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BPCE-141: Positive Psychology

BPCE-141: Positive Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BPCE-141 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Positive Psychology, you have come to the right place. BPCE-141 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAPCH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BPCE-141/Asst /TMA /2022-23

Course Code: BPCE-141

Assignment Name: Positive Psychology

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Assignment One


Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks. 2 x 20 = 40


1. Define character strengths. Describe the VIA classification of strengths and virtues.

Ans) A natural ability to behave, think, or feel in a way that promotes optimal functioning and performance in the pursuit of desired outcomes can be described as a strength. It is something that a person has a predisposition to naturally. A youngster is encouraged to follow her/his creative instincts if there is encouragement from significant others rather than rejecting or disregarding the child's original thought. However, environmental circumstances and experiences may nurture and support the development of specific strengths or inhibit it.


Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman wrote their own "manual of the sanities" with the goal of correcting psychology's skewed focus on only the negative aspects of human life and functioning. This manual focused on what is positive about people, in particular on the character strengths that allow for a good life. They created the Values in Action framework as a guide for the well-being of people, using it to define character strengths.


As a universally acknowledged subset of morally regarded personality qualities, they described character strengths. Peterson and Seligman used a variety of techniques, such as a literature review, discussion with top experts in the subject, and consulting ancient religious and philosophical books, to create an extensive list of virtues and strengths that were shared by people from all countries. Based on eleven criteria, they narrowed down this list of hundreds of strengths they had thus far.


This led to the discovery of twenty-four character traits, which were then categorised into six virtues:


  1. Wisdom is a virtue that combines abilities in knowledge acquisition and application.

  2. These qualities require the use of willpower to achieve objectives despite internal or external obstacles.

  3. Love and humanity are interpersonal virtues that involve a propensity for developing bonds with others.

  4. Justice is one of the civic virtues that benefits society.

  5. These virtues serve as a barrier between us and excesses: temperance.

  6. Transcendence: these virtues support the development of a deep relationship with the cosmos.


Virtues and Character Strengths according to the VIA Classification


Wisdom and Knowledge

  1. Originality, adaptability, resourcefulness, and the capacity to see and act in novel ways are all characteristics of creativity.

  2. Curiosity is the quality of exploring, taking an interest in new things, seeking out new experiences, and finding things fascinating.



  1. Bravery is courage, standing up for what is right in the face of danger, difficulty, or pain.

  2. Persistence is the quality of working hard, accomplishing tasks with a sense of accomplishment, and persevering through challenges.



  1. Love includes giving and receiving love, being warm and sincere, and appreciating close relationships that involve sharing and care.

  2. Kindness includes generosity, nurturing, caring, compassion, and selfless love. It also includes doing nice deeds and favours for other people.



  1. Contributing to a group effort via cooperation, citizenship, and loyalty.

  2. Fairness is abiding by the rules of justice and preventing bias in judgments about others.



  1. Mercy, accepting other people's faults, giving them a second chance, and letting go of hurt are all examples of forgiveness.

  2. Allowing one's achievements to speak for themselves; avoiding the spotlight; and not considering oneself to be more extraordinary than one is.


  1. Awe and wonder at beauty, enthusiasm for talent and moral superiority are all examples of appreciation for beauty and excellence.

  2. Being conscious of and appreciative of the wonderful things that occur; expressing gratitude; and feeling fortunate.


2. Explain mindfulness. Describe the benefits of mindfulness.

Ans) Even if its roots can be traced back to the Brahmanic traditions of the Indian subcontinent, which gave rise to Buddhism, the term mindfulness is a translation of the Pali word sati, which has its origins in Buddhist traditions. The term "mindfulness" is typically used to describe both a mental state or quality and a type of meditation that aids in cultivating such a state or quality. According to Kabat-Zinn, mindfulness is "the consciousness that results from paying attention intentionally, in the present, and nonjudgmentally to the flow of experience moment by moment."


A "pre-conceptual awareness" and acceptance of one's experiences, flexible attention regulation, an unbiased or detached openness to experience, and an orientation to be "here-and-now" are the fundamental characteristics of mindfulness.  Numerous advantages and beneficial impacts of mindfulness in various parts of people's lives have been demonstrated by research.


Mindfulness and Well-being

According to research, in addition to having a direct impact on happiness, mindfulness also improves self-regulated functioning, which acts as an indirect predictor of happiness. Increased levels of wellbeing are seen to be a result of mindfulness; in particular, mindfulness is thought to directly improve wellbeing by making any experience more rich and full. By supporting healthy self-regulation, mindfulness can indirectly improve wellbeing. This includes a more intense focus on, an openness to, and approval of one's own needs or ideals, as well as an improved capacity to act in accordance with them.


Mindfulness and Physical Health

According to studies, practising mindfulness meditation has a variety of health advantages, including improved immunological function. Through less smoking, more physical activity, and a healthier body mass index, mindfulness is linked to better heart health. Additionally, there is a beneficial correlation between mindfulness and lower blood pressure.


Mindfulness and Cognitive Functioning

One needs optimal cognitive functioning to be able to function and perform to the best of one's abilities, including attention, memory, thinking, reasoning, decision-making, language, etc. When we multitask, it becomes challenging to maintain concentrated attention when it is needed. Not only is focused attention essential for improved performance but also for psychological wellbeing. Insufficient concentration can make us feel more anxious as our thoughts cause us to worry about the future. By lowering stress levels, mindfulness meditation can help people pay close attention to the here and now and improve their sense of well-being.


Mindfulness, Emotional Well-Being and Psychological Health

Achieving and maintaining a happy attitude, as well as accepting and feeling at ease with oneself, can be facilitated by mindfulness. People can be trained to be more attentive since the perspective on mindfulness that views it as a trait suggests that some people are more thoughtful than others. According to studies, dispositional mindfulness is positively correlated with self-worth and self-acceptance. According to research, when mindfulness is enhanced through interventions like meditation training, it subsequently improves wellbeing. According to other studies, higher levels of mindfulness are associated with emotional intelligence, often known as more adaptable emotional functioning.


Mindfulness and Social Well-being

It's essential to have positive relationships with one's family, society, and community in order to be happy and content. A better sense of relatedness and interpersonal proximity is predicted by mindfulness, according to studies, which also show that it is useful in relationship formation. Numerous researchers in the field are looking into ideas like "mindful connecting," "mindful reacting" in relationships, and "mindfulness based relationship enhancement" in an effort to understand how mindfulness and interpersonal behaviour are related.



Assignment Two


Answer the following middle category questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks. 3 x 10 = 30


3. Give a historical perspective on positive psychology.

Ans) The history of a discipline can be written in one of two ways: internally or externally. Internal history relates to a field's emergence and internal developments from that field's creation up to the moment the historian wants to write about. External history examines social and cultural developments outside of the purview of any one discipline, as well as the circumstances surrounding the development of that discipline and its influencing factors. Here, an external historical method is used, and you'll study not only how and when positive psychology evolved but also what environment it emerged in and how it is important locally and worldwide.


The terms "happiness," "well-being," "flourishing," "good life," "meaningful existence," and others are not new. Perhaps since man had the capacity for self-reflection and started to reflect on the significance and point of one's existence, these issues have been the focus of human investigation. Over many centuries, the concept of happiness has evolved among humans everywhere. As with many other subjects in our field, it is appropriate to describe positive psychology as having a long history but a recent past.


Humanistic psychologists had already discussed the concerns of human potential and life quality in psychology, focusing especially on self-actualization and personal development. 'Positive psychology' was a concept that Abraham Maslow had already utilised in his writings on motivation and personality. Under the umbrella of "healthy personality," it was debated Carl Rogers' ideas of acceptance, unconditional positive regard, and genuineness; James Bugental's emphasis on authenticity; Sidney Jourard's studies on self-disclosure; and many more ideas.


In other words, there was already a context in which to consider the merits of human existence. Seligman's emphasis on scientific and quantitative technique, which is described by a "nomothetic approach," sets his perspective apart from that of humanistic philosophers who placed more emphasis on an "idiographic approach" that emphasises the individuality of each person. Because the quantitative and experimental approach of mainstream scientific psychology seems to be more easier to conduct, humanistic philosophers' emphasis on the phenomenological approach to the study of subjective experiences in comprehending an individual has led to marginalisation.


4. Explain self-efficacy. Describe strategies for enhancing self-efficacy.

Ans) Self-efficacy is another crucial notion of who we are. High self-efficacy is exhibited by those who think they are capable of controlling their circumstances, while low self-efficacy is exhibited by those who think their circumstances are beyond their control and that they are unable to change the course of their lives. For instance, a child who believes that if they work hard enough, they can pass the test has high self-efficacy. On the other hand, a youngster with low self-efficacy believes that fate, luck, or other situational circumstances are in control of the outcome and that the paper will be simple if I'm lucky or if the examiner checks the papers lightly. Therefore, a person with high self-efficacy believes that s/he has the abilities or behaviours to handle a certain scenario. Such a person will consequently exert the effort necessary to produce the intended result or effect.


Strategies for Enhancing Self-Efficacy

Self-efficacy is an acquired trait. There are numerous tactics that can aid in the development of self-efficacy.

  1. Self-mastery: Success is built through task mastery. The feeling of accomplishment and mastery can boost our self-confidence and efficacy.

  2. Role modelling: One can be motivated to engage in those activities by observing others who have experienced success in circumstances similar to their own. When we utilise role models to copy their behaviour, we are also engaging in observational learning.

  3. Visualization: Visualizing oneself acting efficiently might lead to happy feelings and raised efficacy expectations.

  4. Verbal persuasion: An individual's self-efficacy might increase when they are persuaded by persons who are knowledgeable, influential, and reliable in their profession.


5. Explain multicultural mindset.

Ans) We now live in a "global community" as a result of the internet's rapid expansion and its intrusion into everyday lives. From monocultural to multicultural cultures, we are transitioning quickly. People who have a cosmopolitan perspective can adapt to many cultures and are curious to learn more about them. For personal and professional development, simply being exposed to many cultures is insufficient.


According to Maddux et al., even when people are exposed to the same multicultural environment, how they approach and engage with different cultures psychologically determines how well they can incorporate diverse ideas, new ways of thinking, and opposing beliefs into their current thought/action repertoires. A person's ability to successfully assimilate these distinctions and ensuing expansion of their cognitive, emotional, and behavioural capabilities finally translates into observable improvement in career chances. In order to create new ways of thinking and perceiving that will have an impact on one's values, beliefs, and behaviour, it requires active interaction with a new culture.


The organisational literature is essentially where the phrase "multicultural mindset" originates. Career psychologists are looking at interventions that can encourage a multicultural perspective in young people as the workplace and organisational world become more and more ethnically varied. This type of global outlook requires:

  1. Promote curiosity, attention, and self-assurance while interacting in a multicultural setting.

  2. Without using stereotypes, have a genuine grasp of the similarities and contrasts between cultural groups.

  3. Being aware of strategy and having the capacity to plan well while accounting for cultural differences

  4. When interacting and working in multicultural environments, one must be able to adapt.


An advantage is having a cosmopolitan attitude, especially at business. It enhances people's performance on overseas work assignments, gives them the tools for successful cross-cultural negotiations, and aids salespeople who deal with multicultural clients. Similar to the growth mentality, someone with a multicultural mindset considers cultural traits to be malleable rather than fixed. They are more willing to question their own cultural attitudes and ideas, learn new ones, or incorporate them into their current ones and then behave in accordance with them.



Assignment Three

Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks. 5 x 6 = 30


6. Social psychology and positive psychology

Ans) Maybe by now you've realised how many things affect our level of happiness and contentment. Humans do not exist in isolation; instead, we constantly act and engage with other people. It follows that it makes logical that our connections with other people have an equal impact on our health, pleasure, and well-being as do our own inherent traits and the material parts of our lives. As we age, our interpersonal and social connections have a significant impact on how we feel about ourselves.


Numerous studies have adequately proven the value of fulfilling interpersonal and social connections as well as the social support of close friends and partners. Happy marriages and close friendships are good examples of such fulfilling connections. In 1998, Corey M. Keyes proposed the idea of "social well-being," which has five characteristics that have been supported by empirical research. They are: social acceptance, social actualization, social coherence, and social integration.


7. Pancha kosha model

Ans) Human existence is seen in the Upanishadic period as having a multilayered structure tied to human growth and well-being. There are five Kosas, or sheaths, according to the Taitiriyopanishad. Food, the physical body, and the material world are all addressed at the first level, known as Annamaya Koa or corporeal sheath. The second level is called Pramaya Koa, or the sheath, and it is concerned with fundamental biological processes including breathing, feeling, and bioenergy.


The third level is the Manomaya Koa sheath, which is composed of the mind. The next level, called Vigynamaya Koa, deals with subtler aspects of consciousness, such as high-order insights, intuition, and awareness that is clear. The world of transcendence, joyous release into infinity, and perfect consciousness, or nandamaya Koa, is the last stage. Beyond what is often experienced, the nandamaya Koa is brimming with great joy and delight.


8. Broaden-and-Build theory of positive emotions

Ans) This question was the title of a ground-breaking article by Barbara Fredrickson, published in the Review of General Psychology in 1998. In the article, Fredrickson forwards a novel theory of positive emotions, arguing that they serve to broaden individuals’ momentary thought-action repertoires, thereby contributing to good health and functioning.  This theory is now known as the Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions.


In this article, we’ll explore some key differences between positive and negative emotions, outline the core principles of Fredrickson’s Broaden-and-Build Theory, and point you toward additional resources to learn more about your emotions.  Before you continue, we thought you might like to download our three Emotional Intelligence Exercises for free. These science-based exercises will not only enhance your ability to understand and work with your emotions but will also give you the tools to foster the emotional intelligence of your clients, students, or employees.


9. Hedonic and Eudaimonic perspective

Ans) Seligman's description of a pleasant life alludes to the hedonic component of happiness. In this view, happiness is defined as the fulfilment of wants, which brings pleasure to the person. Hedonic happiness is concerned with pleasure, joy, and satisfaction experienced personally.


Examples include enjoying a satisfying meal at a restaurant, having a nice time at a party with friends, or feeling content with your life while lying on a beach in the sun. This is the typical understanding of happiness, where enjoyment and fulfilment are essential elements of a happy existence. in the study of science.


Subjective well-being, a psychological concept used to describe happiness, is the subject of much research. SWB relates to a person's subjective assessment of their life, or how they view, assess, and judge their own lives. Life satisfaction, the existence of pleasant affect, and a relative lack of negative affect are the three components that make up subjective well-being. As a result, one feels happy emotions more frequently than negative ones. It consists of a cognitive component that assesses life satisfaction and an emotive component that is characterised by the predominance of pleasant emotions over negative emotions. SWB can encompass Seligman's excellent and enjoyable lives.


10. Resilience as ordinary magic

Ans) Resilience is described as a commonplace but amazing experience. The pioneer in this discipline, Ann Masten, frequently discussed resilience's commonplaceness in her work. Resilience, according to her theory, is more of an everyday occurrence than an uncommon one. This suggests that anyone can have the experience.


The result is regarded as magical despite the phenomenon being commonplace. This is due to the fact that people who are resilient can achieve in situations where they are typically anticipated to fail. Masten's insight that resilience is commonplace gives those at risk hope. It is currently thought that people can develop resilience and show positive response to adversity with the aid of protective factors.


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