If you are looking for BPAE-142 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Organizational Behaviour, you have come to the right place. BPAE-142 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAPAH, BAG courses of IGNOU.
BPAE-142 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BPAE-142/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: BPAE-142
Assignment Name: ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Total Marks: 100
Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.
1. Discuss the types and components of attitudes. 20
Ans) Also, an attitude is a "complex of feelings, convictions, prejudices, fears, and other tendencies that have set or made a person ready to act because of different experiences." These ways of thinking can be put into four groups:
A person with a positive attitude stays positive and thinks about the greater good, no matter what he is going through or what he has been through. One must know how much of a positive attitude is needed to keep a project moving forward. Most of the time, people with a positive outlook don't care about the problems they face in their personal and professional lives. They try to improve their skills and talents every day and try to get past any problems they face so they can reach their own goals. Instead of blaming others, these people try to figure out where they went wrong in the past.
Some of a person's attitudes are bad for their whole personality. Some of these attitudes are anger, frustration, dissatisfaction, doubt, jealousy, prejudice, etc. People with such a negative outlook tend to focus on their mistakes and limitations and ignore the good things in life. Negative people try to get away from hard times. Negative attitudes always get in the way of success, even when skills are used to their fullest. Let's talk about some of the things that make people have bad attitudes.
This is another common way of thinking. People with this kind of attitude tend to ignore their problems and wait for someone else to fix them. Most of the time, they get too comfortable and don't feel much. They never feel like they have to change because they are happy with who they are. A person with a neutral attitude will often feel alone, which is why having a neutral attitude is very bad and should be fixed as soon as possible. A person with a neutral attitude can only be successful if they change to a positive one. Most of the time, it has been seen that mental therapies that help people change their attitudes lead them down a positive path.
People with a Sikken attitude are hard to deal with because they see the bad in everything and can turn a good idea into a bad one. Sometimes, the negative way they think takes over the way other people think as well. Most of the time, a person with a good attitude will be an example for many others on the team. Because of this, businesses look for people with good attitudes. In general, people seem to hang out with people who have a positive vibe, because that gives them enough motivation to move forward in life. People's thoughts and actions can be changed by their attitudes, whether they are good or bad.
Components of Attitude
The attitude is made up of three parts that work together. These three things are known by the acronym ABC: A is about feelings; B is about actions (conative) C- Cognition (information). A person's attitude toward something is made up of the beliefs, values, and ideas they have about it. This is called the information/cognition component. This information may or may not be true in real life. But this is used to figure out how someone feels.
Emotional (affective) component is about how we feel and what we like. Behavioural component has to do with how a person acts in a certain way toward an object. The first and second parts can't be seen, but it's easy to figure out what they are. To understand the third part, you need to understand the first two.
2. Examine the various theories of leadership. 20
Ans) The basis of the attitude is made up of three things. The acronym for these three things is ABC: A- affective (emotional), B-behavioral (conative) C- Cognition (information). An attitude is made up of a person's beliefs, values, and ideas about the object. This is known as the cognitive/information component. This information may or may not be correct. But this is used as a way to judge a person's attitude.
Emotional (affective) component is about our individual feelings and likes. Behavioural components involve how a person acts in a certain way toward an object. The first and second parts can't be seen by others, but they can be guessed. To understand the third part, you need to know about the first two.
This way of thinking about theory is about the qualities or traits that a leader needs to have. This idea is called the "great man" theory. It says that leaders are born with special qualities that make them good leaders. Ordway Tead and Chester I. Barnard are well-known trait theorists.
Group and Exchange Theory
The idea behind this theory comes from social psychology. It assumes that for group goals to be met, there must be a good relationship between the leaders and the people who follow them. Chester Barnard was the main person who supported this idea. This theory says that leadership is an exchange between the leader and the people who follow them. This theory says that the leader and the people who follow him have an effect on and influence each other.
This theory came about because there were holes in the trait theory. The theory emphasises how important it is that different situations affect a leader's role, skills, behaviour, and followers' performance and happiness. Fred Fiedler came up with what is known as the "situation-based" or "contingency" theory of leadership. This model shows the connection between the way a leader acts and how good the situation is.
Path Goal Theory
Robert House came up with this way of looking at leadership. It says that the best leaders help their subordinates reach both the business goals and their own personal goals. Money, a promotion, and the chance to grow and develop are some of the personal goals of subordinates. Leaders of this theory get rid of things that get in the way of performance and make it easier for people to be satisfied with their work by reducing unnecessary stress and strain.
Robert House's work is also linked to this idea. He says that charismatic leaders are self-confident and trust their subordinates. They also have high expectations for their subordinates, a clear vision of the future, and lead by example. Followers of charismatic leaders identify with the leader and the leader's mission, show extreme loyalty and confidence in the leader, copy the leader's values and behaviour, and get their sense of self-worth from their relationship with the leader.
This theory is based on the idea that a leader can change the values, beliefs, and needs of the people who follow them. This kind of leadership makes it easier for organisations that need to renew and change to do a better job. Transformational leadership is encouraged by the way the organisation recruits, chooses, promotes, trains, and develops its leaders. It has a good effect on health, well-being, and the organization's ability to do its job well.
Social Learning Theory
This theory is a model for how the leader, the environment, and the behaviour interact with each other all the time. This model is called the S–O–B–C model, which stands for Situation Organism Behavior Consequence. The subordinates are an active part of the process, and together with the leader, they focus on their own and each other's behaviour, environmental changes, and how their own behaviour and thoughts affect others. In this method, the leader and the subordinate have a relationship where they can talk to each other and negotiate. They are also aware of how they can change each other's behaviour by giving or withholding rewards.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.
3. Discuss the various organisational behaviour models. 10
In this model, it is assumed that the people in charge have the expertise, knowledge, and skills to run the business and do the day-to-day things that need to be done. People at the floor level are also thought to not have the skills to do the work on their own. So, it is thought that those in charge need to control them very closely.
This model came about because the Autocratic model didn't work well enough. In the autocratic model, employees are afraid of the bosses, so they don't rebel or go against what they tell them to do. But if they aren't treated fairly, they might hate themselves and act out later.
Power and authority are the main things that make the Autocratic model work. In the case of the Custodial model, however, what makes people do what they do is the incentives. In a supportive model, on the other hand, neither power nor incentives are important. When a supportive model is used in an organisation, employees are motivated by a good relationship between management and workers.
Everyone works as a team in the Collegial model. So, teamwork is the most important part of this model. Everyone has a hand in making the organisation grow. The manager acts like a coach to help the employees feel like a team. The coach cares less about how well he does as a player and more about how well the team does. This model works well in fields that have to be innovative by their very nature.
4. Examine the various causes for organisational conflict. 10
Ans) There can be conflict for both structural and personal reasons. Some of the structural factors are specialisation, using common resources, having different goals, different relationships of power, roles, expectations, and unclear boundaries of authority. Specialists don't know much about each other's jobs and think that what they do is more important than what others do. This way of doing things can cause problems between departments and roles. Because there aren't enough of them, employees have to share the common resources, which can lead to conflict.
In organisations, different departments will have goals that don't match up with each other. This difference in goals can also lead to problems. Most of the time, strict executives get into fights with their employees. When a boss and a subordinate work together in an organisation, role conflicts can happen if their roles aren't clear. When there isn't clear authority or performance criteria, there are often disagreements. Organizational conflict can also be caused by things like bad management, unfair treatment, unclear job roles, a lack of training, bad communication, a bad work environment, unequal opportunities, and harassment.
Every employee is expected to meet the goals set by his or her boss, and when this doesn't happen in the time allotted, it leads to conflict.
Communication problems are one of the main reasons why people fight at work. For example, if one employee asks another for information and the other doesn't answer correctly, this can cause conflict in the organisation.
Information that is misunderstood can also lead to conflicts in an organisation. For example, if one person misunderstands some information, it could start a series of fights.
Lack of Accountability
When the roles of each team member aren't clear, no one feels responsible, which can lead to conflict on the team.
5. Describe the Lewin’s. Three step model to change management. 10
Ans) Kurt Lewin was one of the first people to study organisational and applied psychology. He thought that in order for a change to work, it should happen in three steps: unfreeze, change, and refreeze. Unfreezing means giving people the chance to let go of the way things are. The forces of resistance and conformity must be beaten. Unfreezing can be done by increasing the forces that push people away from the status quo, decreasing the forces that stop people from moving away from the status quo, or using a good mix of the two.
People start to see the new reality, and the change becomes real. At this point, the employees start to learn new ways of doing things and start to settle down. At the last stage of refreezing (which some people call freezing), the changes are solidified so that they become the new status quo, the new normal. If management ends the full change management process too soon by skipping the last step, it might be hard to keep the change going. To keep the new balance, people usually use positive reinforcements like extra bonuses, monetary incentives, etc.
The Force Field Analysis model was made by Kurt Lewin to show how change happens. Lewin's Force Field Analysis model is still an important way to look at how change happens, even though it was made many years ago. On one side of the Force Field Model are the forces that move organisations toward a new state. There are many things that cause change, such as information technology, competition, and population growth. Along with these outside forces, there are also internal forces that drive the organisation, such as competition between different parts of the company and the need for the leader to make the organisation reflect his or her image.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.
6. Comment on the concept of ability and personality. 6
Ans) Ability is being able to do something, either mentally or physically. So, it follows that a group can't reach its goals in the most effective way without the help of its "able" members. People's abilities are also affected by both their genes and their environment. Think about someone who has the right genes to be a great athlete. But if he really wants to be a sportsperson, he needs to work on his natural skills. So, even though he was born with an advantage, it won't help him grow if his environment doesn't help him. Also true is the opposite. Even if you weren't born an athlete, you can do great things on the sports field with practise and training. This is especially true since many people who are naturally talented don't play because they don't have the right environment.
Personality is a collection of traits or traits that make up a person's unique character. This set includes thoughts, ideas, habits, perceptions, and emotional patterns that come from biological and environmental factors. Personality comes from the Latin word "persona," which means "mask." Actors wear masks to change how they look. Gordon Allport defined "personality" in 1937 as the "dynamic organisation within an individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment." Kurt Lewin says that a person is "a dynamic whole of systems." Randy Larsen and David Buss, two American psychologists, say that "personality is a stable, organised group of psychological traits and mechanisms in a person that affects how he or she interacts with and changes his or her psychological, social, and physical environment." J.F. Dashiell says that a person's personality is "the sum of behaviour patterns that show up in social changes."
7. Write a note on ERG theory. 6
Ans) Clayton an American psychologist named Paul Alderfer built on Maslow's theory of the hierarchy of needs by coming up with the ERG theory. ERG stands for "Needs for Existence, Relatedness, and Growth." From the lowest level to the highest level, E, R, and G stand for different needs. In this way, it is similar to the Hierarchy of Needs theory, but there is an important difference between the two: The ERG theory says that more than one level of needs can be met at once. The first two levels of the Hierarchy of Needs theory, Physiological Needs and Safety Needs, match the first two levels of the ERG theory.
8. Define group dynamics. 6
Ans) Group dynamics is made up of two words: Group and Dynamics. A group is usually made up of two or more people. Dynamics comes from the Greek word dynamis, which means "force." So, Group Dynamics is the study of how the forces between people in a group work together. Group Dynamics is the study of how people in a group interact with each other, the subtle and not-so-subtle pressures they put on each other, how decisions are made, how work is done, and how people's needs are met. When managers understand all of these things, they can manage groups well, which improves the effectiveness of the organisation as a whole. Cartwright and Zander (1968) say that "group dynamics is a set of behavioural and psychological processes that happen within a social group or between groups."
9. What do you mean by BATNA and ZOPA? 6
Ans) Roger Fisher and William Ury came up with the term BATNA (Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement) in 1991. It was first used in their best-selling book, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Without Giving In. The goal of the negotiator is to get a better result than he could get on his own. If there are several possible outcomes that can be reached without talking, the best one should be chosen. It is the best alternative to the agreement that was negotiated, so it is called the BATNA for that negotiation. Let's say you're talking with a possible buyer about the price of a house you want to sell. The other person in the negotiation has offered you INR 70 lakh, but you hope to sell the house for INR 80 lakh.
10. Define stress management. 6
Ans) Before we talk about how to deal with the management side of stress, we need to define the term "stress management." It is defined as "a wide range of techniques and psychotherapies that aim to control a person's level of stress, especially long-term stress," usually to help them do better in their daily lives (from Wikipedia). This definition covers a lot of ground and includes both the bad and good effects of stress. Hans Selye used the term "eustress" to describe stress whose effects are good for you. Stress management and prevention must include the creation of strategies that address both the causes of stress at work (psychological and organisational hazards) and how they affect the health of employees.
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