top of page
BPAC-109: Public Systems Management

BPAC-109: Public Systems Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPAC-109 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Public Systems Management, you have come to the right place. BPAC-109 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAPAH courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BPAC-109 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPAC-109 / ASST /TMA / July 2021-January 2022

Course Code: BPAC-109

Assignment Name: Public Systems Management

Year: 2021 -2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1. Analyse the theoretical foundations of New Public Management model. 20

Ans) The new right, public choice method, property rights theory, and the principal agent relationship all contribute to the theoretical framework for this transition spurred by the NPM model.

New Right Philosophy

The new right contended that government intervention in the economy resulted in market inefficiencies that were detrimental to the general public. Specifically, it claims that state intervention creates monopoly, increases expenditures, inhibits entrepreneurial behaviour, restricts choice, fosters waste and inefficiency, and restricts choice. Consequently, the new right ideology believes that the state should be both a regulator and an industrial producer. As a result, deregulation and privatisation are among the six-point reform agenda of the New Right. Some of the other options include cutting inflation, taxing less, increasing market participation in public services, and altering institutions and the Constitution. Individual rights and freedom of choice have long been emphasised by the new right worldview.

Public Choice Approach

The bureaucracy is blamed by proponents of public choice for diminishing service quality. The bureaucracy seeks authority, and the politician seeks votes. They tend to raise public spending to meet their personal needs. An individual manager or customer is a utility maximiser who is continually seeking to increase net benefits. The public choice approach's policy proposals are to:

  1. Minimise the role of the State

  2. Limit the discretionary power of politicians

  3. Reduce public monopolies to a minimum, and

  4. Curb the functions of government agencies.

The public choice approach has had a significant impact on the way the government does its business. Organizational competitiveness and decentralisation are promoted through the use of public choice as a strategic tool. This new administrative framework, which is founded on market ideals of competition and efficiency, was made possible through the use of the public choice method.

Property Rights Theory

Property rights theory aids in the understanding of performance incentives in the private sector and the determination of whether or not they can be extended to the public sector. "The basic concept is that private sector organisations will work better than public sector organisations when rights are scattered and uncertain," writes Dunsire. "When rights are scattered and uncertain, private sector organisations will function better than public sector organisations." As a result, privatisation, or the transfer of property rights to private ownership, is seen to be a cost-effective strategy.

Principal-agent Theory

Changes in property rights affect the owner-manager relationship. The principle-agent theory is used to describe this situation, with the owner as the principal and management as the agent. The principal's goals are expected of the agent. Contrast is a fundamental concept in principle-agent theory. The agent agrees to undertake duties for the principal in exchange for a mutually accepted remuneration. The principal uses contractors to execute tasks that need specialised knowledge, expertise, and skills. In a contractual partnership, agents make decisions that influence the principal and act in ways that maximise the principal's goals.

These assumptions paved the way for modern public management. This influenced public administration to adopt a more managerial approach, popularising the notion of public systems management.

Q2. Discuss the role of new technologies in public systems management. 20

Ans) Technology, global pressures and institutions, and the demand for local efficiency and productivity are all transforming the state and public administration. Third-world countries have overhauled their public services to meet global and domestic demands.

These reforms primarily focus on the following:

  1. Improving service delivery to people;

  2. Empowering people through dissemination of information;

  3. Increasing transparency in government and business transactions;

  4. Creating competitive environment by establishing synergy between public and private sectors; and

  5. Enhancing the administrative capacity and organisational efficiency of governmental systems through the application of information technology.

The foregoing reforms are part of the New Public Management (NPM). The NPM regime has shifted public systems from process to result-oriented performance, focusing more on outputs than inputs.

Electronic Governance

Electronic governance is the use of technology to improve access to and delivery of public services to people, employees, public bodies, and stakeholders. It is an IT-based public administration system. These projects have created a multimedia network of government agencies, residents, and businesses to increase administrative efficiency and service delivery. Citizens will benefit from more efficient and high-quality administrative services, as well as reduced expenses and more citizen participation in public system management.

The scope of ICT implementation in public systems can thus result in:

  1. Enhancement of efficiency and effectiveness of the executive functions of government, including delivery of public services;

  2. Greater transparency of government to citizens and business, permitting improved access to information generated or collected by the government;

  3. Fundamental changes and improvement in relations between citizens and the State thereby strengthening the democratic process; and

  4. Better interactions and relationships amongst different wings of the same government, State, or local governments within a country and between countries whose governments are web-enabled.

Electronic governance goes much beyond simple computerisation of government back-office functions. It means a new set of obligations for the executive, legislature, and judiciary. Initially, e-governance involves giving public information through governmental websites. These websites contain information about the department, its goals, objectives, citizens' charters, organisational details, public facilities and services, and costs. It refers to government processes that heavily rely on ICT. It ensures citizens' active participation in decision-making and access to public services.

Digital Governance

Electronic governance can take several forms. Digital governance is an e-government model. People and governments are connected via the internet in digital governance systems. This model is still in its infancy in underdeveloped nations.

The digital governance models vary depending on the local situation and the governing functions they perform. These models change the nature of the citizen-government connection and introduce new agents and methods to affect the governing processes.

Third-world countries, such as India, have adopted modern technologies to improve public service management and thus good governance. Good governance has two aims. (1) Accountability and citizen-friendliness of government the second is to ensure transparency and openness. ICT is a key tool for good governance.

In India, ICT is widely used to achieve good governance goals and improve governance procedures at all levels. The Indian government and several states are heavily promoting the creation of policy and programme information websites. The National Information Centre creates these sites. The central and state governments have set up Internet Kiosks, which are often franchised to commercial operators. These kiosks employ internet to deliver information in regional languages on topics including college admissions, agricultural pricing, irrigation, and weather forecasts. India's governmental policy looks to be heading progressively towards a massive network of call centres and IT-enabled services.

Assignment B

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q3. Examine the role of bureaucracy. 10

Ans) The bureaucracy's primary job is to implement the political executive's policies. Bureaucracy is conceived of as a class since it wields power and status, has self-interests, and protects them.

The bureaucracy has a significant role in following areas:

Administrative and Political (Policymaking): The bureaucracy is both administrative and political. They carry out government policies through administrative planning, execution, coordination, and monitoring.

Custodian of Data (Record-Keeping): Bureaucrats contribute professional skills, innovation, and data to the public policymaking process. They are the custodians of data because keeping records is one of their traits and jobs. The political executive does not have the required data, and their term is not permanent. Thus, the bureaucracy aids policymaking by providing data.

Repository of Control and Power: After WWII, many states arose, most of which had an imperialist or militaristic bureaucracy. It was soon realised that they needed to grab authority and control to prevent chaos. They are the ones who implement the policies, yet they are so engrossed in their power and control that their acts are sometimes buried in rigidities, red tape, nepotism, undue favours, and so on.

Public Service: It is a non-discriminatory service. Bureaucracy is often called public service since it must help and strengthen society. They serve both the ruling and the populace.

Law Formulation: Bureaucrats indirectly assist the Law Ministry in drafting laws. Public servants prepare responses to queries from opposing parties in the Parliament (Legislature). The civil employees advise the ministers when asked. Bureaucrats have the data, skills, and experience needed to answer Ministers' issues.

Administrative Law: Administrative law is a new field of public law that investigates how non-legislative and non-judicial bodies make decisions. The bureaucracy is in charge of drafting rules and regulations and overseeing the executive. It also acts as a semi-judicial authority in disputes involving permits, licences, etc.

Tax Collection: The bureaucracy advises the political executive on fiscal policy and tax collection. They prepare the budget and perform the specified functions of tax collection, subsidies, and other citizen concessions.

Q4. Explain the concept and objectives of work measurement. 10

Ans) Work measurement refers to a group of approaches that can be used to measure work. Clocking is the “art of noting and recording the time required to perform each part of an organization's activity or operation.” It involves decreasing and eliminating ineffective time that could have been used for productive activity.

Objectives of Work Measurement

Employers utilise work measurement to improve effectiveness, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. Work measurement goals are:

  1. Workforce Planning: Work measurement is the greatest technique for an organisation to organise its staff and achieve its goals. This determines who gets the task done. Work measurement data can help determine how long a work takes to complete. Their future machine and material requirements, as well as employee capacity, may be determined.

  2. Production Planning and Scheduling: Working out the time required to manufacture anything specific is revealed by work measurement data. That way, customers or clients can be informed of delivery dates and whether or not fresh orders will be accepted.

  3. Production Costs: The work measurement study data helps calculate direct and indirect costs like rent, salaries, etc. Unproductive procedures can be removed, reducing costs. Determining production costs aids in determining selling costs.

  4. Incentives and Performance Appraisal: Because job measurement provides standard production time, it aids management in determining the type and number of incentives to be offered to employees who meet particular requirements. Employees that perform better are rewarded with higher salaries and benefits.

  5. Training and Alternative Methods: Work measurement helps determine standard time for tasks and train new employees accordingly. If the study's findings are unfavourable to the organisation, other options can be considered.

Q5. Describe important total quality management tools. 10

Ans) Some prevalent processes and tools of Total Quality Management (TQM) are:

Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA)

Deming introduced “PDCA Cycle” in 1950s as an effective quality process. It is also famously known as Shewhart Cycle or Deming Wheel. PDCA stands for Plan, Do, Check and Act.

Planning is identifying and evaluating an issue or fault. Problems, resources, current processes, and better options should be discussed. Specify the new procedure. After planning, implement the technique or potential remedy, and measure the results. Then, analyse the outcome, effectiveness, and progress. Finally, if the outcome is satisfactory, act by implementing. The PDCA cycle represents continuous progress. It is efficient in both work and programme management.

SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis is used to analyse the quality aspect by identifying its positive and negative components. It aids in detecting internal and external opportunities and risks. Their knowledge and insight aid in strategic planning and decision-making. It thus provides a four-sided view of a service/department.

Bench Marking

Benchmarking is the process of comparing performance to the best outside or based on performance emerging from competition. It increases performance by discovering and incorporating best practises into internal procedures. To benchmark effectively, you must understand your competitor's output and how it was obtained. Benchmarking allows organisations to outperform competition, open minds to new ideas, and promotes continual progress.

This helps increase performance and identify ways to improve operational efficiency and organisational procedure. It also aids in budget management and focuses on key strategic policy capabilities. It encourages organisational learning and brainstorming on new strategies or initiatives to improve production or services.

Assignment C

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q6. What are the functions of Election Commission? 6

Ans) The Election Commission's duties include:

  1. Prepare and amend electoral rolls for every census and general election to the federal and state legislatures.

  2. Supervise the electoral machinery around the country to ensure free and fair elections.

  3. Appoint and nominate employees to conduct periodic elections and arrange for election materials.

  4. Notify election dates and schedules so nomination papers can be filed and inspected before the elections.

  5. Nominate officials to investigate electoral issues.

  6. Request election staff from the President of India or a state governor.

  7. Polls should be annulled if there is widespread rigging.

  8. Assist a tribunal in recognising a political party or allocating a symbol for election reasons.

  9. Advise the President or Governor on a subject relating to a legislator's disqualification.

  10. Establish election tribunals to resolve electoral disputes.

  11. Issue a code of behaviour for all parties and voters.

Q7. Distinguish governance from government. 6

Ans) Governance is the act of governing or ruling. It is the set of rules and laws framed by the government that are to be implemented through the representatives of the state. Simply put, governance is what governments do. Governance is a concept that can be followed in an organization of any size, be it a single cell or an organism or all of humanity. Governance may function variously for profit or non-profit, for people, or itself. The main purpose of governance is to assure good results following a set pattern of rules.

Government is a set of people who are formulating rules and laws for us in order to maintain law and order conditions in the country and look into the grievances of the people. It consists of permanent as well as temporary members. Permanent is the bureaucracy who works in the background in various ministries and government departments and serve throughout. These are non-elected like the civil servants.

Q8. What is judicial activism? 6

Ans) Because the judiciary must play a more active role in light of difficult governance conditions, judicial activism is a component of judicial review. Judicial activism is when the court intervenes in the legislative and executive branches of government. It is a method of aiding citizens who have been disadvantaged or wronged.

It has been on the rise in recent years, owing to the administration and judiciary's failure to intervene, inadequate public service delivery, violations of human rights, and the exploitation and abuse of constitutional protections, among other factors. Judicial activism can be beneficial or detrimental to the justice system. When it works to make power relations between diverse groups of people more egalitarian, it is considered beneficial. When it is conservative and strives to keep the status quo, it is considered bad.

Q9. List the characteristics of Management Information System. 6

Ans) Some of the important characteristics of modern MIS are given below:

  1. MIS is management-oriented, demonstrating management's concern for all employees. Intuitive from top to bottom

  2. The approach begins with an assessment of the organization's needs and goals.

    Ensures that the implemented information system satisfies the organisation's requirements.

  3. An integrated system is not a MIS. However, MIS must have an integrated concept.

  4. Because MIS is integrated, it is prudent to gather relevant data near to the source and use it across functional domains. The common data flow approach helps eliminate duplication, combine related functions, and simplify necessary functions.

  5. While the integrated method appears to be one unit, it is actually divided into sub-systems.

  6. MIS should be flexible enough to handle future changes in organisational needs.

  7. MIS comprises all information systems, formal or informal.

Q10. Explain the concept of responsiveness. 6

Ans) The term "responsiveness" describes the practise of government agencies and officials ensuring that clients are served in a timely and responsible manner. When a client goes to a government facility for assistance, the service provider must listen to his or her requirements and assist. It necessitates a comprehensive strategy that considers people's needs, goals, and expectations, as well as strategies, policies, programmes, activities, and resources.

Responsiveness refers to how well a government agency responds to the opinions, complaints, and ideas of its customers by altering its structure, culture, and service delivery patterns to provide a better product.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page