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BPAC-110: Urban Local Governance

BPAC-110: Urban Local Governance

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BPAC-110 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Urban Local Governance, you have come to the right place. BPAC-110 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAPAH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BPAC-110/ASST /TMA / July 2022 & January 2023

Course Code: BPAC-110

Assignment Name: Urban Local Governance

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A

Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.


1. What are the major issues and challenges in urban areas?

Ans) The major issues and challenges in urban areas are as follows:


Access to Safe Drinking Water and Water Supply: In India, the economically developed states like Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Karnataka have more widespread access to drinking water supplies. Urban families now have better access to tap water, up from 68.7% to 70.6 percent. In this regard, the proportion of urban homes with a supply of drinking water on their premises has also increased, rising from 65.4 percent to 71.2 percent.


Access to Sanitation Issues: In urban India in 2011, 7.1% of homes had pit latrines and 72.6% of households had water closets on-site. Therefore, 18.6% of urban households lacked sufficient latrine facilities on their property. 66% of homes in slum areas had latrines on their property. The proportion of homes without the facilities has decreased, nevertheless. Chhattisgarh had the greatest number of families without access to latrines (24.9%) in urban areas.


Problem of Access to Housing: Since housing is a basic requirement, along with food and clothing, it is imperative that it be provided for the expanding urban population, which presents a significant challenge to the government. Most lower income groups find it challenging because of the rising cost of housing relative to the income of the urban middle class. They live in crowded housing, and many of them lack sufficient lighting, ventilation, water supply, sewage systems, etc. In the beginning of the 12th Five Year Plan, the Technical Group on Urban Housing Shortage estimated 18.78 million people, down from 24.7 million estimated at the beginning of the 11th Five Year Plan.


Problem of Poverty: Poverty is a multifaceted phenomenon that refers to a lack of resources or income. Housing, water, sanitation, health, education, social security, livelihoods, and the unique requirements of vulnerable populations including women, children, and senior persons are among the issues it raises. It shows up as less options for urban poor people to avoid starvation and malnutrition, social prejudice, and being excluded from decision-making processes. One of the biggest issues facing the administration is the eradication of poverty.


Access to Healthcare Issues: The health and well-being of residents are the city's most valuable resource, yet they continue to suffer from poor housing, transportation, sanitation, and waste management, as well as from poor air quality and pollution. In addition, noise pollution, water and soil contamination, and a lack of space for active living make cities the epicentres of non-communicable diseases, epidemics, and climate change drivers. As a result, cities and towns are dealing with the following health burden:

  1. such as HIV/AIDS, TB, dengue, and diarrhoea are infectious diseases.

  2. diseases that are not contagious, such as malignancies, heart disease, stroke, respiratory ailments like asthma, and depression.

  3. Violence and injuries, including those caused by accidents and traffic.


Problem of Unemployment: Employment is essential for one's dignity, wellbeing, and human development. Economic development in this context refers to the establishment of jobs and environments where people can work with respect. 7.32% of the labour force was unemployed in 1999–2000. Approximately 8% of all employment in this area was in the organised sector, and more than 90% of people were working in the informal sector, which is typically ineligible for social security benefits and has poor access to institutions and other forms of support. The number of unemployed people was 26.58 million in absolute terms.


2. Discuss the modes of urban planning.

Ans) The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, which took over the moniker Ministry of Urban Development in July 2017, has been developing policies and programmes for India's urban sector. The Urban Development Plan Formulation and Implementation guidelines, created by the Institute of Town Planners in 1996, were adopted as the standard by all parties involved in the urban sector. The urban sector became more dynamic throughout time as a result of numerous new developments, including increased urbanisation, globalisation, and advancements in information and communication technologies.


According to the URDPFI guidelines, a complex planning system framework should be used, taking both statutory and non-statutory plans into account. Examples of such plans include urban revitalization plans, city development plans, comprehensive mobility plans, city sanitation plans, and coastal zone management plans. This framework is based on hierarchies, spatial scope, planning scales, information offered in plans, functions, and their areas of expertise.


The Planning System Framework consists of three plans for specific and investment planning and four plans for the core area of planning which are:


A) Core Area of Planning

A perspective plan for a period of 20 to 30 years should be developed, with a focus on building a vision and a framework for policy for urban and regional development. These include the Long-term Perspective Vision Document, Concept Plan, and Mission Statement, among other plans.


The purpose of the regional plan, which has a 20-year time frame, is to identify the region and regional resources for development, within which the District Planning Committee will prepare and control settlement (urban and rural) plans. Regional and sub-regional plans are examples.


Every five years, a review of the development plan is provided, with the goal of preparing a comprehensive development plan for urban and peri-urban regions that are under the supervision of the Development Authority or Metropolitan Planning Committee. District Development Plans, City/Metropolitan Development Plans, Master Plans of City Utilities, and Revised Development Plans are just a few of the plans that fall under this category.


Detailed sub-city landuse plans and integration with urban infrastructure, mobility, and services are included in the scope of the local area plan, which has a time span of 5–20 years and is subject to revision every 5 years. Town planning schemes, zonal/sub-city plans, ward committee plans, area plans, coastal zone management plans, and urban redevelopment plans are just a few of the plans that fall under this category. Local Councils are established in Mizoram to formulate and implement Local Area Plans.


Specific and Investment Planning

With the aim of identifying the needs of the unique areas, which require specific plans within the framework of the development plan, the special purpose plan has a time span of 5 to 20 years and is included in the 30-year city utilities plan. The City Development Plan, Comprehensive Mobility Plan, City Sanitation Plan, Disaster Management Plan, Slum Redevelopment Plan, Tourism Master Plan, Environmental Conservation Plan, and Heritage Conservation Plan are just a few of the plans that fall under this category.


A one-year yearly plan that includes the translation of the development plan into the annual physical and financial resource requirements as well as monitoring the plan's execution with performance milestones. Investment plans, audit plans, and monitoring plans are just a few of the plans that fall under this category.


Project/Research with a 5- to 20-year time frame that focuses on project-related investments, costs, and returns; studies are needed before or after the creation of the plan. Pre-feasibility and feasibility studies, detailed project reports, schemes and sub-projects, surveys and studies, and riverfront development projects are just a few of the projects and studies that can fall under this category.

Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.


3. Discuss the role of cities in urbanisation.

Ans) Despite the fact that cities are often referred to as engines of growth and there is undoubtedly a wealth of literature on the subject, this rapid growth—especially social and economic growth—is accompanied by increased urbanisation, which is in part due to the structural shift of society from an agricultural to an industrial base. Urbanisation has a variety of effects on the social, economic, political, environmental, etc.


Social Aspects

Many people find themselves in an unsafe or unfriendly situation after leaving their home country. An increase in mental health disorders is attributed in part to the overall concern about the future. Urbanization also causes a greater reliance on others for a variety of needs, including the most fundamental ones like food, shelter, and transportation. This further degrades psychological health because of the increased need, as well as because of cultural differences and poor adjustment.


Economic Aspects

According to Takashi Fuji’s proposed connected premises, the Pacific Conference on Urban Growth noted in 1967 that the economic function of urban development rates on the following grounds:

  1. Labour specialisation boosts productivity.

  2. The efficiency of an iron economy is increased by functional area specialisation because it brings together a lot of resources—people, capital, and skills—in a small region, facilitating communication between different economic sectors.

  3. There is a correlation between capitalization and spatial efficiency; as more capital is put in a particular place, its economic efficiency rises.

  4. Concentrated accumulation of both capital and labour results from industrialization.


Equity-The Key Issue

The advantages of urbanization's economic gains are not accessible to all cities or citizens. As a result, roughly one in seven people worldwide reside in urban regions where they are impoverished. In cities with higher GDP, where many citizens lack access to essential infrastructure, such as basic water access, a health care system, educational institutions, waste collection, sanitation, etc., this condition is made much worse. Since income-based poverty lines do not take into account the expenses and reality of urban living, official figures frequently underestimate the extent of urban poverty.

4. Examine the role of State Election Commission.

Ans) Many times, the states would purposefully postpone local body elections or hold no elections at all for protracted periods of time—in some cases, more than a decade or two. It has been repeatedly demanded to create a system for frequent and fair elections to the local bodies in order to solve this issue. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts, which contained the provision to establish a State Election Commission to be appointed by the Governor to oversee, direct, and manage the elections to the Panchayat and Municipal governments, were what made it happen.


In this context, Article 243ZA and Article 243K state that the SEC shall be in charge of supervising, directing, and controlling the conduct of all elections for Panchayats and Municipalities. All local bodies must be re-elected within six months of being dissolved under the terms of Article 243U, which was incorporated into the Constitution through a constitutional amendment. If a local body is dissolved before its five-year term has run out, it must do so within that same six-month window.


The following are some of the powers that the Election Commission as a Civil Court has.

  1. Anyone can be summoned, and their attendance made mandatory.

  2. include the search for and production of documents or other tangible items that can be used as evidence.

  3. requests for copies of public records from any court or office.

  4. Obtains testimony based on affidavits.

  5. issues directives for the investigation of witnesses or records.


Each state has established a State Election Commission to oversee the holding of impartial local body elections. The Commission must carry out numerous tasks and related operations in order to achieve this goal.


The majority of States carry out the SEC's following duties:


  1. Preparation of Electoral Rolls.

  2. Appointment of Dates for Nominations.

  3. Public Notice of Election.

  4. Nomination of Candidates for Election.

  5. Publication of List of Contesting Candidates.

  6. Fixing Time for Poll.

  7. Adjournment of Poll in Emergencies.

  8. Counting of Votes.

  9. One Nation One Election.

5. Analyse the interrelationship between State and Urban Local Government.

Ans) Legislative, administrative, and financial domains are where the State and Urban Local Bodies interact.


Challenges of the Urban System

Over the past ten years, India's urbanisation has accelerated, and it will probably do so in the years to come. According to the Census of India, 2011, the true definition of urbanisation is the rapid rise of urban population and economic activity, which leads to the growth of towns. Metropolitan expansion is influenced by a number of factors, including movement between urban areas and between rural and urban areas. Push and pull factors like a lack of employment opportunities in rural or small urban areas and better access to healthcare, higher standards of life, and employment opportunities in larger cities are some examples of push and pull factors that contribute to migration.


Constitutional provisions for Strengthening the Local Governance

The division of domain areas under which the Center or State has the sole authority to legislate is outlined in the Seventh Schedule of the Indian Constitution. The legislative section divides the allocation of authority between the federal government and each state into three lists: the Union List, State List, and Concurrent List. According to Article 246-Seventh Schedule of the Indian Constitution, urban development, land, housing, and the provision of public infrastructure, among other things, are considered State matters. The State Government has the authority to implement the appropriate laws, enact them, and create policies that promote urban growth.


Institutional Arrangements

Effective municipal governance is necessary to administer the urban system properly. Decentralization has improved local government by granting autonomy and accountability to institutions at the rural and urban local level. To satisfy the needs of the accelerating rate of urbanisation, particularly in the larger cities, urban decentralisation is required by transferring authorities and responsibilities to local organisations. These cities developed as the centre of economic and industrial activity as well as popular locations for foreign direct investments. One of the major issues that many cities around the world are dealing with is a shortage of revenue, which makes them one of the most susceptible participants in the government.


Assignment C


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.


6. Write a short note on National Commission on Urbanisation.

Ans) In order to analyse all aspects of urbanisation and aid in the creation of urban area policy, a national commission on urbanisation was established in 1986. This was the first significant attempt to investigate urban concerns on a global scale. The surplus of rural population may find useful employment in the metropolis, which could serve as wealth generators as well. However, in practise, the failing urban infrastructure, poor planning, ineffective administrative procedures, and insufficient resource mobilisation and distribution were all contributing factors to the urban ills.


The Commission was given the following mandates:

  1. Consider the current demographic, economic, infrastructural, environmental, physical, shelter, energy, communication, land, poverty, aesthetic, and cultural elements when assessing the state of urbanisation.

  2. Determine the most important areas for action, forecast future requirements, and determine the resources that are available.

  3. Create the fundamental principles for the detailed action plan in the prioritised areas.

  4. Develop the policy frameworks and basic strategies for promoting manageable urbanisation, as well as the strategies for building interaction networks among the government, academic and research organisations, and citizen groups.

  5. Introduce a system for evaluating how well the Commission's recommendations are being implemented.


7. Enumerate the sources of funds for the Urban Local Bodies.

Ans) The following categories apply to ULBs' funding sources:


Tax Revenue: The ULBs are responsible for collecting some taxes. These include taxes on real estate, income from a profession, entertainment, and advertisements, among others.


Non-tax Revenue: The primary non-tax revenue streams for the ULBs are rent from municipal properties, user fees for water and sewage, etc. From 33% in 2007-2008 to 41% in 2017-18, the share of non-tax revenue from own sources has expanded dramatically.


Devolution of funds from the State Government: It mostly depends on the State Finance Commission's suggestions. In accordance with Article 243 Y(1), a Finance Commission shall be established, which shall also assess the financial standing of the municipalities and provide recommendations to the Governor.


Grants from the Union Government for Development Schemes: The amount of money provided by the Union Government to the states and ULBs through different centrally sponsored programmes, such as the Smart Cities Mission, AMRUT, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, etc., has significantly increased since the implementation of JNNURM.


Grants based on the Central Finance Commission's recommendations:  Due to the 74th CAA's Amendment to Article 280, the CFCs began advising grants to be passed directly to the Urban Local Bodies starting with the Tenth National Finance Commission.


8. Describe inter-governmental grants and transfers.

Ans) Prior to the Fourth Five-Year Plan, states received Central Assistance in the form of monies that were distributed according to schemes, which led to systemic rigidity and inefficiencies as well as an unequal distribution of Central Assistance. The amount of this support was based on the needs and financial situation of the Center and the States. A different classification of schemes known as the CSS wasn't introduced until the Fourth Plan. These programmes dealt with the Central government's top priorities and had a national flavour.


Types of Schemes : In light of the aforementioned example, the three sorts of Central Schemes are as follows:

  1. Central sector Program.

  2. Scheme sponsored centrally.

  3. The many sub-categories of central assistance schemes include normal central assistance, special central assistance, additional central assistance, etc.


State Sponsored Schemes: To facilitate or offer services for the benefit of the residents of a given state, the states in India also have a huge number of plans that are relevant across numerous industries. Funds are set aside by the governments for these programmes, and beneficiaries and ULBs are asked to contribute as well. However, as was already said, the Local Government is responsible for carrying out the programmes.


9. Write a note on Mayor-in-Council system.

Ans) In West Bengal, this model was first used in 1984. In this arrangement, there is a Mayor and an elected Council with distinct roles. In this paradigm, the Mayor, who serves as the Chief Executive Officer, has control and oversight over the Municipal Commissioner, who acts as the Principal Executive Officer. A Ward Committee, made up of the Councillors chosen from each Ward, is formed by dividing the city into wards. The Ward Committees manage ward-level tasks such water supply, drainage, solid waste collection and disposal, sanitization and health services, housing services, lighting, repairs to specific types of roads, upkeep of parks, and sewers under the general supervision of the Mayor-in-Council.


While the Corporations may engage directly with the State Government, the Municipal Administration often has a Directorate that handles their business. Ordinarily, the Municipal Commissioner is a more senior person than the Director of Local Bodies, placing him or her directly under the authority of the relevant State Department. When assessing the relationship between ULBs and state governments in 1971, Maheshwari made the observation that the state government's authority over local bodies disintegrated into spasmodic, intermittent bouts and was frequently unfavourable.


10. Highlight the e-Governance services provided by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation.

Ans) The Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation offers the following e-government services:  The e-Governance department was established by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation to encourage the AMC's effectiveness, openness, and responsiveness. The AMC's ability to provide more public services has gradually grown thanks to the efficient use of Information Technology Enabled Services , also known as remote services or web-enabled services, by the e-governance department.


Through the e-governance Department, citizens can pay a variety of taxes including property tax, car tax, and others. In addition to the e-Governance Center, the AMC also houses several urban telecenters that are all connected to the primary server by lease lines. At any of the urban telecenters in the city, residents can pay their taxes. The AMC's e-governance section also oversees a number of other projects, including as the Comprehensive Complaint Redressal System and CCTV surveillance, in addition to the functioning of these centres.

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