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BPCC-107: Social Psychology

BPCC-107: Social Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPCC-107 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Social Psychology, you have come to the right place. BPCC-107 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAPCH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BPCC-107 / Asst /TMA /2021-22

Course Code: BPCC-107

Assignment Name: Social Psychology

Year: 2021 – 2022 (July 2021 & January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.


Assignment One


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks.

Q1. Discuss the various research methods and ethical issues related to social psychology. (15+5)

Ans) Following are the research methods:

Observational Method

The old method of social psychology is observation. This method has been referred to by a variety of terms and categories, including systematic observation, direct observation, and Feldman's field study. The term "observation" refers to simply watching the phenomenon under investigation as it occurs naturally. This method is extremely useful for gathering information about people's overt behaviour and actions.

This method proceeds in following two stages:

  1. Describing behaviour: This method begins with observing behaviours in natural settings that are relevant to the study. What do people do, for example, could be the basis for the observation. Is it possible to classify various behaviours in a systematic way? What makes people's behaviours unique?

  2. From description to causes: The systematic observation method reveals what people do and how they differ in their actions. It can also be used to determine the source of the observed behaviours. However, inferring causes from observation should be done with caution.

A behaviour may have many causes:

The mere fact that one event occurs before another does not imply that the former is the cause of the latter. Several observations would be required to determine the likely causes of even simple behaviour. Establishing a likely cause for more complex behaviours is much more difficult. As a result, in order to determine the course of a particular behaviour, we must carefully examine the results of many observations, noting the effects of each factor.

Experimental Method

Experimentation has long been the most popular method for testing theories that predict causal relationships between variables in social psychology, owing to its superiority as a method for testing theories that predict causal relationships between variables. An experiment's goal is to see what happens to a phenomenon, such as obedience, when the researcher changes some aspects of the environment where the phenomenon occurs. Some basic concepts have meanings that we can see.

In social psychology, there are two basic types of experiments: laboratory and natural laboratory, both of which have their own set of rules. In social psychological discussions, the laboratory experiment is of particular interest. Some variations are used by social psychologists. The quasi-experiments and true randomised experiments are two of the most common variations. The realism of the setting in which data is collected and the degree of control that the researcher has over that setting differ between these two methods.

Ethical Issues in Research Methods

While conducting research, a researcher must adhere to certain ethical guidelines. The following are just a few of them: Informed Consent: It is the researcher's responsibility to inform participants about any experiment or test that will be conducted on them, and they can only proceed with the research if the participants give their consent after receiving detailed information.

  1. Debriefing: This is a procedure that takes place after an experiment or study has been conducted on participants. The researcher conducts a structured or semi structured interview in which he or she discusses the research in detail and allows the participants to ask questions.

  2. Participants' Security: A researcher's primary concern is security and safety. There should be no personal harm or violation of the participants' rights.

  3. Deception: The method, investigation, analysis, and interpretation of research should all be clearly stated by the researcher. The participants cannot be misled by any information or method.

  4. Confidentiality: The participants' personal information and other details should be kept completely confidential and cannot be disclosed unless there are legal issues involved.

Q2. Explain the various facets of conformity, compliance and obedience. (20)

Ans) Conformity and compliance are two important aspects of group behaviour. Both conformity and compliance are common in all types of organisations, but it's important to understand the differences between the two. Within a group, conformity entails members changing their attitudes and beliefs to match those of the others in the group. Conformists are more likely to be obedient and compliant. To conform, a group member must believe that someone has the authority and credibility to lead or influence the behaviour of the group. Conformity to the group's goals will be less common without this "leader." If a group member does not conform to the needs of the group, he or she will lose credibility with the rest of the group.


Our proclivity to conform to social norms is so strong that we are under social pressure to be like the people around us. Not only the norms, but also the people around us provide us with a standard set of behaviour and opinions against which we evaluate our own. We use them to judge our own behaviour, whether or not they are the correct standards. People standing in the back of a political rally, for example, may not be able to hear the leader's speech. Nonetheless, they clap simply because the others standing nearby are clapping.


Compliance is a type of social influence in which we agree to or accept a request made by another person. In our daily lives, we come across many people whose professional success is dependent on their ability to persuade others to do what they want.

Compliance is a concept that is similar to conformity but differs slightly. To achieve group compliance, one must adapt one's actions to the wishes or rules of others. A conformist must have a disposition that allows him or her to submit to others. Everyone's life is filled with requests for and acts of compliance. A request for compliance is as simple as asking someone to do something. Rational persuasion and inspiration are the most effective methods for gaining compliance. Although this person is requesting that another person perform a task, he or she is not requesting that the other person agree or disagree with the task at hand. The person requesting the task's completion isn't necessarily trying to persuade the other to change their minds, but simply needs or wants the task completed. This distinction is what distinguishes conformity from compliance. The central feature of conformity is that the person being influenced by the group changes his or her attitudes and/or beliefs, whereas the main goal of compliance is to complete a specific task.


This is a type of social influence in which a person's direct order forces others to act in a certain way. However, the person issuing the order can use other methods to influence behaviour, such as making a request rather than an order.

The act of obeying orders without question because they come from a legitimate authority is known as obedience. From parents to teachers at school to spiritual leaders, there are many legitimate authorities in a person's life. The majority of these named authority figures are given their power by society. We are simply instructed to do as they direct. In other words, we are submissive to these individuals. At some point in their lives, everyone has blindly followed a superior without questioning why they are doing so.


Assignment Two


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks.


Q3. Self-Presentation tactics.

Ans) There are five major self-representation tactics, each of which differs depending on the attribute the person is attempting to acquire. They are as follows:


Is to instil fear in others. In contrast to ingratiation, this is not the case. The intimidator seeks to control and interact through the use of power by creating the image of a dangerous person.

Self Promotion

This is the most common tactic used by people who want to demonstrate their competence in a particular activity.


The goal here is to sway people's perceptions that others aren't conscientious workers.


Here, the person admits to being weak and reliant on another person.

Individual Difference in Self Presentation

Even research on self-presentation has found that people try to influence the images that others form of them during social interactions.

Q4. Agents of Enculturation.

Ans) Individuals and institutions that serve as enculturation agents help shape individual adaptations to a specific culture in order to ensure growth and effectiveness.

Parents and caregivers are the primary agents of enculturation for their children. Psychologists have attempted to answer questions about parental influences and to comprehend why parents act in certain ways. Because parents are so important to a child's development, a lot of research has been done on their influence on children. Parenting is a multi-step process in which parents and children interact. Parents act in certain ways for a variety of reasons. Enculturation is the process by which various aspects of our own culture are passed down from one generation to the next through various cultural agencies.

Q5. Types of schemas.

Ans) Schemas are divided into four categories by social psychologists: Role-schemas, Object schemas, Self-schemas, and Event schemas.

They are as follows:

  1. Role schemas is defined by norms and expected behaviour. It includes both earned and ascribed roles. Achieved roles include occupations and professions like doctor and teacher. Ascribed roles include age, gender, and race. These categories are called stereotypes. A person belonging to a stereotype is expected to behave in a certain way. Stereotypes about people can influence their behaviour.

  2. Object schema aids in object interpretation. It helps one understand what objects are, how they work, and what to expect from them. Knowledge of how to use a pen, open a door, or start a car.

  3. Self-schema is defined as knowledge gained through interaction with the natural world and other humans. Self-schemas are based on past experiences and grounded in the present. Memories are framed by one's self-perception. They organise and guide the processing of self-relevant information. They develop throughout life, supporting lifespan development.

  4. Event schema are cognitive scripts that describe daily behavioural and event sequences. They help us predict the future, set goals, and make plans. For example, to eat at a restaurant, enter, wait to be seated, look at the menu, order, pay, and leave.

Q6. Theories of attribution.

Ans) In psychology, attribution refers to how people perceive the causes of their daily experiences as external or internal. Attribution theories explain this process. In the early twentieth century, Fritz Heider pioneered attribution research, which was later expanded by Harold Kelley and Bernard Weiner. Heider coined the term 'locus of causality' to describe how one perceives their environment. For example, an experience may be attributed to external (external) or internal (internal) factors (internal). Attributions are initial perceptions. These attributions help psychologists understand people's motivation and competence. Employers use the theory to increase worker motivation, goal setting, and productivity.

Q7. Types of communication.

Ans) There are several types of communication, with verbal communication being the most important. Oral and written communication are two types of verbal communication. The spoken word is the most basic form of oral communication because it is the quickest and most accurate because messages can be clarified through ongoing dialogue. Letters, memos, office orders, e-mail, instant messaging, blogs, and other written forms of communication are used to exchange ideas, thoughts, and understanding.

Nonverbal communication is another type of communication that consists of unspoken cues that a communicator sends in addition to spoken or written messages.

Despite the fact that verbal and nonverbal communication are distinct, they both work at the same time. The content or information is conveyed by the verbal portion of a message.

Q8. Types of leadership.

Ans) The total pattern of leaders’ actions as perceived by their employees is called leadership style. It represents the leaders’ philosophy, skills and attitudes in practice.

It is necessary to study the different leadership styles from which an appropriate style can be selected, depending upon the situation in which leadership is to be exercised and the nature of the followers involved.

  1. Autocratic Style

  2. Participative Style

  3. Laissez -fair Style

  4. Narcissistic leadership Style

  5. Toxic leadership Style

  6. Charismatic leadership Style

  7. Transformational leadership

  8. Transactional Leadership

  9. Bureaucratic Leadership

  10. Consultative Leadership

  11. Socio-emotional Leadership

  12. Paternalistic Leadership

  13. Sociocracy Leadership

  14. Situational Leadership

  15. Neurocritical Leadership




Note: You need to complete the activities as instructed. Please attempt the activities in a coherent and organized manner. The word limit for each activity is around 700 words. Each activity is 15 marks. For the activities, you need to refer to self-learning material, and any other relevant offline or online resources.


Q1. Imagine yourself in a situation where you saw a person injured. Coincidentally you have always had a disliking for him, but he needs an immediate help. With reference to the theories of attitude change, what action will you take? Discuss the factors that determine formation of attitude.

Ans) We commonly see bystanders helping strangers who are victims. However, the media has repeatedly reported on bystanders who remain silent and do nothing.

Incident: An individual has met with an accident on a busy road and needs immediate help.

Theory of Attitude Change

An attitude is a collection of feelings, beliefs, and actions toward a person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often shaped by life experiences or upbringing, and they can shape behaviour. While attitudes endure, they can shift.

The inclination to appraise things in certain ways is known as an attitude. People, topics, objects, and events can all be evaluated. These assessments can be good or negative, but they can also be ambiguous.

Given the incidence and the principle of attitude modification, I would perform the following action, even if the injured person did not like me:


  1. Since I saw the collision and the person was injured and in agony, my first instinct would be to assist him by taking him to the side of the road.

  2. Upon closer inspection, I discovered the victim had a leg fracture and was in great pain. I would transport him/her to the nearest hospital for treatment.

  3. Though I know the sufferer but dislike him, I would go to his aid out of sheer humanity and compassion, knowing that a similar situation could arise in my own case and how much I would appreciate the help.

  4. Even if I don't have the knowledge or skills to help the man who just broke his leg, I will absolutely help him and stay with him until help arrives. In the meantime, I would call his relative or acquaintance to inform them of the catastrophe and request their immediate arrival.

  5. I would personally take him to the nearest hospital and place him in the hands of loving professionals so that they can promptly administer the appropriate treatment and ease his suffering. This help is not given to him anticipating a reward, but out of genuine love for his neighbour.

Factors that Determine Formation of Attitude

Factors that influence attitudes include:

Family and Cultural Factors

Family is the most influential source of attitudes. Parents and siblings submit information. Every society has its own culture, traditions, customs, values, and religion. Thus, cultural variables influence a person's socialisation.

Peers or Group Affiliations

As the person grows, he meets the outside world and peers. Preferred peers are peers of the same age. The child strives to internalise their attitudes. Adopting the group's values, norms, ideas, beliefs, and behaviour is gratifying. The organisation also enforces uniformity and punishes nonconformity.

Personality Factor

The formation and development of attitudes is also influenced by personality factors. Attitudes that match personality attributes are easily acquired. A study indicated that people with a well-organized attitude system accept their personality flaws as a matter of conscience. Other research shows that persons with low IQ and literacy are conservative, sceptical, angry, and quick to blame others for their mistakes.


We are impacted when we are conditioned or acclimated to a given group of individuals, situation, etc. Thus, our associations shape our attitudes. The kind of reinforcement we get from our environment often leads to attitudes.

Social adjustment functions

Every civilization has a majority who desire a peaceful life. They attempt to avoid avoidable human conflict. They naturally establish favourable views about most individuals and topics. Our attitudes may help us maintain positive relationships with members of valued groups. We usually wish to go with our significant people and reject the undesired.

Direct instruction or Given Information

Direct instruction can sometimes shape attitudes. Individuals' attitudes are shaped by the information they receive. In modern culture, media, particularly radio and television, shape public opinion, perspectives, and attitudes on numerous issues. Though not every information has the same impact on opinions.


This has influenced attitudes regarding drinking, clothing, shoes, and other topics.

Satisfaction of Needs

An individual develops positive views towards those who satisfy his desires and negative attitudes towards those who do not.


Prejudices are preconceived views or judgments about other people, objects, etc., formed without adequate information. For example, hating a doctor or nurse based on their caste, religion, area, nationality, etc.

Observational learning

Many behaviours are learnt by observing others' actions and the results of those actions. Parents and significant adults in the family and society often do things that children copy without examining their wisdom or logic. They blindly obey because they trust their parents and other major family and social figures.

Q2. Why a person acts completely different in front of others, than what he would have been doing, had he been alone? Discuss the group processes that influence an individual’s behaviour. Explain the processes involved in group decision making.

Ans) Do you believe that people behave differently when they are alone as opposed to when they are surrounded by others? Usually, the answer is a resounding affirmative. Regardless of how much we care about our social image, some of us care more than others. However, few people perceive a difference in their behaviour.

Having time to ourselves allows us to be more relaxed, less concerned with our appearance, and more 'us' Even if we don't know the person, we have a tendency to alter our behaviour when we have a larger group. This is referred to as Social Facilitation, and it occurs when we work more because others are there, despite the fact that our performance actually suffers as a result.

Group processes that influence an individual’s behaviour

Psychologists have spent years researching group psychology to understand why our actions and decisions differ when we're in a group vs when we're alone.

Here are some basics:

Groups Produce Conformity

When in a group, we tend to follow the group's norms. This may be because organisations protect us in numerous ways. Groups shield us against loneliness and/or apathy in modern times. The group will be more likely to protect us if we conform. For positive behaviour, group conformity might be beneficial. But our desire to fit in can override our better judgement.

Groups Police Behaviour

The prospect of ostracization also helps keep groups in check. Groups frequently employ ostracization or the threat of ostracization to keep everyone in line. While ostracization may seem undesirable, it can be advantageous if the community fosters positive behaviours and ethics. Unsurprisingly, ostracization helps groups reform bullies, protect weaker members from exploitation, and create real cooperation.

Groups Normalize Behaviours

We tend to believe what the group says is true. Normalization goes beyond mere conformance. Conformity is following a group's norms to fit in. In our minds, normalised behaviours seem normal and proper, which binds us to similar groups. Normalization can be favourable or detrimental depending on what is being normalised (using drugs is normal).

Groups Intensify Attitudes

If you join a community of like-minded people, your views will likely get stronger. It occurs frequently when people with similar political views gather, but it can occur whenever a group has a similar outlook on a subject. Polarization occurs when people reinforce our ideas, making us less aware of counter-arguments.

Processes involved in Group Decision Making

Shown below are the steps to implementing the most effective group decision-making process:

1. Planning

Planning requires deciding how to decide and knowing it is successful. This has two phases:

First, decide on your decision-making instruments — meetings, brainstorming, etc.

Second, you must decide how you will know your decision was successful. To grasp this, you must first define your decision's success components.

Consider criteria that reflect each stakeholder's goals, values, and objectives. You can approach your criteria from various ways. You can ask:

  1. How is it going to work?

  2. How much will it cost?

  3. How well will it comply with the existing system?

  4. How consistent will it be?

  5. How well will it fit in the existing schedule?

Determining alternatives

Your expert panel should produce and pick various alternative decisions throughout the determining alternatives step. They must choose between 5 and 9 alternatives that best fit the requirements of the planning session. This stage is crucial because it limits the number of decisions and keeps the group focused on the ones that are most successful. You might also look up similar solutions from previous instances and see if they apply to the current scenario.

Selecting the best alternative

It's time to pick the greatest option from the solutions that were determined throughout the determining alternatives stage. To do so, you must compare each decision to the criteria established throughout the decision-making process' planning step. The most effective solution is the one that meets the most requirements.


During the deployment stage, you put your plans into action. This entails determining the actions and duties that will occur after the final decision has been made. It also contains the instructions for how to organise the process.

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