment B

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q3. Examine Follett’s concept of ‘giving of orders’. 10

Ans) Orders are given based on the 'Law of the Situation,' not on personal authority. The manner in which an order is presented might influence how the task is completed. Follett identifies four key criteria in giving an order in her article "The Giving of Order" (1926), which are as follows:

  1. Conscious Attitude— realise the principles through which it is possible to act on in any matter;

  2. Responsible Attitude — to decide which of the principles should act on;

  3. Experimental Attitude — try experiments and watch; and

  4.  Pooling the results.

The boss should figure out how to get employees to accept orders as a habit. The following are four crucial steps in the habit-forming process:

  1. The officials should be made to see the desirability of a new method;

  2. The rules of the office should be so changed to make it possible for the official to adopt the new method;

  3. A few people should be convinced in advance to adopt the new method to set an example; and

  4. The attitude to be released should be intensified. Follett has pointed out that the above step will ensure the way for acceptance of orders.

The manner in which orders are given is also crucial. Officials' allegedly intrusive, authoritarian, and domineering behaviour is a major cause of many conflicts. Strikes and tense industrial relations would result if language was used without regard for employees' sentiments and self-respect. The more one is bossed, the more one develops a dislike for being bossed.

To avoid bossism, Follett recommends depersonalising commands and observing that it is necessary to "depersonalise the delivering of orders, to unite everybody concerned in a study of the situation and obey that." 'I don't think we'll have the most success in business administration unless we accomplish this,' she said.

Q4. Analyse the role of choice and behaviour in decision-making. 10

Ans) Simon's later work on decision-making and the Logical Choice Approach was based on his doctoral dissertation, which examined the behavioural and cognitive processes involved when a human makes a rational choice or decision.

Choice and action are inextricably linked in any habitual activity, and it is a form of established reflex action. For example, in an organisation, personnel who are responsible for normal processes such as keeping employee leave records, paying salaries, and so on, do not need to think about their actions because a reflex has been built between the standard procedures followed and the activities. Though the tasks of a human resource management are reasonable, there is no consciousness involved in them in this scenario. A conditioned reflex action is defined as a group of routine behaviours that follow a specified set of procedures.

Thus, Simon has identified three types of activities in the decision-making process for arriving at a conscious or unconscious selection of options or decisions:

  1. Intelligence Activity: is about finding the occasions to take decisions. The head or executive of the organisation has to analyse and understand the organisational environment and also identify the problem that has to be solved.

  2. Design Activity: includes development of course of action to solve the problem. Once the problem has been identified, the head or executive should search for all possible alternative course of action to achieve the solution to the particular defined problem.

  3. Choice Activity: is about selecting the one best possible solution from the set of alternatives. To meet the organisational goals, the decision maker should choose or select one of the alternatives or courses of action that suits the interest of organisation goals.

The decision maker should have specific talents such as judgement, creativity, experience, and quantitative analysis at this point. All three activities, intelligence, design, and choice, are included in the 'intelligence activity,' which can be referred to as 'wheels within wheels.'

Q5. Briefly describe the nature of Motivation Theory. 10

Ans) Nature of Motivation Theory includes Process Theory such as:

Reinforcement Theory: Individual behaviour is viewed as a result of its effects under this theory. It assumes that any behaviour that has a favourable outcome will be repeated or reinforced until it becomes conditioned, ignoring people's underlying sentiments and motivations.

  • Expectancy Theory: The link between projected future rewards and current behaviour is the subject of these theories. The Expectancy Theory is Victor Vroom's theory of motivation. Valence, Expectancy, and Instrumentality are the three components. People's emotional orientations toward outcomes or rewards are referred to as valence. Employees have varying expectations and levels of confidence, which is referred to as expectancy. Employees' perceptions of whether or not they will get what they deserve are addressed by instrumentality.

  • Equity Theory: The desire to be treated fairly and to avoid perceived injustice is the emphasis of this theory. Equity is the perception of being treated fairly in comparison to others. Inequity refers to the persistent conviction that one is treated unfairly in comparison to others. If there is enough motivation to keep the current position, equity can be maintained. Inequity can be minimised through altering self- and other perceptions, changing inputs and results, and altering comparisons.

  • Goal Setting Theory: Setting defined performance goals and remaining committed to achieving them determine motivation. The amount of difficulty and acceptability distinguishes these objectives.

    It's critical to comprehend the nature of Motivation Theories in order to put diverse philosophers' perspectives on motivation into context. Motivation theories have attempted to incorporate all aspects that may influence employee motivation. They've realised that employees have requirements that must be met in order to achieve their objectives. Unmet demands may necessitate aim shifting. These theories provide managers with a framework in which to create their reward and punishment criteria.

Assignment C

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q6. What do you mean by the term ‘Swaraj’? 6

Ans) Swaraj can refer to universal self-governance or "self-rule," and Mahatma Gandhi used the term interchangeably with "home-rule," but it mainly refers to Gandhi's notion of Indian independence from foreign dominance. Swaraj emphasises self-governance through individuals and community building rather than a hierarchical administration.

Swaraj, Gandhi's notion, emphasised India's rejection of British political, economic, bureaucratic, legal, military, and educational institutions. Although Gandhi's goal of fully implementing the Swaraj concepts in India was not realised, the voluntary work organisations he founded for this purpose served as forerunners and role models for people's movements, voluntary organisations, and some non-governmental organisations that were later launched in India.

Q7. Discuss the concept of shop floor management. 6

Ans) All management and leadership duties in production are included in shop floor management. It's a method for achieving continuous process improvement through collaboration between managers and employees.

Elements of lean management have a big impact on shop floor management. The Shop Floor Management Board, in addition to daily production meetings, is one of the most significant aspects of this work paradigm. As a result, all personnel are aware of the present status of production.

It is comprised of four sub-areas:

  1. The aim is to create a positive error culture, to be regularly present in the place where things are happening (on the shop floor) and to break down the company goals for all departments and teams.

  2. Communication as equals with the employees on the shop floor. Furthermore, communication with other departments is also necessary.

  3. Visualisation of targets, processes and key figures so that management is always transparent and comprehensible for all employees.

  4. Structured problem-solving is designed to support the continuous improvement process.

Q8. Describe the meaning of charismatic authority. 6

Ans) Max Weber, a German sociologist, used the term charismatic authority to describe a type of leadership. It refers to a style of organisation or leadership in which the leader's charisma is the source of power. The concept of charismatic authority revolves around the individual's personal attributes, and it is the individual's real or perceived elevation above 'regular' people that fuels other people's acceptance of their authority. Some observers believe that charismatic leaders are prone to narcissism. Charismatic authority is unique in that its success is not contingent on external formal structures or norms, as the other two types of authority are.

Q9. What do you understand by the concept of management by objectives? 6

Ans) Peter Drucker popularised management by objectives (MBO), also known as management by planning (MBP), in his 1954 book The Practice of Management. Management by objectives is the process of creating precise organisational goals that management can communicate to employees, and then selecting how to achieve each goal in order. This approach enables managers to take work one step at a time in order to maintain a peaceful, yet productive work environment. Individual goals are linked with organisational goals in this management strategy.

Having a say in goal setting and action plans, according to the notion, increases employee participation and dedication, as well as synchronising objectives across the firm.

Q10. Explain the nature of reinforcement theory. 6

Ans) Reinforcement theory is a media model with restricted consequences that can be used in the field of communication. People seek for and retain information that gives cognitive support for their pre-existing attitudes and ideas, according to the hypothesis. This idea assumes that people dislike being wrong and are generally uncomfortable when their beliefs are challenged.

Additionally, within the ABC paradigm, this theory focuses on the behaviour to consequence connection. In management, this principle is often known as operant conditioning or the law of effect. Simply put, this idea states that a behaviour will be repeated with a given frequency according on whether the outcome is pleasant or unpleasant.

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