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BPCC-101: Introduction to Psychology

BPCC-101: Introduction to Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: BPCC-101/Asst /TMA /2022-23

Course Code: BPCC-101

Assignment Name: Introduction to Psychology

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Assignment One


Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks. 3 x 20 = 60


1. Discuss the nature, types and theories of motivation.

Ans) Motivation is a reason for actions, willingness, and goals. Motivation is derived from the word ‘motive’, or a need that requires satisfaction. These needs, wants or desires may be acquired through influence of culture, society, lifestyle, or may be generally innate.


Nature of Motivation

Motivation is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a person. A person lacks some needs, which makes him satisfied that he works more. The need to satisfy the ego motivates a person to do better in general.

  1. Motivation is an inner feeling that makes a person excited to do more work.

  2. A person’s feelings or desires motivate him to perform a particular task.

  3. A person has unsatisfying needs that impair his balance.

  4. A person proceeds to fulfil his dissatisfied needs by conditioning his energies.

  5. A person has passive energies that are activated by channelling in actions.


Types of Motivation

When a manager wants to take more work from his subordinates, he has to be motivated to improve his performance. They will either be offered incentives for more work, or they may be in place of rewards, better reports, recognition, etc., or they may instil fear in them or use force to achieve the desired task.  The following are the types of motivation:


Positive motivation: Positive motivation is based on reward. Workers are offered incentives to achieve desired goals. Incentives may be in the form of higher salaries, promotions, recognition of work, etc. Employees are offered incentives and seek to improve their performance voluntarily.


According to Peter Drucker, genuine and positive motivators are responsible for placement, high levels of performance, sufficient information for self-control, and worker involvement as a responsible citizen in the plant community. Positive motivation comes from the support of employees and they feel happy.


Negative motivation: Negative or fear is based on motivation or fear. Fear causes employees to act a certain way. In case, they do not act accordingly then they can be punished with demotion or take-off. Fear acts as a pushing mechanism. Employees do not cooperate voluntarily; instead, they want to avoid punishment. Although employees work to a level where punishment is avoided, this type of motivation leads to anger and frustration. This type of motivation usually becomes the cause of industrial unrest.


Theories of Motivation

Incentive Theories: These theories may also be referred to as "pull" hypotheses. According to these beliefs, motivation results from a desire to obtain rewards or incentives from the outside world. A child might be motivated to do their homework on time by receiving a chocolate, for instance, even if they are not genuinely hungry. Although these ideas cannot explain why a person can want to satisfy some wants even in the absence of rewards.


Cognitive Approaches to Motivation: According to this method, a person's thoughts, beliefs, expectations, and ambitions determine their motivation. A student will be motivated to prepare for an exam based on whether they believe that studying will help them achieve high exam scores. The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, which was covered in-depth under forms of motivation, is also made with the aid of this theory. People who are intrinsically motivated as opposed to extrinsically motivated are more inclined to put effort into an activity or work toward a certain goal.


Alderfer’s ERG Theory: The Existence, Relatedness, and Growth hypothesis by Alderfer is comparable to the idea put forth by Maslow, although it emphasises three levels rather than five. The existence needs are the most fundamental needs, relating to physiological and safety demands, and are located at the bottom of the hierarchy.


2. Elaborate upon the nature, types and models of memory.

Ans) Memory is tricky because it has mysterious nature.


Nature and Scope of Memory

Memory refers to the ability to retain information and reproducing it over a period of time when required to perform a cognitive task. It has been conceptualised as a process comprised of three stages; encoding, storage, and retrieval. All information received by our senses goes through these stages.

  1. Encoding: It is the process of converting sensory information into a form that can be processed further by the memory systems.

  2. Storage: In this second stage, received information from memory systems are stored so that it can be used at a later time also.

  3. Retrieval: It refers to locating and bringing the stored material information to one’s awareness when required to complete a task.


Types of Memory

There is no single region in the brain responsible for memory, instead different parts of the brain are responsible for memories of different types


Declarative or Explicit Memory: It refers to that memory system which can be controlled consciously and for which we are aware of in some form. It involves effort and intention, and it generally declines with the age. Recalling the name of a friend, remembering a contact number or ATM pin involves declarative memory. Following are its three subsystems 

  1. Working memory.

  2. Semantic memory.

  3. Episodic memory.


Non-declarative or Implicit Memory:: That system of memory for which we pose no awareness. It works unconsciously and without any efforts and intentions. It is unaffected by aging. Following are its three forms:

  1. Priming.

  2. Conditioning.

  3. Motor/Procedural memory.

Sensory Memory: Sensory memory, which is also known as ‘fleeting memory’ sometimes, is closely related to the process of perception. It is responsible for keeping a record of our percept for a very brief period of time. It is important to note here that our sensory register works as a memory system. The information from the environment first reaches sensory memory and if required attention is given to the information, it moves to other memory systems. It can store information only for 200-500 milliseconds.


Models of Memory

The Traditional Model of Memory: Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed a model for memory, known as “Stage model of memory” or “Modal model”. This model is greatly influenced by the working of the computer. If you ever had use computers, you must be aware of two types of memory used by it; RAM and ROM or memory available in the computer in the form of hard drive. RAM is the memory that you use while performing a task at hand whereas ROM is that part of memory where you can save all types of files as it has a vast storage capacity.


The Levels-of-Processing Model: This model refutes the claim of the Atkinson and Shiffrin model that memory consists of the different subsystem. According to the model of the levels of processing, whether the information will be retrieved successfully or not depends on its level of processing. LOP refers to the level at which information has been encoded.


An Integrative Model: Working Memory: The concept of STM propounded by Atkinson and Shiffrin was very narrow. They considered STM only as a short-term memory storehouse but later studies disapproved it. Later studies suggested that STM is dynamic in nature i.e., it works not just as a storehouse of information but also responsible for manipulation of incoming information for the completion of a cognitive task.


3. Discuss the nature and scope of psychology.

Ans) Psychology is a science that examines how people behave in relation to circumstances and other people.


Nature of Psychology

  1. It is scientific and systematic.

  2. Emphasis on search for truth.

  3. Believe in cause and effort relationship.

  4. Stand for the generalization of the observed result.

  5. Help in predicting the future development.


Scope of Psychology

The field of psychology can be understood by various subfields of psychology making an attempt in meeting the goals of psychology.


Physiological Psychology: In the most fundamental sense, human beings are biological organisms. Physiological functions and the structure of our body work together to influence our behaviour. Biopsychology is the branch that specializes in the area. Bio-psychologists may examine the ways in which specific sites in the brain which are related to disorders such as Parkinson’s disease or they may try to determine how our sensations are related to our behaviour.


Developmental Psychology: Here the studies are with respect to how people grow and change throughout their life from prenatal stages, through childhood, adulthood and old age. Developmental psychologists work in a variety of settings like colleges, schools, healthcare centres, business centres, government and non-profit organizations, etc.


Personality Psychology: This branch helps to explain both consistency and change in a person’s behaviour over time, from birth till the end of life through the influence of parents, siblings, playmates, school, society and culture. It also studies the individual traits that differentiate the behaviour of one person from that of another person.

Health Psychology: This explores the relations between the psychological factors and physical ailments and disease. Health psychologists focus on health maintenance and promotion of behaviour related to good health such as exercise, health habits and discouraging unhealthy behaviours like smoking, drug abuse and alcoholism.


Clinical Psychology: It deals with the assessment and intervention of abnormal behaviour. As some observe and believe that psychological disorders arise from a person’s unresolved conflicts and unconscious motives, others maintain that some of these patterns are merely learned responses, which can be unlearned with training, still others are contend with the knowledge of thinking that there are biological basis to certain psychological disorders, especially the more serious ones.


Counselling Psychology: This focuses primarily on educational, social and career adjustment problems. Counselling psychologists advise students on effective study habits and the kinds of job they might be best suited for, and provide help concerned with mild problems of social nature and strengthen healthy lifestyle, economical and emotional adjustments.


Educational Psychology: Educational psychologists are concerned with all the concepts of education. This includes the study of motivation, intelligence, personality, use of rewards and punishments, size of the class, expectations, the personality traits and the effectiveness of the teacher, the student-teacher relationship, the attitudes, etc. It is also concerned with designing tests to evaluate student performance.


Social Psychology: This studies the effect of society on the thoughts, feelings and actions of people. Our behaviour is not only the result of just our personality and predisposition. Social and environmental factors affect the way we think, say and do. Social psychologists conduct experiments to determine the effects of various groups, group pressures and influence on behaviour.


Industrial and Organizational Psychology: The private and public organizations apply psychology to management and employee training, supervision of personnel, improve communication within the organization, counselling employees and reduce industrial disputes.


Sports and Exercise Psychology: It studies the role of motivation in sport, social aspects of sport and physiological issues like importance of training on muscle development, the coordination between eye and hand, the muscular coordination in track and field, swimming and gymnastics.


Assignment Two


Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks. 8 x 5 = 40


4. Manifestation and Measurement of Emotions

Ans) Emotions take place in a social environment that includes family, friends, and culture. As a result, a person's social interactions have an impact on both their positive and negative emotions. Additionally, as social stimuli can elicit emotions in a person, emotions can have an impact on how that person interacts with others. It's crucial to understand that experiencing emotions differs from expressing them because the latter is typically a subjective experience. The expressing of emotions is an important part of social interaction, and each culture has its own set of standards for how emotions should be expressed. Emotion regulation must be covered when the topic of emotion manifestation comes up. The term "cognitive and behavioural attempts people make to alter their emotions" refers to emotion management. In some instances, a person may be unable to communicate their emotions, whereas in others, they may do so without restriction.


5. Decision Making.

Ans) Every day, we have to make decisions about priorities and alternatives, from what to wear to the party to what book to read. Decision-making is the cognitive process that you employ to weigh your options and make a decision. As a result, we may argue that decision-making is a form of problem-solving behaviour in which you must select between options after being aware of all the potential solutions.


The following six steps are said to be included in our decision-making process by psychologists:

  1. Detecting the issue.

  2. Alternatives creation.

  3. Considering Alternatives

  4. Selecting a Different Option.

  5. The decision's implementation.

  6. Assessing the effectiveness of decisions.


6. Laws of Organization: Gestalt Principles.

Ans) Gestalt principle was a new theory of perception presented by three German psychologists, Max Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Koffka, around the beginning of the 20th century. These psychologists contend that the process of perception involves our propensity to look for a form or pattern in it rather than experiencing a variety of stimuli as an object. Gestalt means form or configuration in its literal sense. The fundamental tenet of Gestalt psychology is that "the whole is not the sum of its parts." Gestalt psychologists developed a number of rules or laws based on this fundamental tenet to describe the process of perceptual organisation, or how we see tiny sensory units as a whole with a specific pattern.

7. Monocular Cues.

Ans) These are the cues or information that only one eye sends to our brain. These are typical monocular cues:

  1. Relative Size: This cue tells us how far away an object is based on how big it is in comparison to another object of a comparable size.

  2. Texture Gradient: When an object is closer to our eyes, its texture is rougher or more prominent; but, as you get farther away, its texture becomes smoother or less distinct, giving the impression that the thing is farther away.

  3. Arial Perspective or Haze: Fog, water vapour, or dust particles in the atmosphere can all cause haze. Haze-based distance perception can occasionally be misleading.

  4. Linear Perspective: This cue is based on a location on the horizon where two straight lines converge. The perception of distant train tracks convergent is an illustration of this cue.

  5. Interposition/Occlusion: The object that has been covered up or concealed when two objects overlap will appear to be farther away than the overlapping object.

  6. Accommodation: Despite the fact that this cue involves both eyes, it is nevertheless regarded as a monocular cue. Accommodation refers to how our lenses adjust their size based on distance, which is why it is called that.


8. Stages of Perception.

Ans) The stages of perception as well as the variables that influence these levels.


Stage I: Selection

"Selection" is the first phase of perception. Because of its limited storage space, our brain cannot process all stimuli. Some stimuli are subconsciously or consciously chosen while others are ignored. The "attended stimulus" is the chosen stimulus.


Stage II: Organization

At this point, the stimuli are mentally organised into a meaningful pattern. This action takes place subconsciously. To explain the organisation process, several different principles have been put forth. The Gestalt organisational principles are covered in Section 2.4. It will assist you in comprehending how people ordinarily arrange stimuli to form a meaningful pattern and subsequently an interpretation.


Stage III: Interpretation

The ordered stimuli are given significance in the last stage. One's experiences, expectations, needs, beliefs, and other elements all have a role in how they interpret the stimulus. As a result, this stage is subjective in character, and different people may interpret the same stimuli in various ways.

9. Psychology: As a Science.

Ans) The definition of psychology is "the science of behaviour."


  2. A systematic body of information derived from meticulously monitoring and measuring phenomena is known as science.

  3. An approach to understanding that is founded on methodical observation is called science.


Science's main objective is to categorise, comprehend, and unite the things and phenomena that exist in the physical universe. Scientists work to comprehend the laws that underlie all levels of the natural universe by combining precise observation and experimentation, reason and intuition.


10. Cognitive learning.

Ans) Numerous psychologists suggested that it is inappropriate to explain learning behaviour using a straightforward stimulus-response link. It is impossible to learn without higher mental processes because both humans and animals have brains. Cognitive learning refers to learning based on cognitive processes. Latent learning and insight learning are the two most common types of cognitive learning. The prominent advocate of latent learning was Tolman. He was a behaviourist, but in contrast to others, he recognised the importance of cognition in learning. Insight learning is a term coined by Wolfgang Kohler, one of the pioneers of Gestalt psychology, to describe the epiphany of a solution to a problem.


11. Language in Infants.

Ans) Speech perception in Infancy: The ability to distinguish between the smallest sound units, or phonemes, of their language, marks the beginning of the language learning stage. According to studies, babies are highly good at recognising variations between phonemes in addition to phonemes themselves.


Language Comprehension in Infancy: Studies have been conducted that indicate babies as young as four to five months may move their heads in the direction of the speaker of their name, indicating that they are able to remember it. By the time they are six months old, most kids can recognise their name. By the time they are 10 to 12 months old, they can recognise words like "bottle," "mama," and "doggie."


Language Production in Infancy: By the age of two months, babies start making one-vowel cooing noises as their intentional vocalisation. Babbling begins in infants between the ages of six and eight months. Infants also communicate through a variety of gestures. Around 6 to 9 months, infants start shaking their heads "no," and between 9 and 12 months, they start responding to verbal cues like "wave bye-bye" or "blow a kiss."

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