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BPCC-131: Foundations of Psychology

BPCC-131: Foundations of Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPCC-131 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Foundations of Psychology, you have come to the right place. BPCC-131 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BPCC-131 / Asst /TMA /2021-22

Course Code: BPCC-131

Assignment Name: Foundations Of Psychology

Year: 2021 – 2022 (July 2021 & January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.

Assignment One


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks. 3 x 20=60


Q1. Explain the basic steps and methods of research in psychology.

Ans) The following are the basic steps of conducting psychological research:

Problem: This is the first step in beginning your investigation. You will form a query if you are intrigued about any remarkable phenomenon for which you wish to discover an explanation. For example, a researcher would be interested in determining whether children who spend more time on screens (mobile phones, computers, televisions, and tablets) are more prone to inattention and poor academic achievement.

Hypothesis/es: This is the first step in beginning your investigation. You will form a query if you are intrigued about any remarkable phenomenon for which you wish to discover an explanation. For example, a researcher would be interested in determining whether children who spend more time on screens (mobile phones, computers, televisions, and tablets) are more prone to inattention and poor academic achievement.

Testing the Hypothesis: Hypothesis testing depends on the research design, the method in which the researcher collects and analyses and interpret data to get an explanation about the problem or question.

Interpretation and Conclusion: After the results are obtained, it will be clear if the hypothesis is accepted or rejected. If it is a quantitative research design, the results obtained will be statistically analysed. If the study is qualitative, then qualitative methods will be employed to analyse data. Statistical methods are used to find out association between variables or differences between groups.

Reporting the results: The results are to be reported so that it may be replicated, though replication is not easy. How the research was conducted, why it was conducted, and what were the findings must be reported and shared with other researchers so that investigation continues, and new knowledge is added to the research question.

A research design is a method for gathering, analysing, and interpreting data. It can be qualitative, quantitative, or a mix. Two methods are often used in psychological research. Methods include experimental, and correlational.

Experimental Method

The experimental method necessitates research Observable occurrences are thought to be based on research and theory. A hypothesis predicts the outcome of an event. An experimenter studies a subject (human or animal). Controlling events or behaviours that may alter the planned outcome. VARIABLES ARE OBJECTS, EVENTS, OR SITU It is quantitative. Variables have numerous shapes. One variable is changed, which affects the other. Studying the effect of temperature on mood. So, temperature is independent while mood is dependent. Response to stimuli is a dependent variable. A stimulus creates a reaction.

Correlational Method

One or two samples of two variables are collected using the correlation method. This approach aims to connect two sets of scores. For example, are tall people smarter than short individuals? Oughtn't a happy Increasing one score impact another. Or if the scores are unrelated. Using statistical methods, we can compare a score to another score in a set. The r-value measures the value. There are six correlation coefficients. A +1 correlation is perfect. The standing of a score is the same as its associated score. This is the greatest match. This means that a rise in one score will cause a decrease in another. High scores in one set correlate with low scores in the other.

Q2. Define learning. Elucidate the principles of classical conditioning with the help of Pavlov’s experiment.

Ans) Learning is the process of gaining new knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences through the acquisition of new understanding, knowledge, behaviours, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences. Humans, animals, and some robots all have the potential to learn; there is also evidence that certain plants can learn. Some learning happens right once, because of a single incident, but a lot of skill and information is gained over time. Learning transforms people for a lifetime, and it's difficult to tell the difference between taught material that appears to be "lost" and material that can't be regained.

Pavlov's experiments revealed fundamental elements of classical conditioning.

The following is a summary of what they are:

Acquisition: A CR is formed by a succession of continuous CS and UCS pairings. Simultaneous conditioning involves presenting CS and UCS at the same time and continuing to do so until CR occurs. In trace conditioning, CS is shown initially, followed by UCS after a brief delay. UCS is provided before CS in backward conditioning. In delayed conditioned response, CS is offered a few seconds to a minute before UCS and may continue for a few seconds afterward. Pavlov believed that simultaneous, trace, and delayed conditioning were useful methods for learning.

Extinction: After developing the theory of learning, Pavlov sought to understand the conditions under which acquired conditioning may be reversed. So, to break free from conditioning, stop handing out UCS. When the conditioned stimulus is delivered repeatedly in the absence of UCS, the conditioned response gradually vanishes; this occurrence is known as extinction, according to Pavlov. If the bell is not followed by food for a long time in the setting of Pavlov's dog, the dog will eventually stop salivating in reaction to the bell. However, following extinction, when US is followed by UCS again, the conditioned response will reappear relatively fast, a process called as reconditioning. Spontaneous recovery refers to the conditioned response reappearing after a time because of UCS-CS pairing.

Generalization and Discrimination: Pavlov discovered that if the animal could be trained to respond to a bell with a comparable response, he could also be learned to respond to a buzzer with a similar response. This is referred to as generalisation of the CS to other stimuli like the initial CS where the learning occurred. The degree to which the new stimulus resembles the CS determines the level of generalisation. This approach can be used to treat phobias by matching the feared stimulus with a pleasant one. If, on the other hand, Pavlov's dog only responded to the bell used in the experiment and disregarded other similar-sounding bells, this behaviour is known as stimulus discrimination, or the tendency to respond to one stimulus while ignoring others.

Higher-Order Conditioning: After learning to elicit CR, a CS may develop reinforcing qualities. Food has been used to trigger salivation using a buzzer, for example. CS1 will now be coupled with a flashing light after salivation has been established to the buzzer. CS2 will induce CR2 after repeated repetitions. Higher order conditioned responses are established at this point. It's challenging to generate and maintain such responses.

By extinction or reconditioning unpleasant emotional responses, classical conditioning principles can aid in behaviour change or therapy.

Q3. Explain the following:


Q3. a) Drive-reduction Model of Motivation

Ans) The drive theory is one of the approaches to motivation. When there is a need, it creates psychological tension and physiological tension then that drives the organism to reduce the tension by fulfilling the need. This tension is known as drive. These theories are also called as the push theories of motivation as “the behaviour is pushed towards goals by driving force within the person or animal”.

Drive reduction model states that “lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need”. Drive was defined earlier in this unit, and it can be explained as a tension or arousal that channelizes behaviour to fulfil a need. Drives can be of two types, primary and secondary. The examples of primary drives are thirst, hunger, sleep, and sex that are mainly related to the physiological needs of an individual. Secondary drives are related to the previous experience and learning that lead to development of a need. For example, need for achievement in one’s field of work. Thus, this secondary drive will then channelize their work-related behaviour.

An important term that needs to be discussed under this model is homeostasis, which can be explained as “the process by which all organisms work to maintain physiological equilibrium or balance around an optimal set point”. It can also be explained as the tendency of the body to maintain an internal state that is balanced or steady. Thus, whenever there is any deviation from the ideal state or the set point, then the adjustments will be made by the body to re-establish the balanced state or achieve the set point thus restoring the balance. Homeostasis helps operate the needs related to food, water, sleep, body temperature and so on.

Drive reduction theory adequately explains how behaviour is channelised by primary drives. However, it does not adequately explain behaviours that have goals to maintain or increase arousal. For example, it may not help in explaining behaviour of an adolescent who enjoys a roller coaster ride or rides his/ her bike in full speed. Thus, as such a behaviour that is thrilling, and a behaviour related to curiosity cannot be explained with the help of this model.

Q3. b) The Hierarchical Model of Motivation

Ans) Maslow proposed this paradigm, which is known as Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The needs are arranged in a hierarchical sequence in this paradigm. After that, the model states that basic needs must be supplied before higher-order needs may be met. Maslow's hierarchy of requirements can be visualised as a pyramid, with basic needs at the bottom and higher-order needs at the top:

The physiological needs, as depicted in the diagram above, are the basic wants for food, water, sleep, and sex. Then there are the safety requirements, which are tied to the need for a safe and secure environment. These two requirements are known as lower order demands, and once they are met, the individual will move on to the higher order requirements. The second need is for love and belonging, which is connected to the exchange of affection. This is followed by a higher-order need, esteem needs, which are linked to the development of a sense of self-worth. The final need is self-actualisation, which is related to the desire to realise one's full potential or to be in a condition of self-fulfilment. There may be peak or mystical experiences when self-actualization is temporarily realised. Self-actualizers are familiar with extreme ecstasy that can come during almost any activity.

Self-determination Theory

Richard Ryan and Edward Deci proposed the self-determination theory, which is closely related to the hierarchical model. According to the theory, there are three innate and universal wants that aid in the individual's development of a complete sense of self and the development of good connections with others. The three wants are autonomy, which refers to the ability to govern one's behaviour, competence, which refers to the ability to master difficult activities, and relatedness, which refers to a sense of belonging and the ability to build stable relationships.

Self-theory of Motivation

Carol Dweck, a personologist, claimed that the need for achievement is linked to personality traits. The desire to succeed is influenced by one's self-perception. This has an impact on the success or failure of one's actions. This strategy is linked to the concept of locus of control. Internal locus of control occurs when people believe they have control over what happens in their lives. People who believe that luck, fate, or other external elements influence their life have an external locus of control.

Assignment Two


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks. 8 x 5=40


Q4. Latent learning

Ans) When information is retained subconsciously, it is referred to as latent learning. After keeping information subconsciously, latent learning allows one to only make little changes in behaviour.

It is possible to acquire latent learning when something is observed rather than openly experienced. Observational learning can take many forms. It is possible for humans to observe a behaviour and then imitate it when no one rewards them for doing so.

When it comes to latent learning, there are no rewards or penalties. For example, when animals are not motivated to learn the geography of their habitat, they can employ latent learning to find food or flee danger.

Q5. Stanford-Binet Scale of Intelligence

Ans) The Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales (or simply the Stanford–Binet) is an independently administered intelligence test developed by Lewis Terman, a Stanford University psychologist, from the original Binet–Simon Scale. The Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale (SB5) was released in 2003 and is presently in its fifth edition (SB5). It's a cognitive ability and intelligence test for diagnosing developmental and intellectual deficits in young children. The test includes both verbal and nonverbal subtests and measures five weighted criteria. Knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory, and fluid thinking are the five factors being examined.

The Stanford–Binet was one of the earliest adaptive tests, and it helped to establish the present discipline of intelligence testing.

Q6. Difference between emotions and mood

Ans) The mood is a state or quality of feeling at a particular time, but an emotion is a strong feeling originating from one’s circumstances, mood, or relationships with others.

Mood and emotions are two words that describe our mental state. When you are in a good mood, you feel happy and relaxed; when you are in a bad mood, you may feel grumpy and angry. Therefore, it’s clear that emotions are connected to your mood.

However, they are not the same. In fact, a mood is a mix of emotions and feelings. Mood and emotions are inherently related. In fact, a mood is a mixture of emotions and feelings. For example, when you are in a good mood, you feel happy and relaxed; when you are in a bad mood, you may feel grumpy and angry.

Q7. Process of sensation

Ans) The process of perceiving our environment through touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell is referred to as sensation. This data is given to our brains in an unprocessed form, which is where perception comes into play. Perception is the process by which we interpret sensations and, as a result, make meaning of the world around us.

We have five senses: hearing, vision, taste, smell, and touch. Detecting, recognising, describing, and responding to stimuli are all part of sensory perception. When anything in the real world stimulates our sense organs, the sensory perception process begins.

The following elements make up this definition of sensation:

  1. The organism's sensory organs are involved.

  2. The presence of stimuli in the physical environment; iii) the construction of knowledge from raw materials; and iv) first touch, i.e., interaction without meaning.


Q8. Muller-Lyre illusion

Ans) Three stylised arrows form the Müller-Lyre illusion, which is an optical illusion. When asked to make a mark on the figure at the midpoint, viewers tend to place it closer to the "tail" end.

A set of arrow-like figures is a variation of the same effect. The "shafts" of the arrows are made up of equal-length straight line segments, with shorter line segments protruding from the shaft's ends. The fins can point inwards to make the "head" of an arrow or outwards to produce the "tail" of an arrow. The line segment that makes up the shaft of the arrow with two tails appears to be longer than the line segment that makes up the shaft of the arrow with two heads.

Q9. Projective techniques

Ans) Projective Techniques are unstructured, indirect methods of investigation developed by psychologists that rely on respondents' projections to infer about hidden motives, urges, or intentions that are difficult to uncover through direct questioning because the respondent either refuses to reveal them or is unable to figure them out for himself. These strategies are beneficial in allowing respondents to voice their opinions without fear of personal shame. These approaches assist respondents in automatically projecting their own attitudes and feelings on the subject under investigation. As a result, projective techniques are crucial in motivational studies and attitude surveys. During individual or small group interviews, projective techniques are commonly utilised.

Q10. Superego

Ans) Superego, in Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the last of three growing human personality agencies (alongside id and ego). The superego provides the moral criteria by which the ego works. The superego's negative critiques, prohibitions, and inhibitions constitute the conscience, while its positive goals and ideals comprise the “ego ideal.”

After five years, the superego emerges in reaction to parental punishment and approval. The infant internalises his parents' moral values, assisted by a tendency to identify with them. The developing superego absorbs familial and social traditions and controls violent or other socially inappropriate urges. A violation of the superego's ideals causes guilt or worry, and a drive to atone. Throughout adolescence, the superego grows as a person meets various role models and adapts to society's laws.

Q11. Thurstone’s theory of intelligence

Ans) Thurstone's multi-factor theory of intelligence is built on Spearman's two-factor theory of intelligence expanded principles, formulas, and methodologies. For his research, Thurstone applied sophisticated factor analyses to Spearman's factor analysis to comprehend human intelligence. Inter-correlation and matrix algebra were used to analyse the test results. Thurstone came to a different conclusion on intellectual ability than Spearman. Thurstone defined the primary mental capacities as seven factors based on the collected data (P.M.A.). Because Thurstone's seven mental skills suited the data better than Spearman's general intelligence, he rejected Spearman's theory (g-factor). It is believed by Spearman that the g-factor connects all a person's cognitive talents. The multi-factor theory of intelligence focuses on the seven separate fundamental mental talents, according to Thurstone. Every person has varying levels of these seven skills, which are independent of one another. As opposed to just focusing on the person's IQ, he proposed looking at their scores in multiple mental capacities.

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