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BPAG-173: E-Governance

BPAG-173: E-Governance

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023

If you are looking for BPAG-173 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject E-Governance, you have come to the right place. BPAG-173 solution on this page applies to 2023 session students studying in BAG, BAECH, BAHIH, BAPSH, BAPCH, BASOH, BSCANH, BAEGH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPAG-173/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BPAG-173

Assignment Name: E-Governance

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Assignment A


Answer the following in about 500 words each.


Q1) Write note on various applications and information systems of ICT. 20 marks

Ans) The applications of ICT are categorized under four types:


Information Services: A service that provides access to information and knowledge. Information means collection of facts from which conclusions can be drawn. The goal of information services is to provide users with access to the information to meet their personal or professional need. It can refer to libraries, archives, or online services, such as search engines, online databases, and websites that provide access to information on a wide range of topics.


Communication Services: There are various forms of communication services and applications.


  1. Synchronous Communication Application involves the simultaneous ‘presence’ of the participants in the communication process.

  2. Asynchronous Communication is a certain time interval between the message and a response to that message. The best example of it is email.

  3. Workflow Management System makes sure that a user has access to the data he or she requires to perform a specific task in the office process at the right moment.

  4. Electronic data interchange deals directly with transactions like order and billing processes. This involves communications between computers rather than people.


Transaction or Registration Services: Transaction or registration services are becoming important for organizations, businesses, and governments in dealing with stakeholders. This can have both internal and external applications.

  1. Internal transactions involves both monitoring of all kinds of processes (like workflow systems, planning modules, financial administration, ERP systems, and so on) and collection of all sorts of information in a central electronic database. Registration services can also be used to supervise the progress of various business processes.

  2. External applications deal with collecting information from consumers and other parties within the organization, as well as processing electronic transactions, that is, e-commerce. External registration services have to do with the interaction between the organization and the market.


Integrated Applications: Applications that integrate information, communication, and registration services are called integrated applications. Some well-known applications that integrate different patterns are:

  1. Intranet and Groupware Services that provide an integrated package of online databases and shared documents and applications.

  2. Computer Supported Collaborative Work can range from ‘file and information sharing’ to ‘application sharing’.

  3. Group Decision Support System are specifically aimed at supporting decision making processes. They have all kinds of calculation rules or procedures to ensure decisions are arrived at in a more systematic way.


An information system can be defined technically, as a set of interrelated components that collect, process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization. There are many IS, most important of them are discussed below:


Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): It is a computerized system that performs and records the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct business, such as sales order entry, hotel reservations, payroll, employee record keeping, shipping or to monitor the status of internal operations and the firm’s relations with external environment. It also supplies employee payment history data for insurance, pension, and other information.


Management Information System (MIS): It serves middle management. MIS provides reports on the organization’s current performance. This information is used to monitor and control the business and predict future performance.


Decision Support System (DSS): This support more non-routine decision making. They focus on problems that are unique and rapidly changing, for which the procedure for arriving at a solution may not be predefined. They try to answer questions like “what the impact on production schedules would be, if sales are doubled next month?” and so on.


Business Intelligence System (BIS): BI systems are contemporary information system for data and software tools. It helps organization to collect, store, and analyse data to support decision-making and gain insights into business performance. BI systems can be used to monitor key performance indicators (KPIs), identify trends, and support data-driven decision-making.

Q2) Explain the concept of e-governance and also highlight the various e-governance models. 20 marks

Ans) E-governance refers to the public sector’s use of Information and Communication Technology to improve the delivery of government services, increase citizen engagement, and promote transparency and accountability in government operations. E-governance is a modern and innovative approach to governance that seeks to make government processes more efficient, accessible, and responsive to the needs of citizens and aims to bring in SMART governance implying Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent governance.


Five important e-governance models that can be used as a guide in designing e-government initiatives are discussed below:


The Broadcasting Model: The model is based on dissemination/broadcasting of useful governance information, which is in the public domain into the wider public domain with ICT and convergent media. The strength of the model rests upon the fact that citizens who know more about how their government works are better able to judge and make an informed opinion about them. Consequently, they become more empowered to exercise their rights and responsibilities. Widespread application of this model fixes ‘information failure situations’ by providing people with the relevant information of governance to make informed decision.


The Critical Flow Model: The model is based on providing critical information to the targeted audience or into the wider public domain with ICT and convergent media. The strength of this model is that ICT makes the concept of ‘distance’ and ‘time’ redundant when information is hosted on a digital network, and this could be used to our advantage by instantly transferring the critical information to its strategic user group no matter where they are located or by making it freely available in the wider public domain.


The Comparative Analysis Model: This model is highly significant model for developing countries and can be used for empowering people. Essentially, the model keeps adding the best governance practises and then uses them as standard to evaluate other governance practices. It then uses the result to advocate positive changes or to influence ‘public’ opinion on these governance practices. The comparison could be done over time to get a snapshot of the past and present situation or could be used to compare the effectiveness of an intervention by comparing two similar situations.


The E-Advocacy/Mobilisation and Lobbying Model: This model adds the opinions and concerns expressed by virtual communities to build momentum of real-world processes. This model helps the global civil society to impact on global decision-making processes. It is based on setting up a planned, directed flow of information to build strong virtual allies. People with similar values and concerns come together to form virtual communities and link up to support activities together. t is able to mobilize and leverage human resources and information beyond geographical, institutional and bureaucratic barriers and use it for concerted action.


The Interactive-Service Model: It opens avenues for direct participation of individuals in governance processes and makes the decision-making processes more objective and transparent through ICT. Fundamentally, ICT has the potential to bring in every individual in a digital network and enable two-way flows of information among them. Under this model, the different services offered by the government are made directly and interactively available to the people who live there. It does this by creating an interactive channel called "Government to Consumer to Government" (G2C2G) for voting for government officials (e-ballots), resolving specific complaints online, sharing concerns and giving advice, taking polls on different issues, etc.

Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.


Q3) Elucidate National Policy on Electronics 2019. 10 marks

Ans) The National Policy on Electronics 2019 is a comprehensive policy aimed at promoting the growth of the electronics system design and manufacturing (ESDM) industry in India. The policy focuses on four key areas: Electronics Manufacturing, Research and Development (R&D), Design, and Innovation.


One of the key objectives of the policy is to increase domestic value addition in the electronics sector. To achieve this, the policy provides incentives to companies engaged in electronics manufacturing, including tax holidays, subsidies, and duty exemptions. Additionally, the policy encourages investment in the creation of electronics manufacturing clusters, which can provide an ecosystem that supports the growth of the industry.


Another important aspect of the policy is to promote R&D in the electronics sector. The policy provides funding and tax incentives for R&D activities, as well as support for the development of research and innovation centers. It also encourages the development of indigenous technology and the commercialization of research outcomes. The policy recognizes the importance of design in the electronics sector and aims to promote design-led innovation. To achieve this, it provides support for design centers and training programs, as well as incentives for companies that invest in design capabilities. The policy also seeks to create an enabling environment for innovation in the electronics sector. This includes measures to support start-ups, such as seed funding and tax incentives. This policy also seeks to create a favourable intellectual property rights (IPR) environment, which is critical to the growth of the sector.


In conclusion, the National Policy on Electronics 2019 is a comprehensive policy that seeks to promote the growth of the electronics sector in India and provides a framework for promoting electronics manufacturing, R&D, design, and innovation aiming to create an ecosystem that supports the growth of the industry.


Q4) Discuss about the various ICT applications that enable the governmental organizations to effectively perform their functions pertaining to service delivery. 10 marks

Ans) Information and Communication Technology (ICT) plays a critical role in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of governmental organizations in delivering services to the public.


There are several ICT applications that can be utilized by these organizations to perform their functions more effectively some of which are discussed below:

  1. E-Governance Portals: E-governance portals provide a centralized platform for citizens to access government services, information and interact with government agencies.

  2. Mobile Apps: Governments can develop mobile apps that enable citizens to access services and information from their mobile devices.

  3. GIS and Mapping: Geo Information System (GIS) and mapping technology can be used to visualize and analyse data to support decision-making, planning and resource allocation.

  4. Cloud Computing: Cloud computing provides a cost-effective and flexible way for governments to store and access data, as well as to provide services to citizens.

  5. Social Media: social media can be used as a platform to reach out to citizens, engage with them and gather feedback, which can then be used to improve services.

  6. Electronic Payment Systems: Electronic payment systems (EPS) can streamline the payment process and reduce administrative costs.

  7. Big Data Analytics: Big data analytics can be used to analyse large amounts of data to identify trends and patterns that can be used to inform decision-making and improve services.


In conclusion, these ICT applications can help government organizations to effectively perform their functions and deliver services in a timely and efficient manner. Additionally, the use of ICT can increase transparency, reduce corruption, and enhance the overall accountability of the government to the public.


Q5) ‘There are a few management tips that can help usher in a change in administrative culture in public organizations.’ Elaborate. 10 marks

Ans) Public organizations often face challenges in managing change and transforming their administrative culture. However, there are several strategies that can help drive change and create a more positive and productive working environment.

  1. First, it is important to establish clear goals and expectations for the change process. This can be done by communicating with employees and involving them in the decision-making process. By doing so, employees are more likely to be invested in the change and feel valued as stakeholders.

  2. Second, leaders must model the desired behaviour and culture. This means that they should lead by example and demonstrate the values and behaviours they want to see in others. Leaders should also provide regular feedback and recognition to employees who exhibit the desired behaviours.

  3. Third, the organization should establish systems and processes to support the change. This may involve reorganizing departments, updating policies and procedures, or investing in training and development programs. These changes can help create a more efficient and effective work environment and provide employees with the tools they need to succeed.

  4. Finally, it is important to monitor and evaluate progress and make adjustments as necessary. This can be done through regular employee surveys, performance evaluations, and other metrics. By doing so, leaders can identify areas where improvement is needed and make changes accordingly.


Thus, transforming the administrative culture of a public organization is a complex and challenging process, but it is possible with the right strategies and approaches. By establishing clear goals, leading by example, implementing systems and processes, and monitoring progress, organizations can create a more positive and productive work environment that benefits employees and the community as a whole.


Assignment C


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.


Q6) What are village knowledge centres? 6 marks

Ans) Village Knowledge Centres (VKC) are a form of community-based information centres aimed at improving the lives and livelihoods of farmers in rural areas. These centres provide farmers with access to the latest information and knowledge available in the field of agriculture, including crop production and marketing.


By providing instant access to information, VKC's help farmers make informed decisions and improve their agricultural practices, leading to increased productivity and income. VKC's are equipped with ICT tools, such as computers, internet access, and multimedia equipment, to provide farmers with a wide range of information resources, such as weather forecasts, market prices, and best practices for crop production. These centres also provide training and support to farmers, enabling them to effectively use ICTs to enhance their agricultural practices.


In addition, VKC's serve as a hub for farmers to connect with each other and share their knowledge and experiences. This can help foster a sense of community and support among farmers and promote the sharing of best practices and innovative ideas.


Q7) List out the areas of ICT applications in rural areas. 6 marks

Ans) Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play an important role in improving the quality of life and economic opportunities in rural areas. The following are some of the key areas where ICTs can be applied in rural areas:

  1. ICTs can be used to provide farmers with access to information on weather patterns, market prices, and best practices for crop production. This can help farmers make more informed decisions and improve their livelihoods.

  2. ICTs can also provide telemedicine services and support remote diagnosis and treatment of patients in rural areas. This can improve access to healthcare services for people in remote communities.

  3. ICTs can be used to provide access to online educational resources, such as e-books, videos, and interactive learning tools. This can help to improve educational outcomes for students and can be used to improve connectivity and access to information in rural areas. This can include the deployment of broadband networks and the provision of Wi-Fi hotspots.

  4. It can be used to support the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in rural areas, by providing access to online business resources and marketplaces.

  5. It can provide online access to government services, such as birth and death certificates, licenses, and permits, making these services more accessible to people in rural areas.


Q8) Briefly describe online delivery of education and training (e-learning). 6 marks

Ans) E-learning, or online delivery of education and training, refers to the use of technology to facilitate and support the learning process. It typically involves the use of digital tools, such as laptops, tablets, and smartphones, to access educational content, interact with peers and instructors, and participate in assessments. E-learning offers several benefits over traditional classroom-based education. For example, e-learning is often more flexible, as learners can access course content from anywhere and at any time. This makes it easier for learners to balance their education with other commitments, such as work and family.


In addition, e-learning often provides learners with a wider range of educational options. Online platforms provide access to a large library of courses, including those that might not be available in a local area. This means that learners can choose from a broader range of subjects and specialties and find courses that fit their specific needs and interests. E-learning also provides an opportunity for interaction and collaboration with other learners and instructors, through online forums, discussion boards, and virtual classrooms. This can foster a sense of community and provide learners with opportunities to learn from each other and to receive feedback on their progress.


Q9) Explain extranet commerce. 6 marks

Ans) Extranet commerce refers to a type of e-commerce that involves the exchange of information and transactions between businesses and their partners, customers, or suppliers through a secure and private network. Unlike the Internet, which is open to the public, an extranet is a restricted network that requires authentication and authorization to access.


The main purpose of extranet commerce is to provide businesses with a secure platform for exchanging information and conducting transactions with their partners and customers. This can include exchanging product information, tracking orders, managing inventory, and facilitating secure payment transactions.


Extranet commerce has several advantages over traditional commerce. For example, it allows businesses to streamline their operations by automating processes and reducing the need for manual intervention. It also provides real-time information about sales and customer behaviour, which can help businesses make informed decisions about their product offerings and marketing strategies.


Additionally, extranet commerce allows businesses to build strong relationships with their partners and customers. By providing secure and reliable access to information, businesses can increase trust and transparency in their dealings, which can lead to increased loyalty and customer satisfaction.


Q10) Highlight the role of government in implementation of Right to Information Act 2005. 6 marks

Ans) The Right to Information Act 2005 is a landmark piece of legislation in India that gives citizens the right to access information held by the government. The role of the government in the implementation of the RTI Act is crucial, as it is responsible for ensuring that the provisions of the act are upheld and that citizens are able to access the information they seek.


The government has several key responsibilities in the implementation of the RTI Act, including:

  1. The government is responsible for appointing Information Commissioners to oversee the implementation of the RTI Act and to hear complaints and appeals related to RTI requests.

  2. The government is responsible for designating public information officers in all public authorities to receive RTI requests and provide information to citizens.

  3. The government is responsible for developing rules and regulations related to the RTI Act, including guidelines for processing RTI requests and providing information.

  4. The government is responsible for disseminating information to the public, including publishing information on its websites and making it available to citizens through RTI requests.

  5. The government is responsible for training public authorities in the implementation of the RTI Act, including their obligations under the act and the processes for providing information to citizens.

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