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BPAE-142: Organizational Behaviour

BPAE-142: Organizational Behaviour

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BPAE-142 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Organizational Behaviour, you have come to the right place. BPAE-142 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BAPAH, BAG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPAE-142/ASST/TMA/July 2023 & January 2024

Course Code: BPAE-142

Assignment Name: Organisational Behaviour

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.


Q1) Discuss the various theories of Learning.

Ans)Several theories of learning have been proposed by psychologists and educators to understand how individuals acquire knowledge and skills. These theories provide frameworks for comprehending the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural aspects of learning.



Behaviourism, associated with theorists like B.F. Skinner, focuses on observable behaviours. It posits that learning is a result of responses to external stimuli and reinforcement. Positive reinforcement strengthens behaviour, while negative reinforcement diminishes it. Classical conditioning, as proposed by Ivan Pavlov, is another aspect of behaviourism, emphasizing associations between stimuli and responses.



Cognitivism, linked to Jean Piaget and others, explores the mental processes involved in learning. It emphasizes the role of cognitive structures, like schemas and memory, in understanding and storing information. Learning is viewed as an active process involving problem-solving, comprehension, and memory retention.



Constructivism, influenced by theorists such as Lev Vygotsky, posits that learners actively construct knowledge by connecting new information to existing mental frameworks. It emphasizes the importance of social interaction, collaboration, and real-world experiences in the learning process. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is a key concept, highlighting the difference between what learners can do alone versus with guidance.


Social Learning Theory:

Developed by Albert Bandura, social learning theory emphasizes the role of observation and modelling in learning. It suggests that individuals learn by observing others and imitating behaviours they find rewarding. Social learning involves the interplay of cognitive, behavioural, and environmental factors.


Humanistic Learning Theory:

Humanistic theories, including those by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, focus on the individual's subjective experiences and the desire for self-actualization. Learning is seen as a self-directed process driven by personal motivation, curiosity, and the pursuit of one's potential. The emphasis is on holistic development and learner-centred approaches.


Experiential Learning:

Experiential learning, advocated by David Kolb, centres on the idea that learning is most effective when it involves concrete experiences, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. It promotes hands-on learning and encourages individuals to learn from their experiences.



In the digital age, George Siemens proposed connectivism as a learning theory that acknowledges the impact of technology and emphasizes the importance of networks. Learning is viewed as a process of connecting information sources and resources, leveraging technology and social networks for collaborative and distributed knowledge creation.


Multiple Intelligences:

Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences posits that individuals possess different types of intelligences, including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetics, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. This theory recognizes and values diverse forms of intelligence beyond traditional measures.


Q2) Describe the different types of Communication.

Ans) Communication is a complex and multifaceted process that involves the exchange of information, ideas, thoughts, and feelings between individuals or groups. There are various types of communication, each serving different purposes and occurring through different channels.


Verbal Communication:

a)     Oral Communication: This involves spoken words and includes face-to-face conversations, telephonic communication, voice messages, and speeches. It is immediate and allows for real-time interaction.

b)     Written Communication: Involves the use of written words and includes emails, letters, reports, and memos. It provides a permanent record and allows for careful consideration before responding.


Non-Verbal Communication:

a)     Body Language: Gestures, facial expressions, posture, and eye contact convey messages without the use of words. They play a crucial role in interpersonal communication, often revealing emotions and attitudes.

b)     Paralanguage: This refers to vocal elements such as tone, pitch, volume, and speed of speech. The way something is said can significantly impact the message.

c)     Proxemics: The study of personal space and how individuals use space to communicate. It includes the concept of intimate, personal, social, and public space.


Visual Communication:

a)     Graphics and Visual Aids: The use of charts, graphs, diagrams, and other visual elements to convey information. This is common in presentations, reports, and educational materials.

b)     Photography and Video: Images and videos can communicate powerful messages, capturing attention and providing a visual understanding of complex subjects.


Interpersonal Communication:

a)     One-on-One Communication: Direct communication between two individuals. It can be formal or informal and is characterized by immediate feedback and a personalized exchange of information.

b)     Small Group Communication: Involves communication within a small group of people. It promotes discussion, collaboration, and shared decision-making.


Intrapersonal Communication:

a)     Self-Talk: The internal dialogue that individuals have with themselves. It involves thinking, reflecting, and processing information within one's own mind.


Mass Communication:

a)     Broadcast Media: Communication to a large audience through radio, television, or online streaming platforms. It is a one-to-many form of communication.

b)     Print Media: Communication through newspapers, magazines, brochures, and other printed materials. It reaches a wide audience but lacks the immediacy of broadcast media.

c)     Digital and Social Media: Communication through online platforms, including social media, blogs, websites, and forums. It enables interactive and real-time communication on a global scale.


Organizational Communication:

a)     Internal Communication: Communication within an organization, involving employees at different levels. It includes emails, meetings, newsletters, and internal memos.

b)     External Communication: Communication with individuals or entities outside the organization, such as customers, suppliers, and the public. It includes public relations, marketing, and customer support.


Cross-Cultural Communication:

a)     Intercultural Communication: Involves communication between people from different cultural backgrounds. It requires an understanding of cultural differences in communication styles, norms, and values.


Formal Communication:

a)     Official Channels: Communication that follows established hierarchies and structures within an organization. It includes official reports, policies, and formal meetings.


Informal Communication:

b)     Grapevine Communication: Informal, unofficial channels of communication that develop spontaneously within an organization. It includes rumours, gossip, and casual conversations.


Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.


Q3) Highlight the significance of Organisational Behaviour.

Ans) Organizational Behaviour (OB) is a multidisciplinary field that examines the behaviour of individuals and groups within an organizational context. Its significance lies in its profound impact on the functioning and success of organizations.


Enhances Employee Performance: Understanding individual and group behaviour allows organizations to create a conducive work environment, motivating employees and enhancing their performance. Positive organizational behaviour contributes to increased productivity and efficiency.


Effective Leadership and Management: OB provides insights into leadership styles, communication patterns, and decision-making processes. This knowledge is essential for effective leadership and management, fostering a harmonious and productive workplace.


Conflict Resolution: By studying organizational behaviour, one can comprehend the sources of conflict within teams and develop strategies for resolution. Effective conflict management contributes to a healthier organizational culture.


Improved Employee Satisfaction and Retention: OB helps organizations identify factors that contribute to employee satisfaction. A satisfied workforce is more likely to be engaged, committed, and less prone to turnover, leading to improved organizational stability.


Enhanced Communication: Understanding communication patterns and barriers is vital for effective organizational communication. Clear and efficient communication is crucial for collaboration, goal alignment, and overall success.


Promotes Diversity and Inclusion: OB fosters an inclusive workplace by promoting understanding and appreciation of diversity. Organizations that embrace diversity benefit from varied perspectives, creativity, and innovation.


Optimizes Organizational Structure: Studying OB aids in designing organizational structures that align with the organization's goals. It helps in creating efficient workflows, clear lines of communication, and adaptable structures.


Adaptation to Change: Organizational Behaviour equips organizations with the tools to navigate and manage change effectively. This is crucial in today's dynamic business environment where adaptability is a key factor for success.


Q4) Examine the various theories of Job Satisfaction.


Content Theories:

a)     Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: Abraham Maslow's theory suggests that job satisfaction is linked to the fulfilment of hierarchical needs, including physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.

b)     Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory: Frederick Herzberg proposed that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are influenced by two separate sets of factors—motivators (job content) and hygiene factors (work environment and conditions).


Process Theories:

a)     Equity Theory: Developed by J. Stacy Adams, equity theory posits that job satisfaction is influenced by perceptions of fairness in the distribution of rewards compared to the efforts and contributions made.

b)     Expectancy Theory: Victor Vroom's expectancy theory suggests that individuals are satisfied with their jobs when they believe their efforts will lead to good performance, resulting in rewards that they value.


Cognitive Evaluation Theory:

a)     Self-Determination Theory (SDT): Developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, SDT emphasizes the role of intrinsic motivation. It suggests that job satisfaction increases when individuals feel a sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in their work.


Social Information Processing Model:

a)    Social Information Processing Model (SIP): This model suggests that job satisfaction is influenced by social and informational cues in the workplace. It emphasizes the role of social interactions and relationships at work.


Job Characteristics Model:

a)    Job Characteristics Model (JCM): Developed by J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham, JCM identifies core job dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) that influence job satisfaction.


Dispositional Approach:

a)     Trait Activation Theory: This approach suggests that certain personality traits, such as positive affectivity, can predispose individuals to experience higher levels of job satisfaction.


Affective Events Theory:

a)    Affective Events Theory (AET): Developed by Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano, AET posits that events at work trigger emotional responses that, over time, influence overall job satisfaction.


Spillover-Crossover Model:

a)     Spillover-Crossover Model: This model considers the impact of one's job satisfaction on the satisfaction of others, particularly within family or social networks. It explores the crossover of job satisfaction between individuals.


Q5) Describe the meaning and nature of group dynamics.

Ans) Group dynamics involves the study of the patterns of communication, cooperation, conflict, and leadership within a group. It explores how individuals form relationships, make decisions, and collaborate to achieve shared objectives. The concept recognizes that groups have their own identity, norms, and structures that influence individual behaviour.



a)     Interdependence: Group members are interdependent, meaning their actions and outcomes are linked. The success or failure of one member can impact the entire group.

b)     Communication: Effective communication is essential for understanding and cooperation within a group. The nature and quality of communication influence the group's dynamics.

c)     Roles and Norms: Groups often develop roles (expected behaviours) and norms (accepted standards) that help establish order and guide behaviour. Roles can be formal or informal, while norms define acceptable conduct.

d)     Leadership: Leadership plays a significant role in group dynamics. Leaders influence decision-making, set the tone for the group, and impact members' motivation and satisfaction.

e)     Conflict and Cooperation: Groups experience both conflict and cooperation. Conflict can arise due to differences in opinions, goals, or values, while cooperation is essential for achieving common objectives.

f)      Group Development: Groups go through stages of development, such as forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Each stage has its own characteristics and challenges.

g)     Social Influence: Individuals within a group influence each other's attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours. Conformity, compliance, and persuasion are common aspects of social influence.

h)     Size: Group dynamics are influenced by the size of the group. Larger groups may have more complexity and challenges in coordination, while smaller groups may foster better communication and intimacy.


Assignment C


Answer the following questions in about100 words each.


Q6) What do you mean by Perceptions?

Ans) Perception refers to the process by which individuals interpret and make sense of sensory information from their environment. It involves the organization and interpretation of stimuli received through the senses, such as sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell. Perception is a subjective and cognitive process influenced by factors like past experiences, cultural background, emotions, and personal biases.


It shapes how individuals perceive and understand the world around them, influencing their attitudes, beliefs, and decision-making. Perceptions play a crucial role in interpersonal communication, as they contribute to the way people interpret and respond to information, events, and interactions.


Q7) Explain Theory X and Theory Y.

Ans) Theory X and Theory Y are contrasting management philosophies introduced by Douglas McGregor.


Theory X: Assumes that employees inherently dislike work, avoid responsibility, lack ambition, and need to be closely controlled and coerced. It aligns with a more authoritarian and directive management style.


Theory Y: Posits that work is natural, and individuals can find satisfaction in it. It assumes that employees are capable, enjoy taking responsibility, and can be self-motivated. Theory Y aligns with a participative and collaborative management style, emphasizing employee empowerment and autonomy. McGregor argued that an organization's management approach significantly influences employee behaviour, and a Theory Y approach fosters a more positive work environment.


Q8) What is the difference between Groups and Teams?

Ans) The difference between Groups and Teams:

Q9) Describe Laissez-faire style of leadership.

Ans)In this leadership style, the organization relies on internal motivation rather than external direction from the leader. Employees are self-motivated, enjoying substantial autonomy, while the leader's involvement in decision-making is minimal. The leader assumes a role similar to other organization members. This approach provides employees with freedom and independence. However, challenges arise due to the absence of a strong guiding figure, leading to a lack of direction and motivation. Employees may feel a need for more guidance and support in the absence of a proactive leadership style.


Q10) Comment on the concept of Organisational Change and Development.

Ans) The field of organizational change and development is interdisciplinary, drawing from psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and management. It encompasses altering an organization's strategies, processes, procedures, technologies, and culture, affecting its overall structure and the relationships among individuals. This change involves transformations in the entire work environment and is primarily structural. Organizational change necessitates shifts in individual employee behaviour, as an organization's survival and growth depend on the evolving behaviours of its members. In the contemporary landscape, organizations must be dynamic, versatile, and adaptive to effectively navigate a multitude of changes in their external and internal environments.

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