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BPCE-145: Counselling Psychology

BPCE-145: Counselling Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPCE-145 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Counselling Psychology, you have come to the right place. BPCE-145 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPCE-145/ Asst /TMA /2021-22

Course Code: BPCE-145

Assignment Name: Counselling Psychology

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.

Assignment One

Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each

question carries 20 marks.   2 x 20 = 40

Q1. Discuss the factors that influence the counselling process.

Ans) In the counselling process, the social and cultural context of the individual plays a significant role. People belonging to different cultures have different ways of thinking, behaviour and personality. Moreover, the constructs of health, normal, cure etc. are culturally defined. What is considered as a normal behaviour in one culture can be considered as an abnormal behaviour in some other culture. In this context, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders by American Psychiatric Association (APA), which is a standard classification system of mental disorders followed internationally, has also acknowledged the importance of culture in diagnosing mental disorders in order to provide an appropriate therapeutic intervention.

Despite this fact, the application of western originated counselling approaches is widespread without giving due importance to the social and cultural context. The appropriateness of generalising and universalising some theories is questionable in particular cultural contexts. It is now being widely recognised that people belonging to different sociocultural backgrounds can have different ways of thinking and behaviour which can be entirely different from these generalised theories. Therefore, there is a need to understand and integrate the indigenous concepts related to counselling for better therapeutic interventions.

One of the main principles of carrying out counselling is maintaining the confidentiality of the whole counselling process, including the details of the client, their problem and related information. In online counselling, there are more threats to the confidentiality posed by hackers and other people who might have access to the e-mails or other technological platforms used for the purpose of counselling. Sensitive information about the client might get leaked thus creating problems for both the counsellor and the client. Furthermore, as it is important in any type of counselling process, obtaining informed consent is an important issue in online counselling also. It is more of a legal procedure wherein the client is informed all the potential benefits and risks of a therapeutic intervention.

The counsellor should inform about the roles and responsibilities of client and counsellor, and the counselling process. In addition, counsellor needs to inform about the additional ethical issues in online counselling and seek the permission of the client before starting the counselling process. The counsellor who chooses to go for e-counselling should have sufficient understanding of the technology so as to facilitate the overall counselling process. This includes appropriate knowledge of the digital tool being used for online counselling and ensuring client’s cyber safety and confidentiality.

The ethical issues in face-to-face counselling situation applies equally to the online counselling. In addition, the nuances of technology pose additional concerns related to confidentiality and creating a therapeutic climate for the effectiveness of counselling. Competence of the counsellor consists of relationship competence and technical competence (Nelson-Jones, 2008). Relationship competence refers to the ability of the counsellor to create proper rapport and a helping relationship; whereas technical competence indicates the ability of the counsellor to have the requisite skills to carry out the counselling sessions and plan interventions. In the advent of online counselling, counsellors need to have another competence – technological competence, that is, the ability to use technology smoothly and effectively for the purpose of providing counselling.

Q2. Explain person-centred therapy in terms of the role of counsellor and the techniques used in it.

Ans) Person-cantered treatment takes a phenomenological approach, concentrating on the person's experiences, including how she perceives herself and the environment around her. This direct personal experience or organismic experience with oneself is critical for one's learning, enhancement, and self-growth.

Role of the Counsellor

In PCT, a counsellor has no role. That's why PCT is sometimes called non-directive counselling. The role of the counsellor in therapy is one of an empathic listener who believes in the client's ability to lead her own life. The job of a therapist is shaped by the counsellor's views and attitudes, not by trained procedures. Clients do desire help, but a PCT counsellor is neither a life expert nor a teacher (like in CBT). The counsellor's duty is that of a solid nest, where the baby bird can continue to nurture itself before flying away. The counsellor leaves the client to decide when and how to fly.

The client's understanding is vital to a PCT therapist. Any use of psychological tests by the therapist is based on the client's understanding of the test and its results. In this sense, the client is the expert in the therapy, not in counselling or human psychology, but in her own life.

Techniques/ Strategies

To ensure that PCT works, Rogers listed six conditions that must be met by both the counsellor and the client. He dubbed these six the necessary and sufficient criteria for successful therapy, meaning that even if only these six requirements are present, they are sufficient to bring about successful therapeutic transformation. Three of these six are therapist requirements:

Therapist’s Congruence or Genuineness: Because the outcomes of PCT are totally dependent on the counsellor-client interaction, Rogers established six requirements that must be met for a therapeutic intervention to be effective. He referred to these six as the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapy success, implying that not only were these six requirements needed to meet for therapy to be effective, but that they were also sufficient in and of themselves to bring about successful therapeutic change. Three of these six are prerequisites for therapists:

Unconditional Positive Regard: Attaching criteria of worth, as in the paragliding example above, damages a person. In this light, a PCT therapist shows unconditional positive regard to the client. The therapist embraces the clients' experiences and accepts them as they are. This does not imply that the therapist approves of everything the client does; instead, the therapist accepts that this is how things are right now. Because a PCT counsellor thinks that every human being is capable of goodness, even if she doesn't agree with the client's current behaviour, she still views the client as a worthwhile individual.

Empathic understanding: The final requirement for a therapist is to convey sympathetic understanding to the client. This is when you feel the client's emotions as if they were your own, yet without losing the "as if" character. A PCT counsellor must seek to understand a client's feelings from the client's point of view (as if they were the counsellor's own), but not become consumed by them.

Assignment Two

Answer the following middle category questions in about 250 words each. Each question

carries 10 marks.                                                                                                     3 x 10 = 30

Q3. Differentiate between assessment and testing. Explain the issues in assessment.

Ans) Various tools are used to assess something's worth. Testing is the process of putting anything to the test.

Both terms are used interchangeably, yet they mean different things. In other words, a test is a “product” that measures something. Currently, assessment is a process, not a product. Assessment is utilised both during and after instruction. After receiving your assessment findings, you can evaluate them and, if necessary, modify your instruction. Testing is done after the instruction to complete the lesson and acquire the results. Unlike assessments, test findings do not need to be interpreted.

A multitude of tools are used to assess something's value. Testing is putting someone or something to the test to see how valuable they are. Assessments include educational, health, nursing, political, psychiatric, and psychological assessments. Similarly, testing includes software testing, education testing, and experimenting. Tests and assessments are extensively utilised in education and medicine. In both disciplines, testing is frequently used to examine a person. Objects can also be assessed to determine their worth and value. These are commonly done on antiques to assess market value.

Issues in Assessment

  1. The organisation must examine the counselling service's feasibility based on factors such as size, nature of work, employee demographics, cost, and senior management support.

  2. A counsellor must assess the organization's culture to determine whether senior management and other employees support workplace counselling, as well as the counsellor's own expectations.

  3. Accord Signing a legal agreement or contract that clearly defines the counsellor’s position, obligations, and compensation.

  4. Encourage employees to use the workplace counselling service by reassuring them of its anonymity and that it will not be used against them in reviews for raises and promotions.

  5. The organisation, employees, and counsellor can all provide feedback and evaluation to better understand the benefits and drawbacks of counselling in the future.

Q4. Explain the defence mechanisms.

Ans) The ego uses various barriers to avoid being overpowered by these many fears. They're called ego defences. They are unconscious defences against unwanted thoughts or feelings.

Some of the ego defense mechanisms are presented below.

  1. Repression: The ego unconsciously drives uncomfortable, troubling, or threatening thoughts, sensations, or events into the unconscious. Many survivors of childhood abuse forget the trauma's details. Not because they wanted to forget, but because the psyche couldn't operate with trauma memories still in conscious memory.

  2. Regression: When stressed, we revert to our childhood behaviours, such as thumb sucking.

    Suppression occurs when the ego consciously pushes experiences into the unconscious. Trying to forget getting chastised in class is an example.

  3. Substitution: When the thing replaces the impulse. For example, a lady enraged by her mother-in-law may lash out at her child.

  4. Denial: The ego hides overwhelming situations. For example, believing COVID-19 is a scam or refusing to be vaccinated.

  5. Intellectualization: This protective mechanism employs logic to remove painful feelings. Its goal is to ease anxiety caused by a certain occasion. For example, persuading oneself that a deceased loved one has gone to a better place and is no longer sick or in agony. So that a loved one's death doesn't cause a mental breakdown.

  6. Rationalization: is the use of logic to explain one's blunders. That is, asserting “he was the one who hit me first” to excuse physical aggression.

  7. Reaction formation: When the ego rejects unconscious impulses and beliefs, it turns the person into someone who acts in direct opposition to them.

  8. Sublimation: Freud considered this was a socially acceptable defence mechanism. Sex and aggression are basic human desires that can be sublimated. He saw sublimation in all arts and sports.

  9. Projection: Anna Freud added this defence mechanism. She believed people tend to blame others for their own bad intentions, emotions, and sentiments. For example, if someone feels drawn to their cousin, their superego would forbid it, and they would settle by believing it was their cousin who was attracted to them.

Q5. Define music therapy and describe the benefits of music therapy.

Ans) Music therapy isn't only about listening to music. Playing or picking a musical composition has a role in music therapy. Music is used to communicate between the client and the therapist, especially for patients who have trouble speaking or expressing themselves verbally. Music therapy helps patients express their feelings and meets the emotional requirements of their families.

Music therapy is too complex to be defined in one sentence. Music therapy is not to be confused with ‘music medicine'. According to Bradt & Dileo, music therapists do music therapy, while music medicine sessions can be conducted by health professionals. A music therapist, for example, has studied and qualified. They create music therapy treatment regimens.

Benefits of Music Therapy

Music therapy has been shown to help a variety of physical and mental health concerns. Music can assist reduce hypertension, muscle tension, and heart rate by soothing the patient. Stress and weariness are lessened, and pain management is better. Music therapy has been shown to improve communication skills, attentiveness, and memory retention. A study on children with autism and neonatal care found that music therapy improved cognitive ability.

The choice of music used in music therapy sessions has an impact on the outcomes. Music tastes are as individual as people. Thus, music selection and evaluation are critical. With the therapist taking an active role in making such selections and treatment plans, it is similar to having personalised treatment plans for each individual depending on their requirements and preferences.

Music therapy also tackles communication issues by allowing those with verbal communication issues to express themselves through music. Nguyen's further research proved the benefits of music therapy for many health conditions including mental health, emotional stress, depression, conquering stress-related disorders, memory loss, physical discomfort, and chronic diseases.

Assignment Three

Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question

carries 6 marks.      5 x 6 = 30

Q6. Standardized tests

Ans) Standardised tests are measurements that contain pre-defined items ordered in a pre-determined order to produce a valid and reliable score for the patient's performance in relation to a normally distributed population.

Few commonly used standardized measures are:

  1. NIMHANS Neuropsychological Battery

  2. PGI Battery of Brain Dysfunction (PGIBBD)

  3. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)

  4. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

Thus, neuropsychological examination is a useful tool for assessing brain functioning on specific activities, quantifying impairment, and developing appropriate treatment plans (e.g., cognitive retraining) to help the aged improve their rehabilitation potential.

Q7. Superego

Ans) All of our "shoulds" are stored in the superego, which is an aspect of our personality. It houses our ideal selves (who we should be and what we should do) as well as our conscience (largely derived from what the society thinks we should be and do). The expectations we have of ourselves, and others are deep-seated, and when we act against these expectations, for example, when we disagree with our parents about something valid and essential, we are punished by the superego in the form of feelings of guilt and shame. Our superego develops as a result of our life experiences. By the age of 3-5 years, children have developed their superego. Because the superego is an internal representation of external values rather than a necessity, it requires contact with other persons and society to develop.

Q8. The ABC Model

Ans) The ABC Model consists of an Activating event or incident, Beliefs, which are our pre-existing thoughts and beliefs about the event, and Consequences, which are our reactions to the event/incident. According to the A-B-C paradigm, every circumstance can elicit numerous emotional responses based on how a person processes it.

When an incident occurs (Activating event), beliefs about the incident (Beliefs) (Consequences) are triggered. According to Ellis, negative effects arise as a result of our interpretation of the situation/event. As a result of this approach, it is possible to apply an intervention (or therapy) to beliefs in order to change emotions and behaviours. As a result, the focus here is on an individual's irrational ideas, whereas Beck's theory focuses on the cognitive triad.

Q9. Psychoeducation

Ans) Psychoeducation is the process of informing the client and/or family about the client's ailment or psychological state. Psychoeducation is an evidence-based therapy technique that provides knowledge and assistance to clients and their families to help them better understand and cope with their condition or illness. It provides details on the aetiology, symptoms, prognosis, and treatment options for their identified ailment. Families and clients have a right to know about the situation so that they can better understand and evaluate their quality of life and find better ways to cope with their everyday challenges.

Psychoeducation is given not only for psychological or mental disorders like anxiety disorders, clinical depression, dementia, schizophrenia, eating disorders, personality disorders, and developmental disorders, but also for physical illnesses like cancer, diabetes, and cardiac illnesses, especially when long-term management is required.

Q10. Marital schism and marital skew

Ans) Lidz et al. found two types of marital dispute in their clients' families: marital schism and marital skew. In a family, a marital split arises when one spouse diminishes the worth of the other parent in front of the children in order to gain sympathy and support. In marital skew, one parent either denies or tries to rationalise the other parent's deviant conduct as 'normal,' e.g., an abusive father is never questioned by the mother, who either rejects or justifies the abuse. It also entails one parent controlling the family dynamic and interactions while the other is neglected, and they must maintain the status quo at all costs.

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