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BPCC-103: Psychology of Individual Differences

BPCC-103: Psychology of Individual Differences

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: BPCC-103/ASST/TMA /2021-22

Course Code: BPCC-103

Assignment Name: Psychology Of Individual Differences

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.

Assignment One

Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks. 3 x 20 = 60

Q 1) Discuss the trait theories of personality.

Ans) Trait Theories of Personality

Trait theories characterise personality in terms of different traits, which correspond to cognitive, emotion, and behaviour inclinations or patterns. As a result, people's personality traits differ. Over time and in many contexts, traits are relatively stable and constant. The trait approach emphasises how individuals differ in various attributes, such as your sociability against your sister's shyness. Your close friend may be anxious all of the time, while you remain calm. Traits go from one extreme to the other on a scale of one to ten. However, the vast majority of people lie somewhere in the middle of the trait's spectrum.

Traits, according to Allport, are crucial to understanding personality. He categorises qualities into three categories: cardinal, central, and secondary features, based on how widespread they are in a person's personality. Cardinal qualities are the most common, and they include a wide range of additional traits. Cardinal qualities can explain a lot of things about a person's behaviour and personality. Central qualities are less ubiquitous than cardinal features, yet they nonetheless correspond to an individual's generalised tendencies. These characteristics can be seen in the individual. Secondary characteristics are less generalised and cannot be viewed directly or publicly. These are also less significant to an individual's personality. We become aware of secondary features, such as one's interests, eating habits, etc., when we know and engage with another person frequently and intimately.

Five Factor Theory

Another important theory, known as the Big Five or The Five-Factor Theory, focused on five core personality traits denoted by the abbreviation OCEAN (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism). Intellectual, imaginative, analytical, artistic, and creative attributes all fall under the umbrella of openness. Being conscientious entails being cautious, thoughtful, and well-organized. Paying attention to details, planning, goal-directed behaviour, and impulse control are all examples. Extraversion encompasses characteristics such as friendliness, energy, excitability,

gregariousness, and assertiveness. There is a lot of emotional expression. Trustworthiness,

helpfulness, kindness, affection, prosocial and altruistic behaviour are all examples of agreeableness.

Anxiety, moodiness, and irritability are all characteristics of neuroticism. Emotional stability is a problem. Each of these five features is a higher-order attribute made up of a number of interconnected lower-order traits. Personality traits, according to the five-component theory, represent an individual's underlying tendencies, underlining a hereditary or biological basis for personality. The interaction of these underlying characteristics with external circumstances has an impact on our personality development. The Big Five idea has been extensively researched across cultures, with data demonstrating its ability to predict a wide range of behaviours.

Biological Trait Theory

Eysenck proposed the biological trait theory, which emphasises our personality's biological foundation. In contrast to Cattell's 16 traits, his theory suggests that personality is made up of three dimensions or super-traits, often known as types, that can describe personality. Introversion-extraversion, emotional stability-neuroticism, and low constraint-high constraint are the qualities in question. Psychoticism was the previous name for the last dimension. This personality trait is similar to the Big Five personality trait of extraversion. Emotional stability refers to a person's capacity to maintain constancy in their moods and emotions. Neuroticism, on the other hand, is a dimension in the Big Five that refers to being more emotional, tense, worried, and moody. The ability to regulate impulses is referred to as the constraint trait, which is analogous to the Big Five's conscientiousness feature.

Q 2) Explain the features of group testing and its significance. Give examples of group intelligence tests.

Ans) A group test, as opposed to individual intelligence exams, is one that can be given to multiple people at the same time. As a result, a group intelligence test allows us to rapidly and efficiently assess the IQ of a large number of people, possibly hundreds at a time.

Features of Group Tests as different from Individual Tests

Multiple-choice versus open-ended format

Although early group examinations employed open-ended questions that required free responses, most group assessments now use multiple-choice items. This adjustment in format has ensured that scoring is consistent and objective.

Quick and objective machine scoring versus examiner scoring

Scoring takes less time since multiple-choice items are employed, and scoring templates are used. When using an optical scanning device, even scoring can be done much faster. Examiner errors and halo effects that might occur when assessing individual tests are eliminated with computer scoring.

Group versus individualized administration

The examiner just reads the instructions and maintains the time limitations while delivering a group test. As a result, her/his job is minimal, with no opportunity for one-on-one connection. Examiner rapport is critical in the administration of individual tests. The examiner must be qualified and experienced in the field of training.

Control of item difficulty

There are frequently entry and exit rules in independently conducted tests. These principles are followed by the examiner to guarantee that the test taker takes the things that are appropriate for her or his ability level. There are no such starting and stopping regulations in the group tests.


Screening vs. diagnosis and treatment options Group intelligence exams are frequently used to examine candidates for a certain course or career. Individual intelligence tests, on the other hand, are used to diagnose and plan remediation for children with learning disabilities.

Examples of Group Intelligence Tests

Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB)

The WAIS-paper-pencil R's equivalent is the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery. This test, like the WAIS-R, has ten subtests as well as Verbal, Performance, and Full-Scale IQs. It is suitable for adults aged 16 to 74 years. The psychometric features of the WAIS-R are comparable.

Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT)

The Cognitive Abilities Test is a standardised, norm-referenced group-administered test. The CogAT is a multilevel battery made up of overlapping tests. For kids in kindergarten through grade three, there are two levels, and for students in grades three through twelve, there are eight levels. There are distinct sets of objects for each level. However, neighbouring levels share some content. Because test materials overlap, proper assessment of pupils at both ends of the spectrum (i.e., poor and intelligent students) is possible.

Culture Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT)

The Culture Fair Intelligence Test is a nonverbal test that evaluates fluid intelligence. There are three scales in the CFIT: Scale 1 is for mentally impaired adults and children aged four to eight years old, whereas Scale 2 is for adults of average intelligence and children aged eight to thirteen years old. The Scale 3 is given to high school and college students, as well as individuals with exceptional abilities.

Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM)

Raven's Progressive Matrices is a nonverbal inductive reasoning exam that was first developed to determine Spearman's g factor. g is defined by Spearman as the "education of correlates." Raven created three different instruments: Coloured Progressive Matrices for children aged five to eleven, Standard Progressive Matrices for people aged six to eighty, and Advanced Progressive Matrices for adults and adolescents with high intelligence. Despite the fact that the three forms of the test appear to be similar, the tactics necessary to solve the problem in each form are distinct.

Individually or in groups, the test can be given. The reliability coefficients for typical adults and teenagers in their late teens range from.80 to.90. RPM, on the other hand, is insufficiently reliable for extremely young children. The exam has a lower predictive validity against academic criteria than traditional verbal intelligence tests.

Q 3) Explain the concept of creativity and discuss the various theoretical perspectives on creativity.

Ans) The term "creativity" has been defined and described in a variety of ways. It is the ability to produce or come up with innovative ideas and possibilities. To arrive at a solution, it necessitates thinking in novel and creative methods. As a result, creativity necessitates uniqueness, yet originality does not always imply creativity.

Thus, creativity can be viewed (a) from the perspective of the creator, (b) in terms of mental and emotional processes like perception, motivation, learning, thinking, and communication, and (c) in terms of its outputs like innovations, theories, poetry, and paintings.

Theoretical perspectives on creativity

Various theoretical views have tackled creativity in different ways:

Psychoanalytic approach

Freud's psychoanalytic perspective regards creativity as the sublimation of urges or the fulfilment of wishes. It's talked about in the context of daydreams and games. Unconscious processes, according to Freud (1958), play a significant part in creativity. He emphasises protection mechanisms, especially ‘sublimation,' which leads to creative expressions.

Behaviouristic approach

The behavioural approach to creativity focuses on making new or innovative correlations and connections between inputs and reactions. Creative thinking is exemplified through insightful learning. Learning new associations aids in the acquisition of new information or the development of creative thinking. Thus, in accordance with behaviouristic ideas, creativity is defined as overt and observable behaviour.

Cognitive approach

The cognitive approach emphasises the importance of cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and learning flexibility in creativity. According to research, broader attention allows people to take in a larger range of stimuli and memory traces than concentrated attention, which aids creativity. The relevance of divergent thinking in creative ideas is also highlighted by the cognitive approach. It's based on Guilford's investigation into the disparate production of ideas and goods.

Humanistic approach

According to Maslow's theory of self-actualization, the humanistic approach examines creativity in terms of self-actualization. The self-actualizing inclinations of human behaviour reflect creativity. This viewpoint is linked to the small c's inventiveness.

Three inner conditions for creativity have been established by him: (a) extensionality: openness to experience, tolerance for ambiguity, and a lack of rigidity; (b) an internal locus of evaluation in relation to one's own performance: they do not use others' judgments or criticisms as a motivating force, but rather their own inner satisfaction from engaging in creative work; and (c) the ability to play (or toy with elements).

Differential approaches

Differential approaches to creativity concentrate on the four Ps of creativity: people, process, product, and press. They describe creativity as "the interaction of aptitude, process, and environment through which an individual or group generates a detectable output that is both original and beneficial as defined in a social context." The four dimensions of creativity, namely the person, process, product, and press, are included in this definition (environment).

  1. The person approach to creativity focuses on the personality traits of the person relevant

    for creative behaviour.

  2. The process approach refers to the mechanisms through which creativity occurs. It

    focuses mainly on the cognitive mechanisms underlying creative thinking and behaviour,

  3. The product approach to creativity puts emphasis on the final creative product which

    the individual has arrived at. It tries to identify the criteria or characteristic features of a

    creative product.

  4. The press approach focuses on the situation or the context in which the creative person

    and the creative process operate, and the creative product is generated.

Assignment Two

Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks. 8 x 5 = 40

Q 4) Discuss the relationship between creativity and intelligence.

Ans) The ability to acquire and apply knowledge is how intelligence is traditionally characterised. In testing situations, one's capacity to use historical information is used to determine one's Intelligence Quotient (IQ). High intelligence does not ensure creativity, but it does require a certain level of intelligence to be creative. As a result, a high level of creativity necessitates above-average intelligence.

The ability to come up with new ideas through a mental process of connecting existing notions is referred to as creativity. The ideas don't have to be revolutionary (a common misperception about creative thinking), but they do have to be novel to the thinker.

Q 5) Explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

Ans) Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a psychological motivational theory that consists of a five-tier model of human wants, which is sometimes shown as hierarchical tiers within a pyramid. Physiological, safety, love and belonging needs, esteem, and self-actualization are the needs from the bottom of the hierarchy up. Individuals must attend to lower-level demands before they can attend to higher-level requirements. There are two types of needs in this five-stage model: deficit and growth. Deficiency needs (D-needs) correspond to the first four levels, whereas growth or being needs refers to the highest level (B-needs). Deficiency needs emerge as a result of deprivation, and they are said to motivate people when they are not met. Furthermore, the longer such wants go unmet, the stronger the drive to meet them becomes.

Q 6) What are the types of motivation?

Ans) Motivation can be divided into two categories, which are discussed below:

Primary and Secondary Motivation

Primary motivation, also known as basic motivation, is concerned with basic requirements such as food, thirst, sleep, sex, pain avoidance, and so on. These factors primarily influence an individual's behaviour on a fundamental level, and they are also linked to the basic urge for self-preservation. Secondary motivation is also known as learned motivation, and it varies from person to person.

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic motivation is defined as "inspiration that comes from outside the person and usually consists of prizes and compliments." These types of motivators bring satisfaction/pleasure that activities/tasks alone may not be able to provide. As a result, these motivators persuade the individual to do something they might not otherwise accomplish.

Q 7) Differentiate between ‘Aham’ and ‘Ahamkara’.

Ans) The name ahamkra is derived from the Sanskrit word aham, which is the English counterpart of me. The word Aham, which means 'I,' is frequently misunderstood. It is merely 'I' when we say Aham, not Ego. AhamkAra is made up of the terms 'aham' and 'kara,' with aham meaning 'I' and kara meaning 'doer.' As a result, the phrase ahamkAra literally means "I am a doer."

In Sanskrit, ahamkar or ahamkara literally means the form of the self-sense (aham) or the self-deeds. sense's If 'kara' is used in the sense of form (as in akaram), the former meaning applies, and if it is used to signify acts, the latter applies. As a result, egoism is commonly used to refer to egoism or a sense of individuality.

Q 8) Define consciousness and point out the states of consciousness.

Ans) Your individual awareness of your own ideas, memories, feelings, sensations, and environments is referred to as consciousness. Consciousness is defined as your awareness of yourself and the world around you.

Only three states are recognised in current psychology:

  1. We normally recognise ourselves in the waking state as seeing a world that is outside through our sensory organs and interpreting it with the help of memory and logic.

  2. Both sensory awareness from outside and mental activities cease to operate in the dream state, leaving us with a sense of serenity and rest.

  3. We may lose our sense of conscious identification as Mr. X or Ms. Y. to varying degrees during sleeping. Even still, the I-feeling as the same person endures from one day to the next as we wake up.

Q 9) Define aptitude and differentiate it from achievement.

Ans) A component of competence is the ability to accomplish a specific type of task at a specific level. "Talent" is defined as exceptional ability. Physical or cerebral aptitudes are both possible. Aptitude is the inborn ability to perform specific tasks, whether developed or underdeveloped. Aptitude differs from skills and achievement in that aptitude is intrinsic, but skills and achievement represent knowledge or ability acquired via learning.

Achievement and aptitude are not the same thing. What a person has already accomplished is referred to as achievement. It evaluates knowledge that you have already acquired. As a result, achievement might relate to your current performance in a subject (for example, mathematics) that you have already learned through training.

Q 10) Discuss the issues in intelligence testing.

Ans) Some of the challenges that come up when it comes to intelligence testing:

  1. There is a problem with intelligence testing classifying a child based on the results. If a child fails an intelligence test, he or she may be regarded as dumb or incompetent. The youngster may suffer more harm than good as a result of the misuse of cognitive testing.

  2. It has been pointed out that IQ tests evaluate elements other than intelligence, such as environmental influences, which jeopardises their accuracy.

  3. Some critics say that most intelligence tests are prejudiced against certain groups, especially those who do not fit into mainstream Western culture.

  4. The sensitivity, accuracy, and predictive utility of intelligence testing for new-borns and pre-schoolers have also been questioned.

Q 11) Explain the three types of intelligence as given by Sternberg.

Ans) Practical, creative, and analytical intelligence are the three categories of intelligence identified by Robert Sternberg's thesis. "Street smarts" is a term used to describe practical intelligence. Being practical involves utilising knowledge based on your experiences to discover solutions that work in your daily life.

  1. Componential or analytic intelligence involves the abilities to think critically and analytically. It is reflected in IQ scores and college grades.

  2. Experiential or creative intelligence focuses on insight and the ability to formulate new ideas. It is involved in using past experiences creatively to solve new problems.

  3. Contextual or practical intelligence emphasizes on the ability to deal with the environmental demands faced during day-to-day affairs. It is otherwise referred as street smartness.

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