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BPAS-186: Stress and Time Management

BPAS-186: Stress and Time Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BPAS-186 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Stress and Time Management, you have come to the right place. BPAS-186 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAG, BSCG, BAGS courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPAS-186/ASST /TMA / July 2022 & January 2023

Course Code: BPAS-186

Assignment Name: Stress and Time Management

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Assignment A


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. 2×20


1. ‘Positive time management style apportions adequate time for all the seven dimensions of life for success and happiness’. Comment.

Ans) Time management is life management, so it has a direct impact on whether or not one is happy or disappointed in life. Unhappiness is a given since bad time management inevitably results in bad life management. Contrarily, effective time management can increase enjoyment in life.


The Rainbow Life

Let's use the metaphor of the "Rainbow Life" to describe a full or comprehensive life. Seven colours make up a rainbow, which is a well-known fact. The seven dimensions of existence have also been listed above. After carefully evaluating each aspect's importance, a wise person devotes time to all seven of them. But first, let's consider what living a rainbow life means for time management. A balanced personality is thought to be a pleasant personality.


Seven Dimensions of Life

Physical Excellence: Regular meals, exercise, walking, rest, and sleep all require enough time. There should, as much as feasible, be a set time for various physical activity. Stress and burnout may result from working overtime at the expense of your health. Mahatma Gandhi was a strong supporter of engaging in physical activity on a regular basis.


Mental Excellence: The development of a person's mind and intellect needs to be given enough time. Everyone should make time each day to read uplifting, creative works of literature. Both the conscious and subconscious parts of the mind should be percolating with good thoughts. Therefore, it is necessary to think of good reading as a requirement for healthy mental development. Francis Bacon, a famous essayist, said that reading makes a man. Making time to read excellent books, philosophical texts, or any other purposeful publications or magazines is a really fulfilling activity.


Emotional and Behavioural Dimensions: Happiness is enhanced through cultivating good feelings including love, faith, hope, joy, and peacefulness. Introspection and pranayama, among other things, make this feasible. Through introspection, catharsis, and self-analysis, negative emotions like rage, wrath, envy, and fear must be gradually expelled from the psyche.


Religious life and Spiritual Development: In India, performing religious rituals including going to temples, reading the Bible, listening to devotional music, and visiting saints and gurus is fairly prevalent. Such actions, when conducted in a balanced way, promote mental calmness and enjoyment. In addition to the "ritual," there is also the "spiritual" aspect of life, which is aided by in-depth thought and meditation.


Familial facet: One must devote enough time to their family, which includes their parents, spouse, and kids. The same goes for other members of our extended family who require our assistance and company. The joys of family and job are the two greatest joys in life. Even in the working world, having a pleasant family life is a powerful drive for achievement.


Social Excellence: Around us, there are two types of people: those who depend on us and those who depend on us. Both are significant and demand our attention. However, one must avoid being either overly or underly social. Over-social people waste time and money, and under-social people miss out on the enjoyment of supportive relationships. A life of contentment is one with a healthy social life.


Professional Excellence: We devote a significant portion of our active lives to carrying out our professional obligations. In order to succeed at work, one must be effective, imaginative, dedicated, responsible, and responsive. Sound professionalism is built on a foundation of ethics and punctuality. Other professional activities that are related to the primary work and are crucial for overall professional development may also exist.

2. Examine the effect of stress on health and performance of an employee in an organisation.

Ans) Stress can have a negative impact on an employee's performance and health, which can also hurt a company's bottom line. If not addressed, employee stress can result in both short- and long-term issues that may ultimately lead to a company's failure. By getting familiar with the symptoms of employee stress and putting some straightforward solutions, like wellness programmes or efficiency studies, into place, managers and business owners may prevent the potentially detrimental organisational impacts of employee stress.


Employees who feel they are not being paid properly or who perceive a lack of respect from their co-workers or bosses may experience work-related stress. Stress might be brought on by too many regulations or a lack of opportunity for progress. Understaffing or managers that send emails on the weekends and at odd hours might result in increased responsibilities and less free time for workers to rest.


Employees could experience stress if they are not given a way to voice their complaints or if management consistently communicates poorly. Stress is common among employees who are micromanaged and lack the freedom to make their own judgments. Due to stressed employees, the organisation may incur a number of undesirable consequences. You might observe an increase in the number of times an employee gets angry or agitated quickly. He might start smoking more frequently or start consuming unhealthful meals, for example. The employee can exhibit an overall deterioration in performance and commit more errors. Frequently missing work or arriving late to work can also be signs of stress. As a result, your organisation may experience a significant fall in revenue, incomplete projects, unplaced orders, or poor customer service.


According to Premier Health, stress raises the production of the hormone cortisol, which can suppress the immune system and increase susceptibility to colds, the flu, and other infections. Numerous subpar work-product consequences might result from lengthy work hours and stress. Missed deadlines, work-related mistakes, a lack of imagination, etc. are a few examples. The National Institute of Mental Health claims that stress contributes to a number of health issues.


Examples include high blood pressure, upset stomach, ulcers, headaches, palpitations, exhaustion, sweating, changes in appetite, changes in weight, diarrhoea, nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and changes in blood pressure. Even if you get enough sleep, stress can make you feel exhausted all the time. It can also make it difficult for you to fall asleep at night. Your body's immune system may become weakened by poor emotional health, increasing your risk of getting the flu and other diseases. These medical conditions may increase employee absences from work, health insurance use, and workplace accidents.


Additionally, stress can lead to unproductive job habits, such as personality changes in workers, disdain for customers or co-workers, and intense rage against bosses. Employees may eventually start to flout safety protocols and corporate policies, endangering themselves and others at work. Personal problems that arise outside of work can also cause stress in employees. If clients decide not to visit your business as a result of ongoing exposure to the negative effects of staff stress, your company may experience a loss in revenue.


Small businesses may suffer immediate financial losses as a result of employee stress. Customer loss may result from poor customer service. Lack of focus can result in errors that must be corrected, such as improper shipments or material orders. Stress-related employee turnover costs money to replace, retrain, and bring up to speed. Fewer marketing, sales, operations, and product innovations can result from less creativity.

Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 3×10


3. Highlight the consequences of wasting time and benefits of time management.


Consequences of Wasting:


Today, we have technological tools to help us manage our time more effectively and even save time: e-mails are quicker than letters or trips between departments; conference calls are replacing meetings and travel; and calendars are shared by computers and mobile devices, the latter of which makes messages, whether they be texts or e-mails, accessible at anytime and anywhere and even stores the attachments.


You may have noticed that interruptions while working cause us to lose time and energy, but these technological advances also have drawbacks. Turn off your audio and visual email alerts if you need to concentrate on anything so you won't be tempted to answer straight away. Tell others around you that you won't be available at that time unless there is an actual emergency. A voicemail message is left on a mobile device that is in silent or off mode: you'll call back after your crucial assignment is accomplished. Additionally, genuine absolute crises are ultimately relatively uncommon in a firm, unless you are a firefighter or emergency medical technician.


Benefits of Managing Time: Simple time management benefits are available. Effective time management enables you to do more tasks in less time, which results in more time freedom, improves focus, boosts productivity, reduces stress, and increases time with the people who matter most to you. It's simpler to accomplish bigger outcomes and bigger goals quickly and effectively when you have good time management. The advantages of time management include increased productivity and effectiveness with fewer stress.


The benefits of effective time management at work allow you to work less and produce more effective outcomes. Your focus and productivity will rise with the use of efficient time management strategies. They also lessen procrastination and distractions. Being productively in charge of your time with effective time management. Additionally, it makes it easier for you to complete more of your critical tasks. Receive instant access to my time tracking worksheets when you subscribe to my Time For What Matters newsletter. Keep track of how your time is spent so you can adjust it in the future.


4. How time management can contribute to managing stress?

Ans) Time management lowers your stress level and boosts your self-assurance. Managing your schedule helps you feel less stressed and anxious. Planning your time and fulfilling deadlines are essential components of good time management. Organizing your schedule prevents overwhelm and makes sure you don't constantly feel exhausted. You can use the time you have more productively if you have good time management skills. By being more productive, you can prioritise your most critical tasks and stay on top of your to-do list. You feel more secure and clear about how to spend your time when you are less stressed. Stress reduction improves performance and improves sleep. Additionally, it aids in improving work-life balance. Make a move. Determine three stress-related factors that affect your capacity to manage your time.


A better work-life balance is among the most significant advantages of time management. You can be more productive at work and have more time for your most crucial connections if you manage your professional and personal lives effectively. A healthy work-life balance allows you to maintain a decent balance between your personal and professional lives. Working long hours increases your chances of burnout and chronic fatigue. Understanding the value of time is a crucial advantage of effective time management. You gain clarity on how to accomplish your objectives in less time at work so that you may spend more time with the people that matter at home. Read my work-life balance advice to learn how to effectively manage your time between work and home.


5. Discuss the effect of stress on relationships.

Ans) Life has its ups and downs which can heighten emotions, whether positively or negatively. These feelings of intense emotion will no doubt, touch on your closest relationships, especially with your partner. Although stress is common, it can be harmful for relationships. Oftentimes, people bottle up or keep their stress to themselves, which makes it difficult for their partners to understand what they are going through and to provide support.


Not dealing with stress can create a negative cycle where partners “catch” each other’s stress. This happens because stress is contagious – when our partners are stressed, we become stressed. Think back to an argument that escalated quickly. You might have “caught” one another’s stress during the argument, which made you both feel even more frazzled and made you say things you wouldn’t have otherwise said. Couples get stuck in this negative cycle and may be too stressed to deal with the underlying issue(s).


Stress can be Beneficial: Experiencing stress doesn’t necessarily mean your relationship is going to suffer. Rather, your perception of stress – such as seeing it as a challenge that you can overcome – is important. By viewing stress as an opportunity to share and open up with one another, relationships become stronger because couples learn how to navigate stress and build resources to better deal with future stress. Partners learn what they need from each other and show one another that they are cared for, valued and understood. Having a partner who is there for you and responds to your needs helps your body deal with stress better and makes stress feel less intense.


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. 5×6


6. Discuss Psychodynamic Theory.

Ans) Stress is explained by the psychodynamic theory as well. Freud discussed traumatic anxiety and signal anxiety. Traumatic anxiety is anxiety that occurs within an individual and is connected to the repressed sexual drives and aggressive instincts that are present in that individual. Signal anxiety is said to occur when an external and objective danger that is consistent with the relationship between stressor and strain is present. Anxiety after a traumatic event may result in psychopathology. Even while the conflicting concepts may eventually be transformed into neutral ones, the anxiety may still go through a process where this energy is transformed into symptoms that are physically uncomfortable for the person.


We can also talk about Levinson's explanation of stress, which is based on Freud's psychoanalytic theory. According to Levinson, stress is a result of the interaction between the two primary components of personality, ego ideal and self-image. Self-image refers to how a person sees themselves, whereas ego ideal can be defined as the manifestation of a person's ideal self. Therefore, stress is a result of the disconnect between one's ideal self and reality. Therefore, the main focus of this strategy is on how an individual's unconscious personality traits might cause stress.


7. Write a note on work-life imbalance.

Ans) Worker contributions, which depend on competence, attitude, and organisational loyalty, determine how well a job is performed by the numerous employees of a company. When a company gives its employees enough time for their requirements in terms of health, family, and happiness, their motivation rises. However, some businesses demand too much labour from their staff members without giving them enough time to take care of their own needs. The excessively impersonal bureaucratic approach has a negative impact on employees' motivation since they may feel "compelled" to work longer hours or even on holidays rather than taking initiative to do so.


Social psychologists around the world have noted, based on considerable study in organisational psychology, that employees who are unwell, exhausted, or mentally exhausted are unable to offer their organisations their best effort. The outcome of fatigue is subpar performance. The absence of harmony between the macro and micro levels is the cause of this element of bad time management.


8. What do you mean by procrastination?

Ans) Here, a brief mention of this key characteristic of ineffective time management would be appropriate. Procrastination is the simple term for "delaying action" or "postponing" an activity. The most prevalent time management flaw in underdeveloped nations is this one. Although people and organisations frequently put off difficult and complex jobs, there may be many more reasons why people put it off.

The following list includes some factors that cause procrastination:

  1. Humans are naturally lazy, whether in their personal or professional lives.

  2. the staff's inability to handle a specific assignment.

  3. tasks that the people executing them perceive as "unpleasant."

  4. Fear of failing to complete a risky endeavour.

  5. Fear of the unknown when performing novel and unfamiliar tasks

  6. Passing the buck, or giving others the blame, is a bad habit.

  7. repetitive tasks becoming cluttered and boring a work.

  8. Lack of determination or expertise on the part of the leadership and employees while dealing with challenging tasks.

  9. Information, money, and technical skills are in short supply.

  10. a lack of drive to do tasks.

  11. when persons who perform poorly rarely receive punishment.


9. Discuss the Equilibrium Approach to time management.

Ans) The method emphasises the importance of work-life balance in terms of how people manage their time. These are its primary worries:

  1. People need to make time for their physical well-being since that alone can provide them the vitality they need to live meaningful lives at home and at work. Exercises like yoga and walking improve one's physical wellness.

  2. The practise of breath-control (pranayama) should be scheduled into your daily schedule.

  3. People should enjoy reading and expanding their understanding of the surroundings in which they live and work.

  4. Positive living requires reading that is inspirational and upbeat.

  5. A balanced person's time management strategy should include prayer and meditation.

  6. Both in one's personal and professional life, a culture of inspiration and zeal should prevail. People should enjoy and get satisfaction from their employment.

  7. Stress should be handled with intelligence and composure.

  8. Avoid working too hard. There shouldn't be any employee burnout at the workplace.

  9. Friendships should be fostered during free time. Recent studies confirm that the best factors for happiness and lifespan are friendships.

  10. It is important to make time for social obligations like serving the underprivileged segments of society.

10. Enumerate the sources of workplace stress.

Ans) The following list includes some typical job stressors:

  1. High workloads: People are overworked and given improbable deadlines, which causes them to feel rushed, stressed out, and overwhelmed.

  2. Insufficient workloads: People may feel their abilities are being underutilised as a result of this. People may feel less secure in their employment as a result.

  3. No support: someone feeling alone due to a lack of social support or poor workplace relationships.

  4. Lack of skills: People who are asked to perform tasks for which they are unprepared or lack the necessary training.

  5. Adapting to change: Having trouble adjusting to a new promotion, both in terms of adjusting to the duties of the new role and adjusting to any changes in relationships with co-workers.

  6. Blame culture: Where people are reluctant to make mistakes or acknowledge their shortcomings.

  7. Weak or ineffective management: Employees are left with the impression that they lack direction as a result.

  8. Over-management: Employees may experience low self-esteem and a feeling of undervaluation as a result.

  9. Multiple reporting lines: Unclear lines of authority, with each manager requesting that their task be given first priority.


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