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BPCE-143: Environmental Psychology

BPCE-143: Environmental Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BPCE-143 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Environmental Psychology, you have come to the right place. BPCE-143 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BAPCH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPCE-143/ASST /TMA /July 2023- January 2024

Course Code: BPCE-143

Assignment Name: Environmental Psychology

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment One


Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks.


Q1) Define environmental psychology. Discuss the research methods used in environmental psychology.

Ans) An examination of the ways in which one's surroundings influence one's behaviour, emotions, and overall well-being is the focus of environmental psychology, which investigates the connection between humans and their physical settings. It explores the psychological effects of a variety of settings, including homes, workplaces, and urban areas, with the goal of gaining an understanding of how design, layout, and natural components influence human experiences.


Research Methods in Environmental Psychology:

a)     Observational Studies: Individuals are observed by researchers in their natural contexts in order to gain an understanding of their behaviours and reactions. The process entails making observations regarding interactions, responses to stimuli, and preferences in a variety of environments.

b)     Surveys and Questionnaires: Data about perceptions, attitudes, and experiences in relation to settings are gathered through these kinds of surveys. These individuals investigate their preferences, levels of stress, and emotional reactions to specific environments.

c)     Field Experiments: In order to investigate how changes in certain environmental parameters (such as lighting and temperature) influence behaviour or mood, researchers conduct experiments in real-world settings and modify certain environmental factors.

d)     Laboratory Experiments: Controlled environments are used to test hypotheses. Participants are exposed to specific environmental conditions, allowing researchers to measure reactions and behaviours.

e)     Case Studies: In-depth investigations of specific environments or situations, aiming to understand their psychological impact on individuals or communities.

f)      Environmental Assessment: Evaluating spaces for their suitability and psychological impact, often employed in architecture and urban planning.

g)     Technology-aided Methods: Use of technological tools like virtual reality to simulate environments and study human responses or behaviours.

h)     Biometric Measures: Utilizing physiological data (heart rate, cortisol levels) to assess stress or emotional reactions in response to different environmental conditions.


Importance and Applications:

a)     Design and Architecture: Influencing the design of buildings in order to improve the well-being, productivity, and comfort of individuals at places of employment, hospitals, or educational institutions.

b)     Urban Planning: In order to develop urban places that are more functional and liveable, it is necessary to get an understanding of how cities influence the mental health, social behaviour, and overall well-being of their citizens.

c)     Environmental Conservation: By investigating the psychological elements that are responsible for sustainable activities, encouraging environmentally conscious behaviour can be accomplished.

d)     Health and Well-Being: The investigation of the ways in which natural surroundings, such as parks and green spaces, have a beneficial impact on mental health, stress reduction, and healing.

e)     Consumer Behaviour: examining the ways in which environmental variables in retail environments influence the purchasing behaviour of customers and the level of happiness they feel.

f)      Policy Development: Providing insights to policymakers on creating environments that promote safety, reduce crime, and foster community cohesion.


The field of environmental psychology makes use of a wide variety of research approaches in order to conduct an in-depth investigation of the ways in which the physical environment influences human behaviour, emotions, and overall well-being. The purpose of these methodologies is to provide information that may be used to guide decisions on design, policy, and planning in order to build settings that are more hospitable, healthier, and sustainable for individuals and communities.


Q2) Discuss the role of entrances or ‘entry’ in architecture.

Ans) Within the realm of architecture, the entrance or entry acts as a crucial component, not only from a structural standpoint, but also from a psychological and aesthetic perspective. It is the point at which one transitions from the natural world into the built environment, and it is of major symbolic and functional value.


Symbolism and Significance:

a)     First Impressions: The entryway is responsible for establishing the initial atmosphere and impression of a structure, which in turn affects how guests perceive and interact with the area. In accordance with the components that comprise its design, it is capable of conveying a sense of grandeur, formality, warmth, or accessibility.

b)     Identity and Branding: In many cases, the design of an entrance is in accordance with the purpose of the building or is a representation of the identity of an institution. The brand, values, and goals of an organisation, an institution, or an individual can all be reflected in those things.

c)     Symbol of Welcome: Visitors are given the impression that they are entering a place that is welcoming and accommodating to them through the use of this emblem, which represents hospitality and invitation.

d)     Transitional Space: From a psychological and physiological standpoint, it signifies the move from the public sphere to the private or semi-private sphere, so establishing a sense of arrival and demarcating borders.


Functional Roles:

a)     Accessibility and Circulation: The entrance needs to be easily accessible and should allow for a smooth flow of traffic. One of its primary functions is to act as a focal point for movement within the building, leading people to various regions of the structure.

b)     Security and Control: It is essential to have entrances in order to maintain security, manage access, and guarantee that only authorised personnel are allowed to enter restricted access zones. The significance of this cannot be overstated in the context of private dwellings, offices, and institutions.

c)     Weather Protection: Canopies, vestibules, and airlocks are examples of design considerations that offer protection from the elements and ensure that users are able to enter and exit the building in a comfortable manner.

d)     Spatial Hierarchy: The design of the entry can establish a spatial hierarchy, distinguishing between public, semi-public, and private spaces within the building.


Design Elements:

a)     Architectural Features: The use of arches, columns, pediments, or distinctive shapes helps create a memorable and visually striking entryway.

b)     Materials and Texture: The choice of materials, such as wood, glass, metal, or stone, and their textures, contributes to the aesthetic appeal and character of the entrance.

c)     Scale and Proportion: The scale of the entryway relative to the building and its surroundings influences the perceived importance and visual impact.

d)     Lighting and Signage: Properly designed lighting and signage enhance visibility, safety, and aesthetic appeal, guiding visitors toward the entrance.


Cultural and Contextual Considerations:

a)     Cultural Symbolism: In different cultures, entrances may hold distinct cultural or religious symbolism, impacting their design and significance.

b)     Contextual Integration: The entry should harmonize with the surrounding environment, blending seamlessly with the architectural style and landscape.


Assignment Two


Answer the following middle category questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks.


Q3) Explain the different areas that contribute to environmental health.

Ans) Environmental health is a comprehensive field that considers various facets impacting human health within the surrounding environment.

a)     Air Quality: In order to alleviate respiratory disorders and other health concerns that are connected with poor air quality, it is necessary to monitor and manage pollutants such as particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide.

b)     Water Quality: In order to guarantee that people have access to clean and safe drinking water, it is necessary to manage and avoid pollution from chemicals, bacteria, heavy metals, and other pollutants that might cause diseases that are transmitted by water.

c)     Food Safety: Foodborne illnesses can be caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins, or chemical pollutants that are present in food. Foodborne illnesses can be prevented by regulating the production, processing, and distribution of food.

d)     Hazardous Waste Management: Proper disposal and management of hazardous waste materials to prevent environmental pollution and health risks related to exposure to toxic substances.

e)     Vector Control: Managing and controlling disease-carrying vectors like mosquitoes and rodents to curb the spread of diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease.

f)      Radiation Protection: Monitoring and managing exposure to natural and artificial sources of radiation, like UV rays, X-rays, nuclear energy, and radon gas, to prevent adverse health effects such as cancer and genetic mutations.

g)     Climate Change and Health: Studying the health impacts of climate change, including heat-related illnesses, altered disease patterns, food, and water security challenges, and impacts on vulnerable populations.

h)     Built Environment: Evaluating the effects of urban planning, housing, transportation, and access to green spaces on mental health, physical activity, and overall well-being.


Q4) Discuss any two theories that explain environment-behaviour relationship.

Ans)Two prominent theories that elucidate the relationship between environment and behaviour are:


Ecological Systems Theory (EST) by Urie Bronfenbrenner:

Bronfenbrenner's theory proposes that an individual's development is influenced by a system of interconnected environments that continually interact with them.


The theory comprises various nested levels, including:

a)     Microsystem: This involves the immediate environment directly impacting the individual, such as family, school, peers, and home.

b)     Mesosystem: It signifies the interactions among various components of the microsystem, like how a child's experience at school influences their behaviour at home.

c)     Exosystem: Encompasses indirect influences from external settings in which the individual does not actively participate but are influential, like a parent's workplace affecting family life.

d)     Macrosystem: Includes broader cultural and societal contexts shaping individual behaviour, beliefs, values, and opportunities.

e)     Chronosystem: Represents changes over time and the impact of historical events on an individual's development.


EST emphasizes the reciprocal interactions between an individual and their environment, underscoring the importance of considering multiple environmental layers in understanding behaviour.


Behaviour Settings Theory by Roger Barker:

Barker's theory focuses on how specific environments or "behaviour settings" shape and influence behaviour. A behaviour setting is a specific physical and social context with distinctive features that elicit consistent patterns of behaviour.

Key components include:

a)     Physical Setting: Refers to the physical attributes like layout, design, and objects present in a specific place.

b)     Norms and Roles: Describes the social norms, expectations, and roles associated with that environment.

c)     Activities: Identifies the behaviours or activities performed within that setting.


Q5) Discuss the impact of climate change on urban cities.

Ans) Climate change significantly impacts urban cities, leading to various environmental, social, and economic challenges:

a)     Extreme Weather Events: Urban areas face increased risks of extreme weather events like heatwaves, storms, and floods due to climate change. These events can damage infrastructure, disrupt daily life, and pose risks to public health and safety.

b)     Rising Temperatures: Urban heat islands, where cities experience higher temperatures than surrounding rural areas, exacerbate due to climate change. This elevation in temperature intensifies energy demands for cooling, raises health risks, and impacts air quality.

c)     Sea Level Rise: Coastal cities face the threat of rising sea levels, leading to coastal erosion, flooding, and salinization of water sources. This affects infrastructure, property, and displaces communities.

d)     Water Scarcity: Alterations in the patterns of precipitation might lead to a lack of water readily available in metropolitan areas. Inconsistent rainfall and droughts have an effect on the availability of water, which in turn has repercussions for agriculture, industry, and residents.

e)     Infrastructure Vulnerability: The urban infrastructure, including transportation networks, buildings, and utilities, is being put under stress as a result of climate change. Infrastructure that is getting on in years is frequently not adequately prepared to deal with the growing frequency and severity of weather-related disturbances.

f)      Health Risks: Climate change contributes to health risks in urban areas, including heat-related illnesses, respiratory problems from air pollution, and the spread of diseases due to changing environmental conditions.

g)     Economic Impacts: The financial toll of climate change on cities is substantial. Costs associated with repairing infrastructure, managing disasters, healthcare expenses, and loss of business and tourism revenue pose economic challenges.


Assignment Three


Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks.


Q6) Methods of studying personal space.

Ans) Studying personal space involves various methods:

a)     Observation: Researchers observe human interactions in controlled or natural settings to understand spatial boundaries and behaviours.

b)     Surveys/Questionnaires: Questionnaires collect data about perceptions of personal space, comfort zones, and preferred distances in different social interactions.

c)     Experimental Settings: Controlled experiments manipulate variables to measure reactions to invasion of personal space, using physiological measures or behavioural responses.

d)     Technology: Sensors, cameras, and tracking devices help measure proxemics—physical distances between individuals—allowing precise data collection in different contexts.

e)     Interviews/Focus Groups: Qualitative methods explore cultural, situational, and individual differences in personal space perceptions through discussions and in-depth interviews.


Q7) Errors in cognitive mapping.

Ans)Cognitive mapping, mental representations of physical spaces, may have errors:

a)     Distortion: Estimates that are not correct regarding the distance, size, or angle between distinct landmarks.

b)     Omissions: Missed details or features within a space, especially when the map is based on memory.

c)     Confusion: A situation in which one location or direction is confused with another, which can lead to misunderstanding!

d)     Simplification: Overly simplified representations that lack complexities of the actual space.

e)     Biases: There is a possibility that people' construction or perception of the map could be influenced by personal biases or cultural influences, which could result in subjective inaccuracies.


Q8) Growth of slums and migration.

Ans) In many cases, the expansion of slums coincides with the fast urbanisation and high migration rates that are occurring. The migration of people from rural areas to urban areas in search of better opportunities results in an increase in the population of the city. The flood of people is more than the amount of housing and infrastructure that is available, which leads to the formation of makeshift communities, which are the origin of slums. The expansion of slums can be attributed to a number of factors, including but not limited to poverty, a dearth of reasonable housing options, bad urban planning, and restricted access to fundamental services. The socioeconomic gaps and the difficulties that marginalised people in metropolitan areas confront are brought to light by these neighbourhoods, which are characterised by being overcrowded and having living conditions that are below acceptable standards.


Q9) Urban waste management.

Ans) Urban waste management involves the collection, transportation, disposal, and recycling of waste generated within urban areas. It encompasses strategies to handle various types of waste, including solid, liquid, and electronic waste. Proper management mitigates environmental pollution, reducing health hazards and maintaining sanitation. Techniques include recycling, composting, landfills, and waste-to-energy methods. Waste management systems that are effective incorporate public awareness campaigns, recycling facilities, and municipal services in order to promote sustainable practises. The fundamental objective of these systems is to reduce the amount of waste that is generated and the negative impact that it has on the environment and public health.


Q10) Air pollution and behaviour.

Ans)Air pollution significantly influences human behaviour. High levels of pollutants like particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide affect cognitive functions, mood, and physical health. Prolonged exposure often leads to irritability, fatigue, and decreased productivity. Moreover, concerns about air quality influence lifestyle choices, like outdoor activities, commuting preferences, and housing decisions. Behavioural responses such as using protective gear, altering travel routes, or advocating for cleaner air reflect efforts to mitigate the impact. Awareness campaigns and policies advocating reduced emissions drive behavioural changes, emphasizing the vital role of individual and collective actions in combating air pollution for healthier living environments.

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