If you are looking for BPAC-108 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Public Policy and Administration in India, you have come to the right place. BPAC-108 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAPSH, BAPAH courses of IGNOU.
BPAC-108 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BPAC-108/ASST/TMA/July 2022 & January 2023
Course Code: BPAC-108
Assignment Name: Public Policy and Administration in India
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following in about 500 words each. 2×20
1. Discuss the various stages in the policy process.
Ans) The following stages of the policy-making process:
Identifying Underlying Problem: The first step in an analytical approach is to determine whether and why an issue even exists. The process of defining the issue entails shifting from concrete explanations to a more conceptual, abstract level. In this article, an effort is made to identify the type of market failure that is present. The Ganges River, for instance, is being contaminated by the discharge of industrial pollutants and untreated sewage into the river, as discovered by an environmentalist researching alternate pollution control strategies for the river.
Determining Policy Alternatives: Finding alternate courses of action is the next step. Any sort of government involvement is possible. It's critical to identify the type of assistance that will be most beneficial in a particular circumstance.
Forecasting and Evaluating Alternatives: The policy analyst assesses the effects of each alternative after identifying the underlying issue and identifying the options for a policy decision. He will use an appropriate model for predicting effects for this. The models required for the pollution control issue would be considerably more complicated.
Policy Selection: Making the preferred selection is the next phase in the policy analysis process. The decision-maker may find the scenario to be so straightforward that he only needs to consider the outcomes projected for each alternative and choose the best one. Contrarily, it can be so complicated that the policy analyst will need to list the priorities among the several outcomes that could occur, taking into account the likely reactions of various stakeholder groups.
Policy Implementation: In the end, only the implementation of policy can be used to assess the effectiveness of public administration. The successful operation of government depends critically on the implementation of policies. No policies can be successful if they are poorly implemented, no matter how excellent the political system, noble the intentions, or sound the organisational framework.
Policy Monitoring: In a sense, the implementation process includes monitoring. It is a process that takes place throughout the execution of a policy or programme. The implementer actually gets to start observing the outcomes of policy during the monitoring process. The goal of policy monitoring is to make sure that resources are used as effectively as possible to produce the desired results during the policy implementation process.
Policy Outcomes: The policy outcomes stage of the policy cycle comes next. They differ from outputs in several ways. The actual choices made by the implementers are considered policy outputs. What actually occurs to the target groups that the policy is supposed to effect is stressed by the concept of outcomes. Something is wrong if the target groups do not experience the desired improvements. This notion can be demonstrated by looking at state housing programmes for the poor.
Policy Evaluation: The evaluation of policy is the last step in the sequential sequence of actions that makes up the policy process. Evaluation looks at what transpires once a policy is implemented. It is an evaluation of a program's overall effectiveness in achieving its goals, or an evaluation of the relative efficacy of programmes in achieving the anticipated goals.
Design of Evaluation: Listing the program's objectives, gauging their degree of achievement, and then offering modifications that can improve the organization's performance in light of the program's intended purposes are all parts of evaluating a public programme. There is a sensitive side to evaluation. It could occasionally escalate existing tensions or serve to reinforce them.
2. Examine the National Health Policy, 2017.
Ans) The National Health Policy, 2017 seeks to reach everyone in a comprehensive integrated way to move towards wellness. It aims at achieving universal health coverage and delivering quality health care services to all at affordable cost.
Goal: The policy envisages as its goal the attainment of the highest possible level of health and well-being for all at all ages, through a preventive and promotive health care orientation in all developmental policies, and universal access to good quality health care services without anyone having to face financial hardship as a consequence. This would be achieved through increasing access, improving quality and lowering the cost of healthcare delivery.
Objectives: Improve health status through concerted policy action in all sectors and expand preventive, promotive, curative, palliative and rehabilitative services provided through the public health sector with focus on quality.
Health Status and Programme Impact
1) Life Expectancy and healthy life
a) Increase Life Expectancy at birth from 67.5 to 70 by 2025.
b) Establish regular tracking of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) Index as a measure of burden of disease and its trends by major categories by 2022.
c) Reduction of TFR to 2.1 at national and sub-national level by 2025.
2) Mortality by Age and/ or cause
a) Reduce Under Five Mortality to 23 by 2025 and MMR from current levels to 100 by 2020.
b) Reduce infant mortality rate to 28 by 2019.
c) Reduce neo-natal mortality to 16 and still birth rate to “single digit” by 2025.
3) Reduction of disease prevalence/ incidence
a) Achieve global target of 2020 which is also termed as target of 90:90:90, for HIV/AIDS i.e., - 90% of all people living with HIV know their HIV status, - 90% of all people diagnosed with HIV infection receive sustained antiretroviral therapy and 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression.
b) Achieve and maintain elimination status of Leprosy by 2018, Kala-Azar by 2017 and Lymphatic Filariasis in endemic pockets by 2017.
Health Systems Performance
1) Coverage of Health Services
a) Increase utilization of public health facilities by 50% from current levels by 2025.
b) Antenatal care coverage to be sustained above 90% and skilled attendance at birth above 90% by 2025.
c) More than 90% of the newborn are fully immunized by one year of age by 2025.
d) Meet need of family planning above 90% at national and sub national level by 2025.
2) Cross Sectoral goals related to health
a) Relative reduction in prevalence of current tobacco use by 15% by 2020 and 30% by 2025.
b) Reduction of 40% in prevalence of stunting of under-five children by 2025.
c)Access to safe water and sanitation to all by 2020.
Health Systems Strengthening
1) Health finance
a) Increase health expenditure by Government as a percentage of GDP from the existing 1.1 5 % to 2.5 % by 2025.
b) Increase State sector health spending to > 8% of their budget by 2020.
2) Health Infrastructure and Human Resource
a) Ensure availability of paramedics and doctors as per Indian Public Health Standard norm in high priority districts by 2020.
b) Increase community health volunteers to population ratio as per IPHS norm, in high priority districts by 2025.
c) Establish primary and secondary care facility as per norm s in high priority districts by 2025.
3) Health Management Information
a) Ensure district - level electronic database of information on health system components by 2020.
b) Strengthen the health surveillance system and establish registries for diseases of public health importance by 2020.
c) Establish federated integrated health information architecture, Health Information Exchanges and National Health Information Network by 2025.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 3×10
3. Describe the elite model of policy process.
Ans) Elites influence mass opinion on policy issues more than masses influence elite opinion in an atmosphere marked by apathy and information distortion. According to this theory, the elite set the policy and the masses follow. Thus, it is believed that public policy reflects "the interests and values of the governing elite." Public servants and administrators just carry out the decisions made by the elites. The work of Mosca and Pareto served as the foundation for the hypothesis. Contrary to Marx, they asserted that elitism is inevitable, and that the idea of a classless society is untrue. Later, Mosca changed his mind and asserted that democracy might be seen as a type of politics in which elites struggle for the public's support in order to establish the legitimacy of the elite control.
In a study of political parties, Robert Michels drew on Mosca's theories and claimed that there was an unbreakable rule of oligarchy that permeated all organisations. According to Joseph Schumpeter, a political market made up of rival parties and elites would legitimise elitism in a democracy. Lasswell's contribution to the advancement of the elite idea is noteworthy. "The study of politics is the study of influence and the influential," he claimed. The powerful are those who acquire the majority of available opportunities. The wealthy are elite, while the rest are mass.
Propositions and Implications of the Elite Model
In society, there are two groups: the elites who rule and decide on public policy, and the masses who are subject to that rule but have no say in it.
The people are apathetic and poorly informed, while elites share similar values and possess wealth, knowledge, and power. Elite members are disproportionately drawn from the society's upper socioeconomic echelons.
Public policy instead reflects the tastes and values of the ruling elite rather than the demands of the general populace.
The sanctity of private property, limited government, and individual liberty are the foundations of elites, who concur on these fundamental societal ideals.
More than crowds, elites influence public opinion on political matters.
Elite-mass conflict is a potential acknowledged by elite theory.
4. Write a note on Citizen’s Charter.
Ans) The Citizens' Charter, in general, is a document that specifies certain objectives to be met in order to raise the standard of governmental services provided to Indian citizens. As a result, the Charter is a tool or instrument that aims to increase an organization's transparency, responsiveness, and citizen-friendliness. The goal was to make public services more receptive to the demands of the populace.
Principles of Citizens’ Charter
The fundamental goal of the Citizens' Charter is to make public services more centred on the needs of the people by guaranteeing that they are driven by demand rather than supply. Following are the six characteristics of a citizens' charter.
Quality: an improvement in service quality.
Choice: Whenever feasible, provide users with options.
Standards: defining what to anticipate over a period of time.
Value: a good investment for tax dollars.
Accountability: The service provider's ability to be questioned.
Transparency: The open, unambiguous, and uncomplicated presentation of policies, practises, plans, and complaint-resolution systems.
An Action Plan for Effective and Responsive Government at the Center and State Levels was adopted on May 24, 1997, in New Delhi, at a conference of chief ministers from various states and union territories. The creation of Citizens' Charters by the Central and State governments was one of the key decisions made at the summit. Coordination, creation, and implementation of Citizens' Charters were tasks that the Government of India's Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances took the lead on.
It has been noted that a citizen charter is intended to offer excellent services and their timely delivery, as well as accountability and grievance redress. However, there are numerous challenges in its execution, many of which are found in the realm of standard public administration. However, the adoption of Citizen' Charters by public institutions and government organisations marks a significant development in the provision of goods and services. It is significant both symbolically and practically.
5. Discuss the National Food Policy and highlight the measures accorded top priority in the policy.
Ans) In order to achieve the aforementioned goals, the central government's Department of Food and Public Distribution has been working to ensure food security for the entire nation through effective procurement at the Minimum Support Price; storage and distribution of foodgrains through appropriate policy measures, including the maintenance of buffer stocks of foodgrains; and making foodgrains accessible at reasonable prices, especially to the weaker and more vulnerable sections of society under In a nutshell, this food policy has served as the foundation for the nation.
The Food Policy has given the following initiatives top priority:
Increasing Food Grains Production: The only sustainable means of achieving this goal is through production technology that have been improved, supporting producers through subsidies, ensuring minimum support prices for vital foodgrains, and improving irrigation systems.
Procurement of Food Grains: The FCI purchases wheat, paddy, and coarse grains from different states with the assistance of state government organisations in order to give farmers price support. In the acquisition and distribution of food grains, the FCI has been a key player.
Storage of Foodgrains: To securely stock the central pool of food grains, the FCI operates its own grid of covered go-downs across all states. Additionally, it employs capacity from private parties, State Warehousing Corporations, Central Warehousing Corporation, and government organisations.
Targeted Public Distribution System : In accordance with the National Food Security Act of 2013, the federal government has announced the Targeted Public Distribution System Control Order, 2015, in order to maintain supply and ensure the availability and distribution of vital commodities.
Export and Import of Food Grains: It becomes crucial for the nation to maintain a consistent supply of food grain imports and exports on a global scale. As a result, starting in 2011, the Indian government has permitted unfettered export of non-basmati rice by private parties from privately owned stocks. Exporting privately owned stocks of non-basmati rice and wheat is also permitted for State Trading Enterprises and a select few other companies.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. 5×6
6. Highlight the critical observations of the Public Choice Model.
Ans) The fundamental presumptions upon which public choice models are based are frequently criticised. Since public policy is now viewed as nothing more than the behaviour of special interest groups engaged in rent-seeking, public choice models are not morally appealing. Due to the conflicting evidence, these theories' primary flaw is their lack of empirical validation. The argument that self-interest drives bureaucratic decision-making and can only be supported by larger budgets, bureaux, and Departments needs empirical backing.
Furthermore, we know very little about the value of employees in government offices compared to those in profit-maximizing businesses. Another issue raised was the size of the bureaux or Department. When a lot of tasks were moved from the bureaucracy to commercial agencies in the 1990s, it was observed in many industrialised and developing countries that there was no decrease in the number of civil officials. As a result, it is suggested that the public choice strategy performs poorly in terms of impartiality because it is largely focused on market values.
7. Discuss the significance of decentralisation.
Ans) The significance of decentralisation are as follows:
It provides a way around the serious drawbacks of centrally administered plans and initiatives. It is possible to better perform tasks related to local resource development, planning, and decision-making.
It makes it possible for programmes to run properly. The implementation gap can be greatly reduced by minimising leakages, diversion, and misuse of government funds because social audit is conducted by those who must benefit from government programmes.
It guarantees improved communication between locals and government employees. One of the Mission Mode projects the Center is carrying on is e-panchayat.
Encouraging participation in policy creation and implementation could promote inclusivity in India's traditionally stratified village community. According to Heller, the justification for bolstering and empowering local government has included both improving accountability and involvement in addition to increasing government efficiency.
Decentralisation aids in institutionalising the engagement of citizens in development planning," supporting a decentralised administration.
8. Explain the significance of scrutiny of budget.
Ans) Budget scrutiny is crucial since it has an impact on the nation's economy. The budgetary proposals are examined and scrutinised on both the administrative and legislative levels. The term "administrative scrutiny" refers to the review conducted by the Ministry of Finance and the higher level of a certain department.
When the department head approves the request, it becomes a part of the departmental budget. Additionally, it is discovered that if the proposal calls for building work, the Public Works Department must be consulted before the proposal may receive technical approval. All departmental budgets are meticulously examined by the Ministry of Finance as the final step in administrative inspection, and the latter's judgement has significant weight.
Legislative inspection serves a purpose and has value all of its own. It starts after the Parliament is provided with the budget. The creation of 24 department-related Standing Committees in 1993 sharpened and focused the parliamentary review of the budget. The conclusion of the budgetary plan discussions is receiving legislative approval.
9. Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of Zero-based budgeting.
Ans) Benefits of a zero-based budget
Since it is based on needs and benefits, results in efficient resource allocation.
Motivates managers to look for low-cost solutions to enhance operations.
Finds budgets that are exaggerated.
Useful for service departments when it is challenging to identify the output.
Increases employee engagement by allowing them to take more initiative and responsibility in making decisions.
Enhances internal organisation coordination and communication.
Identifies and gets rid of inefficient and outdated processes.
Disadvantages of Zero-Based Budgeting
It is challenging to define decision units and decision packages since it takes a lot of time and effort.
Department heads are required to explain every expense-related information. Frequently, the production department gains while the R&D department is threatened.
Managers need to be trained. Managers at all levels need to be well aware of ZBB. The reforms cannot be successfully implemented in any other case.
Due to the involvement of more managers in the budgeting process, it is also challenging to administer and explain the budget.
10. Highlight the Family-centric Approach to social welfare.
Ans) The family participates actively in the provision of social welfare in this strategy, which is possibly the oldest. Strong family ties are frequently a significant source of social capital. For instance, the family as a whole plays a crucial role in caring for children, the elderly, and the disabled. The family is still seen as being strong in both India and a developed nation like England, and it continues to fill many social requirements that are typically fulfilled by government programmes. The joint family is still the primary source of support for financial stability in many Asian nations, particularly for senior family members and children who are unemployed. Policy analysts consequently view the family as a crucial area for intervention.
This strategy is supported by strong social theory and received wisdom. Family unity is seen as the foundation of long-term social support. Therefore, according to public policy scholars, the family is a point of governmental involvement for addressing welfare requirements as well as for containing social problems. The family model, however, has significant drawbacks. One of them is the extended family system's impending demise, especially in urban areas. Second, it ignores the place gender plays in families. Thirdly, universalistic reliance on the family model is constrained by financial and geographic considerations.
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