If you are looking for BPAG-171 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Disaster Management, you have come to the right place. BPAG-171 solution on this page applies to 2023 session students studying in BAG, BAECH, BAHIH, BAPSH, BAPCH, BASOH, BSCANH, BAEGH courses of IGNOU.
BPAG-171 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BPAG-171/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: BPAG-171
Assignment Name: Disaster Management
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
Q1) Define vulnerability and various factors that cause it. 20 marks
Ans) According to social scientists, vulnerability is the extent to which a community is affected by a disaster. It involves the measure of ‘resilience’ and ‘coping capacity’ of a community or person in the face of adversity that is their capacity to anticipate with, resists, and recovers from the impact of a natural hazard whereas Climate scientists often view vulnerability in terms of the likelihood of occurrence and impacts of weather and climate related events. So, vulnerability is conceived as both physical risk and social response within a specific location and time.
Vulnerability is the human dimension of disasters. It is caused by a range of economic, social, cultural, institutional, political, and psychological factors that shape people’s lives and the environment they live in. Both natural and man-made factors contribute to vulnerability some of which are discussed below:
Poverty: Poverty situation increases vulnerability to disasters. The growing difference between rich and poor, rural, and urban incomes and hence the difference in living standards. Frequent flooding can decrease the returns from cultivating land thus reducing food security. The rural poor who depend on incomes from farming or other agricultural activities are often obliged to migrate to the cities. Newcomers to an urban setting, not being able to afford safe locations in the city, are obliged to settle in makeshift dwellings in informal settlements.
Population Displacement: Population displacement is both a cause and a consequence of disaster. There is evidence of correlation between poverty and economic inequality and rural to urban migrations. Large-scale displacement of populations leads to temporary to permanent loss of livelihood for people.
Urbanization: Rural to urban migration has led to unmanageable urbanisation and urban congestion that has forced human and physical capital extension in high-risk zones. Urbanisation has brought in its wake growth of informal settlements, unsafe living conditions, disease, class conflict and social capital depletion as some segments have been socially and economically marginalised.
Globalisation: Globalisation has also contributed to increasing the vulnerability of the urban poor by creating ‘uncertain’ conditions regarding employment.
Cultural Beliefs: In some societies, natural disasters are considered to be acts of God and taken as if there is nothing human beings could do to prevent hazards from turning into disasters. Such beliefs and fatalistic attitudes contribute to a community's vulnerability.
Gender: Gender based vulnerability builds up over time which causes disempowerment of women in socio-economic and political spheres which leads to huge differences between men and women in emergency communication, household decisions about how to use relief assets, volunteering relief and recovery work, access to evacuation shelter and relief goods, and employment in disaster planning.
Economic Factors: Relative vulnerability of people is comparatively much higher in developing third world countries than in the developed world. The poor regions have little opportunity to process and market what they produce and are dependent on the import from the industrialised nations of manufactured goods, which are often highly priced or tied to aid packages.
Geographical Factors: Global warming has particularly increased the vulnerability of coastal areas, especially in the Small Island Development States. Sea level rise will threaten the fragile eco system of these regions, raising the frequency and intensity of natural hazards like tsunamis, cyclones, floods and storm surges. It also threatens to disrupt agriculture. Increased pace of infrastructure development, population pressure and growing tourism have only contributed to it.
Weaker Social Groups: In a society made up of various social groups, the needs of each group differ. Children, women, elderly and disabled people have unique group features that may add to their vulnerabilities in particular situations, such as during evacuation, sheltering, relief distribution and the rehabilitation process.
Q2) Briefly discuss the relationship between disaster and development. 20 marks
Ans) Disasters and development are intricately linked. Disasters can both destroy development initiatives and create development opportunities. Development schemes can both increase and decrease vulnerability. Traditional approach considers natural disasters to be an act of God and are thought to be beyond human control where accepting death and damage to property was part of the costs. With such an attitude, most development plans were not structured well in favour of community needs. When a disaster occurred, the response was directed at meeting emergency needs and cleaning up. With the realization that more can and need to be done to reduce the severity of hazards/disasters the current approach focuses on reducing the impact of disaster. Rebuilding after a disaster provides significant opportunities to initiate development programmes. Development programmes can either make a place more likely to be affected by disasters or make it less likely to be affected by disasters. So, programmes to help people recover from disasters are being built with long-term development needs in mind.
Even though in larger terms, development will usually contribute to decrease vulnerability to natural disasters, however, development activity within an area might largely increase certain types of vulnerability as mentioned below:
Urban development usually leads to an inflow of low-income groups, with large- scale settlements on marginal land or in high-density, poor-quality housing.
Marine and coastal zone development leads to population consolidation, exposed to potential high winds, storm-surge, landslide risks and flash flood. Tourist development can increase potential vulnerability.
Transport and other construction activities without awareness about environment often result in deforestation and increased risks of landslides.
Water resource projects, such as dams and irrigation schemes, increase risk of floods, slope instability or dam failure.
Investment in poorly managed hazardous industries might result in exposing the unaware population to high hazardous chemicals or other industrial disasters.
Livestock development projects result in extensive loss of the vegetation cover, leading to desertification.
Agricultural projects promoting cash crops might reduce production of essential foods.
Population without developmental initiatives is more exposed to natural hazards. Specific emergency preparedness measures and hazard reduction activities should be incorporated a as part of development programmes to protect population and critical economic assets against hazards and also to take measures to reduce the overall impact of disasters. Urban utility systems and industrial support infrastructure should be strengthened. Investing in transport and communications also improve a country’s ability to respond to, and recover from, a major emergency. For example, improvements in road capacity will make evacuation easier; Better communication would lead to improved early warning and more effective preparedness and response measures.
With community development, disasters are usually viewed as a catalyst to include the process as the community rebuilds. Disasters can be a carrier of effective development programmes. The political impact of damage and disruption can act as a real incentive for change. Disasters can also be an opportunity to test the improvements a community has made through community development, although it’s not a test that anyone is really welcoming towards. In some cases, disasters highlight the problems in the community more so than daily operations do. The value of direct international assistance given after disasters may partially compensate for economic losses. Although the amounts are usually smaller in relation to the total loss. But in upcoming days there may be additional longer term development aid, which would otherwise not have been made available. But development opportunities are often missed or compromised because of an excessive focus on relief assistance.
Answer the following in about 250 words each.
Q3) Write a note on the National Policy on Disaster Management, 2009 and National Disaster Management Plan, 2016. 10 marks
Ans) National Policy on Disaster Management, 2009: NPDM has a vision to build a safe and disaster resilient India by developing a holistic, proactive, multi-disaster oriented and technology-driven strategy through a culture of prevention, mitigation, preparedness, and response. The Policy covers all aspects of disaster management covering institutional, legal, and financial arrangements, disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness, techno-legal regime; response, relief and rehabilitation; reconstruction and recovery, capacity development; knowledge management and research and development.
Under the provisions of the Act, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has been established under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister and National Executive Committee (NEC) of Secretaries has been created to assist the NDMA in the performance of its functions. In the State level, a State Disaster Management Authority has been created under the Chairmanship of Chief Minister of the State, which has been assisted by a State Executive Committee. At the District level, District Disaster Management Authorities have been created. The community was at the centre of the whole process, and all government agencies and non-governmental organisations worked together to give it momentum and sustenance.
National Disaster Management Plan, 2016: The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) was released in 2016, it is the first ever national plan prepared in the country for disaster management, release by Prime Minister. With the National Disaster Management Plan 2016, India has aligned its National plan with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, to which India is a signatory. The National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) aims to make India disaster resilient and significantly reduce the loss of lives, livelihoods, and assets by maximizing the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities.
The plan covers all phases of disaster management: prevention, mitigation, response, and recovery and is based on the four priority themes of the “Sendai Framework,” namely, understanding disaster risk improving disaster risk governance investing in disaster reduction (through structural and non-structural measures) disaster preparedness, early warning and capacity building in the aftermath of a disaster.
Q4) List out the statutory provisions for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction. 10 marks
Ans) The following are the statutory provisions incorporated in the Disaster Management Act, 2005, for mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction:
Section 6 (i) provides that the NDMA may take such other measures for the prevention of disaster, or the mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with the threatening disaster situation or disaster as it may consider necessary.
Section 22 (2)(b) provides that the SEC may examine the vulnerability of different parts of the State to different forms of disasters and specify measures to be taken for their prevention or mitigation.
Section 23 (4) (b)/(c)/(d) provides that the State Plan shall include measures to be adopted, manner in which the mitigation measures shall be integrated with the development plans for prevention and mitigation of disasters.
Section 30 (2) (iv) provides that the District Authority may ensure that the guidelines for prevention of disasters, mitigation of its effects, preparedness and response measures as laid down by the National Authority and the State Authority are followed.
Section 31 (3) (b) provides that the District Plan shall include the measures to be taken, for prevention and mitigation of disaster.
Section 32 (a) provides that every office at the district level shall prepare a disaster management plan.
Section 35(2) (b) provides that the central government may ensure the integration of measures for prevention of disasters and mitigation by Ministries or Departments of the Government of India into their development plans and projects.
Section 36 (b) provides that every Ministry/ Department of Government of India shall integrate into its development plans and projects, the measures for prevention or mitigation of disasters in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority.
Section 38 (2) (e)/(f) provides that the State Government may ensure integration of measures for prevention of disaster or mitigation by the departments of the Government of the State in their development plans and projects.
Section 39 provides that the departments of State Government shall integrate into its development plans and projects, the measures for prevention of disaster and mitigation.
Section 40 (1) (a) (ii) mandates all department of the State to prepare a disaster management plan that shall integrate strategies for the prevention of disaster or the mitigation of its effects or both with the development plans and programmes by the department.
Q5) Examine the case study of ‘The Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2004.’ 10 marks
Ans) On December 26, 2004, an undersea earthquake with a magnitude of 9.1 hit the coast of the Indonesian island of Sumatra that led to a series of immense ocean waves triggered by the quake cause a devastating tsunami that affected several countries along the Indian Ocean rim. The natural disaster caused widespread damage, resulting in over 230,000 fatalities, and leaving hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Approximately 2,000 kilometers of the Indian coastline was submerged up to two kilometers. It had caused huge impact on the 13 coastal districts of Tamil Nadu.
It was the local community members who came for immediate rescue, even before the government or NGOs. In the aftermath of the disaster, relief measures were undertaken immediately which included search, rescue, and evacuation; medical assistance; shelter; resumption of critical infrastructure; restoring transportation routes; communication lines and electricity; ensuring food and clean water distribution. Monetary compensations were provided to the affected people and their family. The Planning Commission played an important role during the recovery and rehabilitation phases, and the State Governments were in charge of putting the recovery programmes into action. Coordination was the vital and immediate component needed in the response phase.
The Indian Ocean Tsunami also highlighted the importance of disaster risk reduction and preparedness. In response, several countries in the region established early warning systems and evacuation plans to minimize the impact of future tsunamis. The disaster also demonstrated the importance of international cooperation in responding to humanitarian crises, as countries worked together to provide aid and support to those in need. After witnessing the impact of tsunami in 2004, the Disaster Management Act was enacted in 2005 and later the National Disaster Management Policy also was formulated in 2009.
Answer the following in about 100 words each.
Q6) What do you mean by epidemics? 6 marks
Ans) Epidemic comes from the Greek word “epic” (which means upon/among) and “demos” (means people). Epidemic refers to an increase, often sudden, in the number of cases of a disease above what is normally expected in the population of that area. It could also mean when a large number of cases of an infectious disease show up in a place or group of people who don't usually have that disease. Epidemics can be caused by other kinds of disasters, like tropical storms, floods, earthquakes, droughts, and so on.
Epidemics can also affect animals, which can be bad for the local economy. Most people agree that diseases like hepatitis, typhoid, diphtheria, malaria, cholera, influenza, enteritis, diarrhoea, skin diseases, food poisoning, etc. can be passed from one person to another. Epidemics can also be caused by health-harming habits like smoking and drug use, as well as by health-related events like accidents. But during disasters, we worry more about outbreaks of diseases that can be spread.
Q7) Discuss the key components of disaster preparedness framework. 6 marks
Ans) Disaster preparedness framework must encompass various measures. Following are some of the key components of disaster preparedness:
Strengthening the policy, technical, and institutional capacities of regional, national, and local disaster management, including those related to technology, training, and human and material resources.
Getting people to talk, share and promote information, working together, and helping them do so, in order to encourage a whole-person approach to reducing disaster risk.
Strengthening and developing coordinated regional approaches to prepare or review and update plans and policies for disaster preparedness at all levels, with a focus on the most vulnerable areas and groups.
Promoting the creation of emergency funds wherever they are needed to help with preparations.
Using the spirit of volunteerism to come up with specific ways to get the active participation and ownership of relevant stakeholders, such as communities.
Q8) Comment on the concept of social and economic rehabilitation. 6 marks
Ans) Social and economic rehabilitation refers to the process of restoring and improving an individual's or community's social and economic well-being. It is a crucial aspect of recovery after a disaster, conflict, or other traumatic event. Social rehabilitation aims to restore a sense of normalcy to individuals and communities through the provision of services such as education, health care, and employment opportunities like finding people who could teach children and give them books and writing materials, providing day care and stay places, setting up multi-purpose community centres and promoting self-help groups.
Economic rehabilitation focuses making up for the economic loss caused by the disaster, rebuilding damaged infrastructure, promoting economic growth, and improving access to resources and financial services. It involves providing compensation to the victims based on current and future risks on the troubled group. Both social and economic rehabilitation require coordination among government and non-government organizations. The goal is to help individuals and communities recover from the adverse effects of a traumatic event and move towards a more sustainable and resilient future.
Q9) Write a note on the types of traditional knowledge. 6 marks
Ans) Traditional knowledge refers to the knowledge and practices of indigenous communities that have been passed down from generation to generation. Three types of Indigenous knowledge include:
Technological Knowledge: The indigenous people use their technical knowledge to address concerns related to disaster risk reduction. For instance, construction of house and infrastructure in the flood inundate areas, coastal regions, and the mountain regions. Indigenous communities have developed their own methods of agriculture, such as crop selection and irrigation, adapted to their local environment. They have a rich history of using traditional medicine and healing practices and natural remedies.
Economic Knowledge: Economic knowledge is used by the community at times of crisis. Planning low-cost strategy by using already available resources or adapting to alternate ways of living during crisis are some economical approaches.
Environmental Knowledge: Environmental knowledge is sensed by the community based on the minor clues they get from their surroundings. This kind of knowledge is based upon the experiences during cyclones or floods. Predictions can be made based on the colour of the water or clouds and was used to help the community members to take preparedness measure.
Q10) List out the principles of community-based disaster management. 6 marks
Ans) The principles of community-based disaster management include:
Active Participation: The community's active participation is a very important part of lowering the risk of a disaster. Disaster risk reduction measures are community-centric where local leaders take charge of planning, putting the plans into action, and running the activities.
Use of Local Resources and Skills: Interventions start with local resources, skills, and networks/ partnerships that can be used. One important way to deal with a disaster is to use all these things at the local level.
Own Choice and Decision: When reducing disaster risk, communities should think about the choices and decisions they make.
Strengthening the Community: Disaster risk reduction (DRR) programmes should be designed for each community and focus on making the people there better at what they do.
Pay attention to Vulnerable Groups: Vulnerable groups should be given extra attention so that their health and needs are met before, during, and after a disaster.
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