top of page
BPCC-113: Understanding and Dealing with Psychological Disorders

BPCC-113: Understanding and Dealing with Psychological Disorders

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BPCC-113 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Understanding and Dealing with Psychological Disorders, you have come to the right place. BPCC-113 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BAPCH courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BPCC-113 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPCC-113/ Asst /TMA /July 2023-January 2024

Course Code: BPCC-113

Assignment Name: Understanding and Dealing with Psychological Disorders

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Part A

Assignment One


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks.


Q1) Explain bipolar mood disorder with its different types.

Ans) Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings, including periods of mania and depression. These mood swings can significantly impact an individual's daily life, relationships, and overall functioning. There are several types of bipolar disorder, each with distinct features.


Bipolar I Disorder:

a)     Manic Episodes: Individuals with Bipolar I experience manic episodes, which are characterized by elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, impulsivity, and sometimes delusions or hallucinations.

b)     Depressive Episodes: These are periods of intense sadness, hopelessness, or a lack of interest in activities that were once enjoyed.


Bipolar II Disorder:

a)     Hypomanic Episodes: Bipolar II involves episodes of hypomania, which are less severe than the manic episodes seen in Bipolar I. Hypomania is characterized by increased energy, euphoria, and impulsivity.

b)     Major Depressive Episodes: Similar to Bipolar I, individuals with Bipolar II experience major depressive episodes.


Cyclothymic Disorder:

a)     Chronic Fluctuations: Cyclothymic disorder is characterized by chronic mood fluctuations involving numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms.

b)     Less Severe: The mood swings in cyclothymia are less severe than those in Bipolar I or II.


Mixed Features Specifier:

a)     Coexistence of Mania and Depression: Some individuals may experience episodes that include symptoms of both mania and depression simultaneously.

b)     Increased Risk: Episodes with mixed features often carry an increased risk of impulsivity and suicide.


Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder:

a)     Frequent Episodes: Rapid cycling is diagnosed when an individual experiences four or more mood episodes within a 12-month period.

b)     More Common in Bipolar II: Rapid cycling is more commonly associated with Bipolar II.


Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (BP-NOS):

Atypical Symptoms: This category includes cases where symptoms do not fit the criteria for Bipolar I, II, or cyclothymia, but there is still a significant mood disturbance.


Symptoms of Manic Episodes:

a)     Increased Energy: Elevated levels of energy and activity.

b)     Decreased Need for Sleep: Feeling rested with little sleep.

c)     Talkativeness: Rapid speech, racing thoughts.

d)     Distractibility: Difficulty focusing on tasks.

e)     Impulsivity: Engaging in risky behaviours like excessive spending or reckless driving.


Symptoms of Depressive Episodes:

a)     Persistent Sadness: Overwhelming feelings of sadness or hopelessness.

b)     Loss of Interest: Lack of interest or pleasure in activities.

c)     Changes in Sleep: Insomnia or excessive sleep.

d)     Fatigue: Lack of energy, tiredness.

e)     Feelings of Worthlessness: Low self-esteem or guilt.

f)      Difficulty Concentrating: Problems with memory and decision-making.

g)     Suicidal Thoughts: Thoughts of death or suicide.


Causes and Treatment:

a)     Biological Factors: Genetics, brain structure, and neurotransmitter imbalances play a role.

b)     Environmental Factors: Trauma, stress, or major life changes can trigger episodes.

c)     Medication: Mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants are often prescribed.

d)     Therapy: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and psychoeducation help manage symptoms.

e)     Lifestyle Changes: Regular sleep, exercise, and stress management are crucial.


Q2) Explain cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) with a focus on its principles, procedure, and technique.

Ans) CBT is a widely used therapeutic approach that focuses on the connection between thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. Its principles are rooted in the idea that individuals can learn to identify and modify negative thought patterns and behaviours, leading to positive changes in emotional well-being.


Cognitive Restructuring: CBT emphasizes identifying and challenging distorted or negative thought patterns. By restructuring these thoughts, individuals can change their emotional responses and behaviours.


Behavioural Activation: This principle involves encouraging individuals to engage in positive behaviours that bring a sense of accomplishment and pleasure. It helps counteract the effects of depression and low motivation.


Skill Building: CBT equips individuals with practical skills to cope with challenges. This includes problem-solving, communication, and stress management skills.


Collaborative Approach: CBT is a collaborative effort between the therapist and the individual. Together, they set goals, identify problematic thoughts and behaviours, and work towards positive change.


Procedure of CBT:


a)     Identifying Issues: The therapist works with the individual to identify specific issues or concerns, such as anxiety, depression, or problematic behaviours.

b)     Setting Goals: Clear and achievable goals are established collaboratively, guiding the therapeutic process.



a)     Introduction to CBT: The therapist educates the individual about the principles and methods of CBT, emphasizing the connection between thoughts, emotions, and behaviours.

b)     Building Awareness: Individuals learn to become aware of their automatic thoughts and patterns that contribute to distress.


Cognitive Restructuring:

a)     Identifying Negative Thoughts: The individual learns to identify negative or distorted thoughts associated with their concerns.

b)     Challenging Negative Thoughts: Through questioning and analysis, the therapist helps challenge and reframe negative thoughts, promoting more balanced and realistic thinking.


Behavioural Strategies:

a)     Behavioural Activation: Individuals are encouraged to engage in positive activities that bring a sense of accomplishment and joy.

b)     Homework Assignments: Therapists often assign homework to practice new skills or test alternative behaviours outside of therapy sessions.


Skill Building:

a)     Problem-Solving: Developing effective critical thinking skills to address life challenges.

b)     Communication Skills: Enhancing people skills to improve relationships.


Gradual Exposure:

a)     Facing Fears: For individuals dealing with anxiety or phobias, gradual exposure techniques are used to help them confront and overcome their fears in a systematic way.


Relapse Prevention:

a)     Developing Strategies: Individuals work on developing strategies to prevent relapse and maintain the progress achieved in therapy.

b)     Long-Term Coping: CBT aims to equip individuals with skills for long-term emotional well-being.


Techniques Used in CBT:

 Socratic Questioning:

a)     Guided Inquiry: The therapist uses questioning to guide individuals in exploring and understanding their thoughts, often leading to insights and alternative perspectives.

b)     Thought Records: Recording Thoughts: Individuals keep a log of their thoughts, emotions, and behaviours in specific situations. This helps identify patterns and triggers.


Behavioural Experiments:

a)     Testing Hypotheses: Individuals engage in real-life experiments to test the validity of their beliefs and perceptions, leading to new learning and behaviour.


Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques:

Mindful Awareness: Techniques such as mindfulness meditation help individuals cultivate present-moment awareness, reducing anxiety and promoting emotional regulation.



Practicing Skills: Role-playing allows individuals to practice new communication or assertiveness skills in a safe and supportive environment.


Graded Exposure:

Systematic Exposure: For individuals with anxiety disorders, this technique involves gradual exposure to feared situations, allowing for desensitization


Assignment Two


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks.


Q3) Explain delusion and its different types.

Ans) Delusion is a false belief that persists despite evidence to the contrary, often indicative of a mental health disorder. Different types include:


a)     Persecutory Delusions: Believing one is being targeted, harassed, or conspired against.

b)     Grandiose Delusions: Having an inflated sense of self-worth, power, or identity.

c)     Erotomaniac Delusions: Believing someone of higher status is in love with them.

d)     Nihilistic Delusions: Thinking a significant aspect of one's life or the world is non-existent or ending.

e)     Somatic Delusions: Focusing on physical sensations or appearance, often indicating illness.

f)      Referential Delusions: Believing that ordinary events have personal significance.


Q4) Discuss the Diathesis-Stress Model of schizophrenia.

Ans) The Diathesis-Stress Model of schizophrenia suggests that a genetic predisposition (diathesis) interacts with environmental stressors to trigger the onset of schizophrenia. Individuals with a genetic vulnerability may remain unaffected until exposed to significant stressors such as trauma or substance abuse.


The combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental stress contributes to the development of the disorder. This model underscores the interaction between biological factors and environmental influences in the manifestation of schizophrenia, emphasizing the complex interplay between genetics and life experiences in the onset of the disorder.


Q5) Elucidate the sociocultural causal factors of mood disorders.

Ans) Sociocultural factors contribute to mood disorders such as depression. Social isolation, interpersonal conflicts, and inadequate social support can elevate the risk. Cultural expectations, discrimination, and societal pressure may also impact mental health. Economic hardship and unequal access to resources play roles. Stigma around mental health within certain cultures can hinder help-seeking. Moreover, cultural norms influencing expression of emotions contribute to mood disorders. The complex interplay between societal dynamics, cultural contexts, and individual experiences underscores the sociocultural factors influencing mood disorders.


Q6) Discuss the ethical issues in psychotherapy.

Ans) Ethical issues in psychotherapy involve maintaining confidentiality, informed consent, and the therapist-client power dynamic. Therapists must navigate boundaries to avoid dual relationships and ensure client welfare. Honesty, competence, and cultural sensitivity are crucial. Balancing confidentiality with the duty to protect from harm poses challenges. Informed consent includes transparent communication about therapy processes and potential risks. Ethical dilemmas may arise when addressing values and beliefs. Regular supervision, ongoing education, and adherence to professional codes of conduct are essential in navigating the ethical complexities within the therapeutic relationship.


Q7) What is Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)? Describe the technique of ECT.

Ans) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is a psychiatric treatment involving the induction of controlled seizures to alleviate severe mental health conditions, particularly depression and certain psychiatric disorders. The procedure is conducted under general anaesthesia and involves passing a carefully controlled electric current through the brain.


This induces a brief seizure, impacting neurotransmitter activity. The exact mechanism is not fully understood, but ECT is considered when other treatments are ineffective. The technique includes electrode placement on the scalp, delivering a controlled electric current to trigger a therapeutic seizure. ECT is administered in a series of sessions, often showing rapid improvement in some cases.


Q8) Discuss the key concepts in existential therapy.

Ans) Existential therapy focuses on exploring essential themes of human existence.


a)     Existential Anxiety: The inherent anxiety stemming from the awareness of one's mortality and freedom.

b)     Freedom and Responsibility: Emphasizing personal agency and the responsibility that comes with making choices.

c)     Meaning and Meaninglessness: Individuals confront the search for meaning in their lives and the potential for existential despair.

d)     Authenticity: Encouraging individuals to live in accordance with their values and beliefs.

e)     Existential Isolation: The recognition that, despite connection, everyone experiences a fundamental aloneness.

f)      Living in the Present: Emphasizing the importance of being present and engaged in the current moment.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page