top of page
BPCC-101: Introduction to Psychology

BPCC-101: Introduction to Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPCC-101 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Introduction to Psychology, you have come to the right place. BPCC-101 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAPCH courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BPCC-101 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPCC-101 / Asst /TMA /2021-22

Course Code: BPCC-101

Assignment Name: Introduction To Psychology

Year: 2021 – 2022 (July 2021 & January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.

Assignment One

Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks. 3 x 20 = 60

Q1. Discuss the perception of depth and distance.

Ans) Depth perception refers to one’s visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions and thus enabling us to judge the distance of an object. Whereas the process by which we determine the distance of an object is known as distance perception. Our brain uses both monocular and binocular cues to judge depth and distance.

Monocular Cues

These are those information or cues that our brain receives from one eye only. These cues are weaker than binocular cues (information that our brain receives from both eyes) in strength. Following are some of the common monocular cues:

Relative Size

This cue gives us information about the distance of an object based on its relative size with a similar object. This cue works on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. The basic premise is that if two objects are of the approximately similar size, then the object which is closer is perceived as larger.

Texture Gradient

This cue is based on our perception of the change in the gradient or degree of texture. The texture of the objects which are nearer to our eyes are rough or distinct, but as you move further away from it, the texture of the object will become less distinct or smooth and thus suggesting the perception of more distance. For example, if you look at your wall of the room from 30 feet, it seems smoother, but if you look at the same wall from one foot, you can notice the details on the wall. This change in the texture correlates with the distance.

Arial Perspective or Haze

Objects are perceived at a distance if there is a presence of haze in the environment. Haze is the result of atmospheric dust particles, fog or water vapours. Sometimes perception of distance based on haze can be deceptive. The same mountain can be perceived as nearer or at distance depending on the presence of haze.

Linear Perspective

This cue is based on the convergence of straight lines at a point on the horizon. An appropriate example of this cue could be the perception of convergence of rail tracks at a distance. This cue suggests that closure the lines are; the greater will be the distance.


When two objects are overlapped, then the object which has been overlapped or obscured will be perceived as farther away than the overlapping object.


Even though this cue occurs with both eyes, it is still considered as a monocular cue. It is known as accommodation because the size of our lenses accommodates themselves based on the distance. Our lenses become thicker when an object lies closer to eyes while it becomes thinner when an object lies at a distance.

Binocular Cues

The cues that we receive from both eyes are known as binocular cues. These cues are more powerful than monocular cues. The process of gaining binocular cues to assess depth is known as stereopsis.

Following are two types of binocular cues:

  • Retinal Disparity

We humans have two eyes, separated by the distance of average 6.3 cm. Therefore, the retinal image of the same object differs slightly from each other. The closer an object is to eyes; greater will be the difference in its retinal image. Our brain analyses the degree of disparity between these two separate retinal images and produces a single image of the object to judge information on depth, height and width.

  • Convergence

Our eyes make an angle while focusing on an object, known as convergence angle. Convergence angle for distant and near-by objects are different. When an object is at a distance, our eyes make smaller convergence angle, but when an object is closer to our eyes, our eyeballs rotate inwards and form large convergence angle. This change in convergence gives a clue about distance and depth to the perceiver.

Q2. Elaborate upon the nature and scope of Psychology.

Ans) Parameswaran and Beena divide psychology into general psychology and differential psychology. The former studies generalities and similarities in behaviour, especially among normal adults, while the latter studies individual differences, observing, measuring, and explaining them. These two broad divisions evolved into sub-divisions of general and applied psychology.

The scope of psychology can therefore be discussed under the following sub fields:


Behavioural biology is a sub-field It is clear that psychology and biology are intertwined. All actions are bodily processes. The brain is vital in coordinating and organising the functions of the body's organs. It is the source of all complex behaviour. Genetics, the branch of biology that deals with the nature of inheritance of various qualities, is also an important psychological discipline. Geneticists have done extensive research on the role of heredity in determining behaviour. This is especially true for abnormal behaviours like neurosis, mental retardation, and psychosis. Studies on heredity have shown the importance of genes in determining intelligence. Chemical factors, particularly hormones secreted by endocrine glands, have recently been shown to play an important role in behaviour. Hormones from the endocrine glands influence emotional behaviour, temperament, etc.

Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive psychology studies how humans process information. Memory, thinking, problem solving, decision making, language, reasoning, and so on are all studied by cognitive psychologists.

Comparative Psychology

It compares and studies animal behaviour. So, some authors called this field animal psychology. These psychologists study animal behaviour to gather data that can be compared to human behaviour. To learn more about leadership, researchers can look into how the queen bee controls and directs the worker bees.

Cultural Psychology

The branch studies how culture, subculture, and ethnicity influence behaviour. These psychologists’ study cross-cultural behaviour and compare it across nations.

Experimental Psychology

Perception, learning, and motivation are all studied in this field. The main research method in this field is controlled experiments. Psychologists use other methods besides experimental, according to Morgan et al. For example, social psychologists may conduct studies to assess the impact of various group pressures on a person's behaviour. So, despite its name, experimental psychology is not distinguished by its method. Instead, experimental psychology studies the basic processes of learning, memory, thinking, sensation and perception, motivation, emotion, and the physiological or biological bases of certain behaviours.

Gender Psychology

This field studies gender roles and influences using research on both males and females. It examines the formation of gender identity and gender's role throughout life.

Learning Psychology

It studies how and why we learn. In this field, psychologists create learning theories and apply learning laws and principles to various human issues.

Personality Psychology

Personality psychology studies personality characteristics. Psychologists create personality theories and personality tests. They also identify the causes of personality development issues.

Physiological Psychology

Physiological psychologists study how our nervous systems and bodies affect everything we do, sense, feel, and think. Researchers study the brain, nervous system, and other physical origins of behaviour. Physiological psychology is a subset of neurobiology, which studies the nervous system and its functions.

Sensation and Perception Psychology

Field studies on sense organs and perception. This field of psychology studies sensation and develops theories about how perception or misperception (illusion) occurs. They look into depth perception, movement, and individual differences. This field of study has produced many laws and principles that help us understand how we adapt to the visual world.

Q3. Discuss the various functions and theories of emotions.

Ans) Various emotional theories have been discussed:

The James-Lange Theory

They proposed this theory. Physiological changes cause emotions, according to this theory. Emotions are a person's reaction to external events and situations causing bodily changes. When exposed to an external event or situation, a physiological reaction occurs. Emotional reactions are interpreted from physiological reactions. If a teacher catches a student playing a game in class, the student's heart rate will increase. This scares the student. Faces can thus amplify emotions.

The Cannon Bard Theory

Cannon and Bard proposed this idea. Anger and sadness are both caused by the same nerve stimulus. When an emotion-producing stimulus is perceived, a signal is sent to both the autonomic nervous system and the cerebral cortex. Recent research has highlighted the limbic and hypothalamic roles in emotion.

The Schachter- Singer Theory

Emotions are determined by nonspecific physiological arousal and its interpretation based on environmental cues, say Stanley Schachter and Jerome E. Singer. The theory states that people identify their emotions by comparing themselves to others. Schachter and Singer experimented on this hypothesis. For this study, 184 male college students were given vitamins in 1962. Participants were given either a placebo (water) or epinephrine (adrenalin). Ethinylphrine is a synthetic epinephrine that mimics the Quinine injections cause trembling, flushing, and rapid heartbeats.

The participants were subjected to one of the four conditions: Emotion

  1. Participants were randomly given epinephrine. [ADHD]

  2. Participants were given epinephrine and told about its effects. (Vitamin) Epinephrine was given to participants who were told they'd get headaches and numbness in their feet. Adrenalin Ignorance

  3. Placebo recipients. We put them in situations with confederates who acted either way. He was either happy or angry. Researchers wanted to know how participants felt about the confederates' actions.

Participants explained their physiological arousal by observing other people's behaviour and environmental cues. It advocates a cognitive view of emotions.

Opponent Process Theory

Repetition of a stimulus weakens the initial reaction while strengthening the opposing process. According to the theory, every action has a reaction in physics. The theory explains drug abuse. Beginning drug users may feel ecstatic. Repetition of drug use reduces pleasure and increases withdrawal symptoms. He or she now takes drugs to avoid the negative emotions that come with not taking drugs.

Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Emotion

He proposed it in 1970. Information is evaluated from multiple sources, including cognition. Emotions arise from assessing environmental and bodily information. An emotional action's possible consequences are also considered, as are past experiences and dispositions to react in a certain way. This theory says we should revisit the situation. Reappraisal also aids stress management. When a student is told they will be called by the college principal, they are nervous and wonder why. The principal choosing you for an educational trip abroad is a cause for celebration.

Assignment Two

Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks. 8 x 5 = 40

Q4. Theory of interference.

Ans) According to the theory of Interference, forgetting occurs due to interference with other memories. This interference can be of two types:

Proactive Interference (Pro=forward) - Forgetting of newly acquired information due to interference from previously learned information.

Retroactive Interference (Retro=backward) - Forgetting of previously stored information due to the learning of new information.

Trace Decay Theory

Trace decay theory proposes that learning causes changes in the central nervous system that result in memory traces-physical changes in the brain. Memory traces fade away when not used for a long time, leading to forgetting.

Cue-Dependent Forgetting Theory

This theory states that forgetting can occur due to a lack of or poor cue. Assume you were given a shopping list. You misplaced the list. You are now trying to recall all the items from the list, but you may forget many.

Q5. Observational learning.

Ans) Observational learning, method of learning that consists of observing and modelling another individual’s behaviour, attitudes, or emotional expressions. Although it is commonly believed that the observer will copy the model, American psychologist Albert Bandura stressed that individuals may simply learn from the behaviour rather than imitate it. Observational learning is a major component of Bandura’s social learning theory. He also emphasized that four conditions were necessary in any form of observing and modelling behaviour: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation.

Also known as shaping and modelling, observational learning is most common in children as they imitate behaviours of adults. Especially in young children. A child may learn to swear or smoke cigarettes by watching adults. They are continually learning through observation, whether the target behaviour is desirable or not.

Q6. Process of thinking.

Ans) Thinking is a higher mental process. We use mental images, concepts, and prepositions in the process of thinking. Creativity is a type of thinking which involves creating original and novel ideas. Studies have suggested that people, who are high on divergent thinking, are more creative. The process of creative thinking involves four stages: preparation, incubation, insight, and verification.

Thinking, also known as ‘cognition’, refers to the ability to process information, hold attention, store and retrieve memories and select appropriate responses and actions. The ability to understand other people and express oneself to others can also be categorised under thinking. Thinking is essential for interacting with a product, as the user needs to process the information from the product interface and decide what to do. Many different aspects of thinking may be involved.

Q7. Types of illusion.

Ans) For over a century, psychologists have studied perception. The most studied perceptual systems are vision and hearing, but others include smell, taste, movement, balance, touch, and pain. Perception scientists design experiments, study neurological patients with damaged brain regions, and create perceptual illusions that toy with the brain's efforts to interpret the sensory world to study these systems.

It's been a long-standing tradition in psychology to create and test perceptual illusions, especially visual illusions. Visual illusions are often dismissed as harmless entertainment. Perception scientists create illusions based on their knowledge of the perceptual system. Once a successful illusion is created, scientists can investigate what people feel, what parts of the brain are involved in interpretation, and what variables increase or decrease the illusion's strength.

Q8. Factors affecting perception.

Ans) Perception refers to the ways in which a person experiences the world. Perception is the process by which people organize, interpret and experiences the ideas. This process of perception helps us to manage noises, sights, smells, tastes received from the environment and give a meaning to them. Perception is a process that includes both a selection and organizing mechanism. Perceptions vary from person to person. Different people perceive different thing about the same situation differently. But more than that we assign different meanings to what we perceive, and the meanings might change one’s perspective or simply make things mean something else.

Q9. Nature and characteristics of behaviour.

Ans) Psychologists define behaviour as everything a person or animal does that can be observed. It includes all actions and responses that can be measured directly or indirectly. A person's behaviour can be measured indirectly by listening to what they say (vocal behaviour) and how they react to various problems and situations.

These include biological, cultural, social, and environmental influences on behaviour as well as past experiences. Simple actions like picking up a pen or waving at a friend can be considered behaviour. Other habits include playing the guitar, cycling, etc. Other behaviours are more complex, like fixing a car. Complex actions include landing on the moon, flying a fighter plane, and rock climbing.

The General Characteristics of Behaviour are :

  1. Behaviour is influenced by a number of factors

  2. Behaviour varies in complexity

  3. The factors influencing behaviour are of different kinds

  4. Individual differences

  5. Behaviour also shows similarities

  6. Behaviour is always purposeful and goal directive

  7. Behaviour is changeable to a large extent

  8. Behaviour also shows stability

  9. Behaviour is integrated.

Q10. Cognitive learning.

Ans) Since both humans and animals possess brain, therefore learning without higher mental processes is not possible. Learning based on cognitive processes is known as cognitive learning. There are two prominent forms of cognitive learning: latent learning and insight learning.

Latent Learning

Latent learning is a form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response. It occurs without any obvious reinforcement of the behaviour or associations that are learned. Latent learning is not readily apparent to the researcher because it is not shown behaviourally until there is sufficient motivation.

Insight Learning

Insight, in learning theory, immediate and clear learning or understanding that takes place without overt trial-and-error testing. Insight occurs in human learning when people recognize relationships (or make novel associations between objects or actions) that can help them solve new problems.

Q11. Cognitive error in decision making.

Ans) A cognitive bias is a flaw in your reasoning that leads you to misinterpret information from the world around you and to come to an inaccurate conclusion. Because you are flooded with information from millions of sources throughout the day, your brain develops ranking systems to decide which information deserves your attention and which information is important enough to store in memory. It also creates shortcuts meant to cut down on the time it takes for you to process information. The problem is that the shortcuts and ranking systems aren’t always perfectly objective because their architecture is uniquely adapted to your life experiences.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page