top of page
BPAC-108: Public Policy and Administration in India

BPAC-108: Public Policy and Administration in India

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPAC-108 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Public Policy and Administration in India, you have come to the right place. BPAC-108 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAPSH, BAPAH courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BPAC-108 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPAC-108 / ASST/TMA/July 2021 & January 2022

Course Code: BPAC-108

Assignment Name: Public Policy and Administration In India

Year: 2021 -2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment I

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1. Discuss the nature and significance of public policy. 20

Ans) The area of public policy is one of the most important areas of government activity. It's a field that deals with the spheres that have been labelled as public. As a result, public policies perform crucial functions in a democratic society.

The following are some of the arguments made in favour of public policy research.

Theoretical and Scientific Reasons

Public policy can be considered a dependent or independent variable. When it's considered as a dependent variable, our attention is drawn to environmental elements that influence policy content. When public policy is considered an independent variable, however, our attention is drawn to the policy's environmental impact. Understanding the causes and implications of public policy can aid in the application of scientific knowledge to actual social problems. To put it another way, studying public policy aids the formation of professional advise on how to attain specific objectives.

Political and Administrative Reasons

There are also political motivations for policy research. Politician’s study public policy in order to learn how to advance their chosen policy options. The administration will be able to engage in issues of public importance and concern with the transition of ideals into public-making thanks to the knowledge they have gained via policy analysis research. Political science and public administration students and scholars argue that the disciplines should not be "silent" or "impotent" in the face of current social and political issues, and that they have a moral obligation to propose a specific policy solution. Regardless of probable conflicts over what constitutes good policies, they should advance a high degree of competence to improve the quality of public policies in whatever manner they believe are best.

Representing Powerful Approach for Improving Economic and Social System

As we've seen, public policy is an important part of democratic administration, and it focuses on the people and their problems. It is a field concerned with the preservation and improvement of the public good. The primary function and role of public policy is to improve society by shaping it. In the domains of socioeconomic growth, broad policies were developed. Many policies have been enacted into law. India's public policies have been developed with the goal of achieving socioeconomic progress while safeguarding national integrity since independence.

A Tool for Shaping Future

The field of public policy is an important tool for influencing the future. It is shaped by the past and is concerned with shaping the future for the good of society. The study of the past is crucial because it aids in the explanation of the current policy structure. Past policies continue to influence current and future policy. Even now, because it works with identifying policy problems, the study of public policy is critical. As a result, current policymaking can be viewed as a problem-solving process, with the recognition that the definition of alternatives is the supreme tool of power.

Q2. Write a note on the National Education Policy, 2020. 20

Ans) The goal of education is to develop excellent human beings capable of rational thought and action, and the National Education Policy 2020 places a strong emphasis on creative imagination, as well as ethical moorings and values. Its goal is to produce active, productive, and contributing citizens who will help to construct an egalitarian, inclusive, and plural society as our Constitution envisions. Higher education is critical for fostering human and societal well-being and for growing India into the democratic, just, socially conscious, cultured, and compassionate society that upholds liberty, equality, fraternity, and justice for all that its Constitution envisions. Higher education makes a substantial contribution to the nation's long-term economic development and sustainable livelihoods.

The fundamental goal of this strategy on higher education is to stop fragmentation by transforming higher education institutions into large interdisciplinary universities, colleges, and HEI clusters/Knowledge Hubs, each with a student population of 3,000 or more.

The following are the major highlights of NEP 2020:

NEP 2020 intends to raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education, including vocational education, from 26.3 percent in 2018 to 50% by 2035, and to add 3.5 million new seats to higher education institutions. Broad-based, multi-disciplinary, holistic Undergraduate education with flexible curricula, unique topic combinations, integration of vocational education, and different entry and departure points with appropriate certification is envisioned under the policy. An Academic Bank of Credit will be formed to digitally store academic credits earned at various higher education institutions so that they can be transferred and counted toward a final degree.

Internationalisation of education will be aided by institutional alliances, student and faculty mobility, and the establishment of campuses in India by top-ranked universities around the world. Separate technological universities, health science universities, legal and agricultural universities, and other institutions will strive to become multi-disciplinary. The goal of the policy is to achieve 100 percent literacy among kids and adults.

To address the e-education demands of both school and higher education, a specialised unit will be established in the HRD ministry, now Ministry of Education, to focus on the development of digital infrastructure, digital content, and capacity building. The National Educational Technology Forum (NETF), an autonomous entity, will be established to provide a forum for free exchange of ideas on the use of technology to improve learning, evaluation, planning, and administration. All universities, public, private, and open, will use the same grading system and norms, and all undergraduate courses will include major and minor disciplines.

Interdisciplinary Education and Research Universities (MERUs) at HEIs to be established as models of outstanding multidisciplinary education of global standards in the country, on par with IITs and IIMs. The National Research Foundation will be established as the apex organisation for creating a strong research culture and increasing research capacity in higher education.

The Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) will be established as a single umbrella body for all higher education in India, excluding medical and legal education. Institutions of higher education, both public and private, will be governed by the same set of regulations, accreditation, and academic requirements, and will be overseen by a single body.

It is clear that the NEP is a vehicle that will help to revolutionise and democratise education in the next years, which will benefit future generations.

Assignment II

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q3. Discuss the Systems Model of policy analysis. 10

Ans) David Easton has described the policy-making process as a "black box" that translates societal demands into policies. When it comes to political systems, David Easton believes that the political system is the component of society that is responsible for the official allocation of values. The physical, social, economic, and political products of the environment are referred to as inputs. They are absorbed into the political system as both demands and supporters. Individuals and groups make demands on the political system to change certain parts of public policy.

The norms, regulations, and conventions that create a foundation for the existence of a political society and the authorities are the supports of a political system. Individuals or groups receive support when they accept choices or laws. Supports are a system's symbolic or material inputs (such as observing laws, paying taxes, or even respecting the national flag, for example) that make up the system's psychological and material resources.

The policymaking institutions and actors are at the centre of the political system. The chief executive, legislators, judges, and bureaucrats are among them. They convert inputs into outputs in the system's version. The authoritative value allocations of the political system are called outputs, and these allocations are referred to as public policy or policies. According to the system theory, public policy is an outcome of the political system. In summary, the systems model relies on cyclical information from feedback, inputs, and outputs. Policy is developed, enacted, tweaked, and retooled.

Q4. Examine the zero-based budgeting. 10

Ans) The most recent technique created in the budget process during the 1970s is zero-based budgeting (ZBB). It is a budgeting method in which all expenditures for each programme and agency must be justified and approved for each new period, or year.

According to Henry, ZBB entails "allocating resources to agencies based on those agencies periodically re-evaluating the need for all of the programmes for which they are responsible through intensive consultation and justifying the continuation or termination of each programme in the agency's budget proposal." ZBB is unique in that it questions the need for a programme at any level of funding. It also contradicts the incrementalism principle, which expects that the next year's budget will start at or near the current year's funding level.

Its three operational elements are:

  1. identification of decision units;

  2. analysis of decision packages, each reflecting a different level of effort for carrying out the work in the decision unit;

  3. ranking of decision packages, in descending order of importance.

As a result, in a ZBB system, all department heads must annually justify their programmes and, as a result, their funding levels. Rather than earmarking annual additional cash, the department head must demonstrate how varying levels of financing might affect the delivery of a certain program's services.

ZBB has the advantage of allowing department heads to designate priorities, indicating to budget makers where cuts are more tolerable and where increases are desired. Given that department heads are in the best position to know how to carry out a department's programmes, allowing them to define these objectives makes reasonable. ZBB is typically employed when budget costs have gotten out of hand.

Q5. Explain the various approaches to social welfare. 10

Ans) The following are the different types of social welfare approaches:

Family-centric Approach

This strategy is founded on both common sense and strong social theory. Strong familial ties are seen as a source of long-term social support. As a result, public policy scholars see the family as a point of intervention by the state for both addressing welfare needs and reducing societal problems.

However, the family model has significant drawbacks. One of these is the near extinction of the extended family system, which is especially prevalent in urban settings. Second, it ignores the importance of gender in the family. Third, universalistic reliance on the family model is hampered by financial and spatial constraints.

Residual Perspective

The residual approach views government social support as a last resort. It is founded on the notion that people can solve their own problems. Families, the market (particularly insurance), and non-governmental organisations can all help the poor. The government would only intervene if the poor were unable to handle their problems on their own. In this sense, public assistance is limited to the poorest of the poor; sick, unemployed, orderly people, and others in need.

Mixed-Economy Approach

In this strategy, the public and private sectors collaborate to manage welfare policies more efficiently than a bureaucracy-driven operation. However, one important drawback of this strategy is that public-private partnerships may not always work as well as they could in many nations.

Institutional Approach

Although the institutional approach looks to be elegant, many individuals would not support it and pool their resources in the same manner that they do for community projects. In practise, the institutional approach to social welfare, with the exception of education and health, lacks enough public support.

Assignment III

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q6. Enumerate the various stages in policy process. 6

Ans) The acts made by government — its decisions aimed at solving problems and improving the quality of life for its citizens — are referred to as public policy. Public policies are adopted at the federal level to regulate industry and business, protect citizens at home and abroad, assist state and local governments and people like the poor through financial programmes, and promote social ideals. From conception to conclusion, a government-created and implemented policy passes through numerous stages.

These are:

  1. Identifying Underlying Problem

  2. Determining Policy Alternatives

  3. Forecasting and Evaluating Alternatives

  4. Policy Selection

  5. Policy Implementation (Policy Action)

  6. Constraints in Policy Implementation

  7. Policy Monitoring

  8. Policy Outcomes

  9. Policy Evaluation

  10. Design of Evaluation.

Q7. What do you mean by decentralisation? 6

Ans) Decentralisation is defined as "the movement of authority away from the national capital, whether through decentralisation, i.e., delegation to field officers, or devolution to local governments or other local entities." The process of shifting or spreading functions, funding, and personnel from a central authority to regional or local authority/ authorities is known as decentralisation.

Decentralisation, according to Cheema and Rondinelli, is defined as the transfer of planning, decision-making, and administrative authority from the central government to field organisations, local administration units, or local government units. Decentralisation, it is also argued, is a method that encompasses both deconcentrating and devolution procedures. Decentralisation is clearly not merely a tool for transferring administrative control, but also a democratic means of devolving political power.

Q8. Discuss the significance of Budget Accounting and Audit in budget cycle. 6

Ans) The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) is a constitutionally mandated institution. As a result, he "must perform such obligations and wield such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the states as may be prescribed by Parliament." He is the guardian of the country's accounting and auditing systems in this capacity. The auditing step of the budget cycle is responsible for ensuring that public funds are spent appropriately. In a word, audit is an independent review authority whose mission is to guarantee that government organisations and programmes spend money legally and efficiently. In other words, budget audits are the responsibility of the CAG's office. An audit is primarily seen as a way for legislators to increase their control and accountability over the country's financial administration.

Q9. Highlight the principles of Citizens’ Charter. 6

Ans) The six principles that make up a Citizens' Charter are as follows: (ARC 2009).

  1. Quality: improvement in the quality of services.

  2. 2Choice: Giving options for the users wherever possible.

  3. Standards: specifying what to expect within a time frame.

  4.  Value: worth for the taxpayers’ money.

  5. Accountability: answerability of the service provider (individual as well as organisation).

  6. Transparency: Open, clear and straightforward manifestation of rules, procedures, schemes and grievance redressal mechanisms.

Q10. Examine the challenges of economic growth and urbanisation to environment. 6

Ans) The relationship between economic development and urbanisation, on the one hand, and environmental quality, on the other, is exceedingly complicated. The natural environment is critical to economic activity and growth because it provides the resources and raw materials needed to manufacture goods and services, as well as for processing and absorbing undesirable waste industrial effluents and other pollutants.

Current policies and actions focused on economic expansion and urbanisation, on the other hand, are wreaking havoc on the environment on a scale and at a rate never seen before in human history. The health and existence of humans and other species are jeopardised by environmental devastation. Deforestation has put India's flora and animals at jeopardy.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page