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BPAS-186: Stress and Time Management

BPAS-186: Stress and Time Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPAS-186 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Stress and Time Management, you have come to the right place. BPAS-186 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG, BSCG, BAGS courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPAS-186/ASST/TMA/July 2021/January 2022

Course Code: BPAS-186

Assignment Name: Stress and Time Management

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Total Marks: 100

Assignment A

Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.

Q1) Explain the meaning and significance of time management. 20

Ans) Time management helps you make the most of your time. It's a concept that deals with good time management. It refers to the discipline of making the best use of available time, particularly at work.

"Your time management is like the operating software on your computer," Rowan explained. It works in the background, allowing you to accomplish more in less time and enjoy your work difficulties. The better you manage your time, whether you work for yourself, the government, industry, or provide a service, the more successful you will be."

"Time management" is defined as "the effective use of our resources, especially time, in order to achieve essential personal goals." "Thus, time management is a continuous, continuing process of analysing, planning, reanalysing, and replanning," he concludes.


  1. Every task in an organisation has a deadline. In this sense, time management demands setting aside particular time slots in To-Do Lists for daily vital tasks at work, allowing employees to complete their allocated duties on time and increase productivity.

  2. Superiors favour employees that are disciplined, devoted, and prompt. They don't leave work unfinished and complete tasks on time. In the event of a significant issue, they consult with their coworkers or immediate reporting boss to come up with a solution that would help them meet their goals and save time.

  3. Employees that use time management are more productive and prioritise vital activities. Employees are urged to take up all that is necessary and urgent at the start of the day and finish it off, as being overburdened at work leads to dissatisfaction and eventually affects productivity. Effective monitoring fosters an environment where workers operate according to a To-Do List and stick to it.

  4. The team leader typically detects time wasters at work and encourages people to avoid wasting time on ineffective tasks that produce no returns.

  5. A well-organized individual organises her or his career properly and completes assigned duties on schedule, allowing her or him to achieve the pinnacle of her or his profession in the shortest time feasible.

  6. An individual/employee keeps herself/himself informed by scheduling time in her/his daily routine to check developments on her/his organization's website, social networking sites, or calling colleagues or friends. In this case, time management enables her or him to keep track of time wasters and devote only a set amount of time to this activity.

  7. Above all, time management instils a sense of discipline in employees, making them more disciplined and punctual. As a result, he develops the habit of arriving on time and working efficiently, which increases productivity and reflects the company's success.

Q2) Examine and suggest any five significant techniques of time management that can be adopted to achieve success. 20

Ans) The techniques of time management are:

To-Do Lists

Every day, all responsible government leaders and private-sector managers create 'to-do' lists. A to-do list comprises columns for all of the critical tasks that must be completed during a given day.

For example, activities can be categorised as follows:

  1. Immediate tasks to be completed.

  2. Attendance at meetings.

  3. Emails that must be sent

  4. It is necessary to make phone calls.

  5. Visits the outside world.

  6. Work in the home.

Other types of duties may exist, depending on the demands of each organisation. Another key feature of a to-do list is the inclusion of the exact time when each activity for the day will be completed.

The 80/20 Principle

Typically, 80% of official time is spent on things that are only worth 20% of the time. In administration, such activities are commonplace. When critical or most important tasks are completed with focus in only 20% of the time, we achieve 80% of the results. Thus, if 20% of your time is spent in a methodical manner and with well-planned methods, you can accomplish 80% of the earnings, benefits, or outcomes. Using the 80/20 rule, anyone may achieve remarkable outcomes without exerting extraordinary effort. As a result, a tiny amount of our time can lead to an increase in satisfaction and fulfilment.

Getting Organised and Self-management

A good time manager executes the work correctly and on time. S/he strives to perfect the art of work and to find the most efficient method of working. There is, without a question, a need to work harder, but there is also a need to work smarter. Executives that are well-organized are capable of completing the most important tasks in the shortest amount of time. Effective time management begins with sound self-control. The pace and quality of work produced by an individual is largely determined by their lifestyle and approach to conducting official and non-official business. The best source of effective time management is good habits.

Well-organised System

The working styles of employees at various levels in an organisation have an impact on time management. In a well-planned or managed system, inventing gadgets to improve efficiency and effectiveness is a priority. There is a constant need to improve workplace procedures and methods, upgrade equipment, improve employee skills, systematise record management, make financial management fool proof, streamline human relations in administration, reduce operational delays, reduce paperwork, and speed up the completion of routine tasks. Minimizing paperwork and progressively embracing electronic data retrieval technologies are significant requirements of efficiency.


Planning is a set of actions for a certain time period with the goal of achieving predetermined objectives. It allows for the most efficient use of available resources, increases efficiency, reduces waste of material and human resources, assists in making the best use of time, and fosters a productive environment. We are proactive when we plan, and reactive when we don't. "Those who fail to plan, plan to fail," says an old adage. Planning is, without a doubt, crucial for organising both personal and professional life. Anything that needs to be done correctly necessitates meticulous planning. Those who are high achievers and top performers always believe in the phrase "Plan your work and work your plan," according to experience.

Assignment B

Answer the questions in about 250 words each.

Q3) Describe the General Adaptation Syndrome with the help of a diagram. 10

Ans) When a person is in a stressful circumstance, Hans Selye identified three stages that he or she goes through.

The first stage is the 'alarm reaction,' which is marked by a reduction in stress resistance. This stage is comparable to the fight-or-flight reaction. The hypothalamus activates the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system at this time. In addition, the adrenalin glands release epinephrine and norepinephrine. This is referred to as a countershock, in which an individual's defence mechanisms are engaged. As a result, the body is prepared to tackle the frightening scenario, akin to the fight or flight response.

Stage two: In the second stage, referred to as ‘resistance,' adaptation reaches its peak and balance is restored. During this stage, the individual adapts and becomes more resistant to stress-inducing stimuli, whereas resistance to other stimuli declines. Because a lot of energy is required during this stage, non-essential functions such as digestion, immune system, and even reproductive system receive no energy. As a result, physiological changes such as elevated heart rate and blood pressure, fast respiration, and so on continue to occur.

Step three: The final stage is 'exhaustion,' which occurs when adaptive systems fail. Exhaustion is caused by a breakdown in adaptive processes as well as a reduction in physiological resources. When an individual is exposed to stress for an extended period of time, their physiological resources are depleted, which can have a detrimental impact on their physical health and make them susceptible to numerous illnesses and health problems. Despite the fact that GAS provides useful information about stress, it does not address the psychological or cognitive responses to stress.

Q4) What are the main sources of workplace stress? 10

Ans) The main sources of workplace stress are:

Role Expectations: An employee is expected to fulfil a variety of responsibilities that he or she is responsible for. A person is hired by the organisation to do specific tasks. The individual's expectations, on the other hand, are extremely stressful. In role conflict, on the other hand, there are many opposing demands at work. As a result, it's unclear how one completes the assignment or performs the roles, because doing so according to one's specifications may disappoint another.

Information Overload: People have never been bombarded with so much information as they are now. In fact, the epidemic is being referred to as an infodemic! The material is relevant to both the personal and professional domains. As a result, information overload refers to being exposed to an excessive amount of data or information.

Work-Life Trade-Offs: Work family conflict or work-life conflict is one of the most typical work-life trade-offs. The fact that there are 168 hours in a week and how these hours are used in maintaining a work-family balance is a difficulty for many of us. Work-family conflict occurs when the demands of the workplace and the expectations of the non-work realm collide. It causes a reduction in productivity, life satisfaction, and bad feelings.

Fear of being assessed or judged by others: Fear of being evaluated or judged by others can be a source of occupational stress. Being evaluated can serve to increase arousal and motivation, but it has also been proven that high levels of assessment apprehension diminish individuals' willingness to share information in the workplace.

Q5) Distinguish between the Efficiency Approach and Effectiveness Approach to time Management. 10

Ans) The differences between the Efficiency Approach and Effectiveness Approach to time Management includes the following:

The Efficiency Approach

Efficiency refers to making the most of the resources available. This is also true in terms of time management. In this scenario, the following issues become more important and warrant consideration:

  1. Well-organized management systems make efficient use of time and leave little room for waste. Time-savers are used intelligently in such organisations.

  2. The procedures used in organisational functioning have been streamlined; emails have been received and responded to quickly; and phones have been used as time savers.

  3. Technology is utilised to its full potential in order to increase production. Technology is used effectively to save time.

  4. Work is given to competent employees, and monitoring and oversight ensure that it is used properly.

  5. Services are outsourced wherever they are required. This frees up time for ordinary executives, allowing them to focus on more important tasks.

  6. Offices are tidy; tables are clean, and table drawers are free of clutter.

  7. Official gatherings are well-planned and executed. The meetings are well-planned, and the decisions are carried out effectively.

The Effectiveness Approach

This method is primarily concerned with the goal-setting process. The following are the key features of this strategy:

  1. An organization's vision and mission are clearly defined, and the organization's goals are formulated against this backdrop. These objectives are linked to essential parts of the organisation, which may be long-, medium-, or short-term in nature.

  2. Priorities are established for specific objectives and tasks on a regular basis. "First Things to First" is the rule that is followed.

  3. The emphasis is on SMART goals, which are Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-bound.

  4. The importance of scientific approaches for plan design, implementation, and evaluation is emphasised.

  5. The tasks of various functionaries in the organisation are defined in order to meet the organization's goals.

  6. There are set deadlines for achieving specific objectives.

  7. The emphasis is on "results" rather than "activities."

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q6) What are the five stages of burnout? 6

Ans) The five stages of burnout are:

  1. Stage of the honeymoon: When a person starts a new career, he or she is ecstatic and passionate about it. However, dysfunction can arise when an individual's reserves of energy are spent while coping with the challenges of the new environment in which he or she finds himself/ herself, and the coping mechanisms employed by the employee fail or are ineffective in the coping process.

  2. During the full scarcity stage, the employee would feel bereft, exhausted, and even confused. In addition, the employee may use unhealthy coping mechanisms or escape activities.

  3. Chronic symptom stage: At this stage, the employee may exhibit a variety of physiological symptoms that require prompt attention.

  4. Employees at this stage may develop pessimism, an escape mentality, and a variety of health problems such as sleep disorders, ulcers, high blood pressure, and so on.

  5. Hitting the wall stage: This is the final stage, and the employee may feel completely exhausted, which can have a significant impact on the person's productivity and performance.

Q7) Does work orientation affect the performance of employees? If yes, how? 6

Ans) Yes, work orientation can affect the performance of employees.

Negligence in Creating To-Do Lists: These lists aid in the organisation of a day's work plan. However, there are some faults that are commonly noted in such to-do lists.

Understanding Task Prioritization: To comprehend incorrect task prioritisation, you must first understand right task prioritisation. In this regard, proper prioritisation is essential for effective time management.

Any individual or organisation must accomplish four different types of tasks:

  1. Tasks that are both 'urgent' and 'essential.'

  2. Tasks that are 'important' but not 'urgent.'

  3. Tasks that aren't 'urgent,' yet are nevertheless 'essential' to complete.

  4. Tasks that aren't "urgent" or "essential."

Right Job, Wrong Time: Is there such a thing as a "right" or "wrong" time for specific jobs? Yes, absolutely! Critical and challenging administrative choices should be made before lunchtime, whereas routine affairs should be handled in the afternoon when receptivity and energy levels are low, just as students study tough courses in the mornings and conduct practical work at night. Unfortunately, most businesses do not adhere to this approach.

Hard Work Rather Than Smart Work: It is widely held that the most significant requirement for professional success is hard work. Hard work entails putting in a significant amount of time to complete one's tasks. As a result, the common adage goes: "The harder the work, the bigger the success." Hard effort, in both personal and professional life, pays off only when it is done deliberately, systematically, wisely, and perceptively. These characteristics of work are typical of clever work.

Q8) Explain the model of Allostatic Load. 6

Ans) McEwen coined the term "allostatic load" to describe the wear and tear that the human body endures as a result of repeated and long-term exposure to stress. According to the allostatic overload model, stress has harmful effects on our physiological systems when a large number of stress mediators are released to help us adjust, but their disproportionate, chronic, and frequent overuse and dysregulation may cause harm in the long run.

In essence, allostatic load is manifested by the inefficient switching on and off of stress mediators and, in certain cases, their inability to produce an adequate response when required, such as when the body releases too little or too much cortisol in response to an intensely stressful scenario. Stress has a long-term influence on the body's cardiovascular, metabolic, neurological, behavioural, and cellular systems, increasing the likelihood of disease development because biological systems are unable to function properly.

Q9) Highlight the benefits and features of e-Office. 6

Ans) The benefits and features of e-Office are:

Benefits of e-Office:

  1. Increase transparency by allowing files to be tracked and their status to be known at all times.

  2. Increase accountability - it's easy to keep track of who's responsible for quality and how quickly decisions are made.

  3. Ensure the safety and integrity of your data.

  4. Provide a platform for the government to be re-invented and re-engineered.

  5. Encourage innovation by freeing up staff time and energy from inefficient processes.

  6. Transform the work culture and ethics of the federal government.

  7. Encourage more collaboration and effective knowledge management in the workplace.

Features of e-Office:

  1. eFile

  2. Knowledge Management System

  3. CAMS

  4. eLeave

  5. eTour


  7. PIMS

Q10) What are the benefits of conducting a stress audit? 6

Ans) The advantages of conducting a stress audit include using a diagnostic tool as a practical approach to stress management; identifying organisational and individual strengths and weaknesses to help the organisation focus on limited budgetary and time resources; providing a baseline measure to evaluate any subsequent interventions; and helping to raise awareness about stress-related issues in the workplace. However, the audit should be carried out by a designated group, such as a senior manager who has received stress management training.

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