If you are looking for BPCE-145 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Counselling Psychology, you have come to the right place. BPCE-145 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAG courses of IGNOU.
BPCE-145 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BPCE-145/Asst /TMA /2022-23
Course Code : BPCE-145
Assignment Name: Counselling Psychology
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks. 2 x 20 = 40
1. Describe the types of counselling and the approaches to counselling.
Types of Counselling
Psychodynamic Therapy: a non-directive talking therapy paradigm with the goal of assisting clients in better managing their situations by assisting them in understanding why some things continue to be challenging and upsetting for them.
Psychological Therapy: A talking therapy approach that emphasises modifying one's thoughts and behaviours in order to assist one handle their challenges. The most popular application of cognitive behavioural therapy is to alleviate the symptoms of anxiety and depression by altering beliefs and behaviour.
Humanistic Therapy: A non-directive person-cantered talking therapy paradigm with a focus on assisting clients in processing their problems from the past and present. One of its core tenets is that individuals have the power to shape their own futures and that lasting change is possible.
Gestalt: A non-directive talking therapy style with a significant emphasis on the "here-and-now" and self-awareness, which holds that self-awareness is the key to personal development and reaching one's greatest potential. The method acknowledges that negative thought patterns and behaviours can occasionally obstruct self-awareness, leaving people feeling sad and dissatisfied.
Transactional Analysis: a non-directive talking therapy model that aids in elucidating to patients how and why they feel, think, and act the way they do on a daily basis. This sort of therapy will appeal to those who recognise that they behave stereotypically when they respond to others and circumstances and follow their own internal commands, especially under pressure.
Existential: a talking therapy approach that seeks to go further into the philosophical meaning of the word "meaning." It is appropriate for those who want to reflect on the significance they assign to their human being and the state of humanity. Exploring reality and how it is experienced by a person requires time and is heavily impacted by philosophy.
Approaches to Counselling
Psychoanalytic Approach: By examining the unconscious mind and the relationship between the conscious and unconscious minds, Sigmund Freud created this method in the early 1900s for analysing the fundamental origins of behaviour and emotion. The form that psychoanalysis takes can differ from practitioner to practitioner. The foundation of psychoanalytical and psychodynamic therapies is the development of an individual's unconscious thoughts and perceptions.
The Phenomenological (Adlerian) Approach: Alfred Adler makes an effort to see the world from the perspective of the client, for example, emphasising that how something is in actuality is less significant than how the person perceives it to be. The fundamental tenet is that we are constantly "becoming," that we are moving forward, and that our concerns are more focused on our subjective aims than a concrete history.
Existential Approach: The existential approach is a philosophical method that encourages clients to think and look for meaning and purpose in their lives rather than trying to cure them. According to existentialism, the idea that life has no intrinsic value and that it must be created, humans are confronted by the fact of transient existence.
Gestalt Approach: In that it concentrates on whatever is in the client's awareness, the gestalt approach is an integrative viewpoint. The word "gestalt," which means "whole" in German, was initially used as the title of a book published by Fritz Perls, et al. By keeping the person in the "now and now," it functions as therapy. This method uses the client's feelings, thoughts, bodily sensations and actions.
2. Discuss the various stages of counselling with the help of a case example.
Ans) Hackney and Cormier propose a five-stage model for defining the counselling process through which both counsellor and client move .
Stage one: (Initial disclosure) Relationship building
The counselling process begins with relationship building. This stage focuses on the counsellor engaging with the client to explore the issues that directly affect them. The vital first interview can set the scene for what is to come, with the client reading the counsellor’s verbal and nonverbal signals to draw inferences about the counsellor and the process. The counsellor focuses on using good listening skills and building a positive relationship. When successful, it ensures a strong foundation for future dialogue and the continuing counselling process.
Stage two: (In-depth exploration) Problem assessment
While the counsellor and client continue to build a beneficial, collaborative relationship, another process is underway: problem assessment. The counsellor carefully listens and draws out information regarding the client’s situation (life, work, home, education, etc.) and the reason they have engaged in counselling. Information crucial to subsequent stages of counselling includes identifying triggers, timing, environmental factors, stress levels, and other contributing factors.
Stage three: (Commitment to action) Goal setting
Effective counselling relies on setting appropriate and realistic goals, building on the previous stages. The goals must be identified and developed collaboratively, with the client committing to a set of steps leading to a particular outcome.
Stage four: Counselling intervention
This stage varies depending on the counsellor and the theories they are familiar with, as well as the situation the client faces. For example, a behavioural approach may suggest engaging in activities designed to help the client alter their behaviour. In comparison, a person-cantered approach seeks to engage the client’s self-actualizing tendency.
Stage five: Evaluation, termination, or referral
Termination may not seem like a stage, but the art of ending the counselling is critical. Drawing counselling to a close must be planned well in advance to ensure a positive conclusion is reached while avoiding anger, sadness, or anxiety Part of the process is to reach an early agreement on how the therapy will end and what success looks like. This may lead to a referral if required. While there are clear stages to the typical counselling process, other than termination, each may be ongoing. For example, while setting goals, new information or understanding may surface that requires additional assessment of the problem.
Real-Life Examples of the Counselling Phases
Lost direction: ‘Jenny’ arrived in counselling with little income, no sense of direction, and lacking a sense of control over her life. The counsellor began by forming a picture of her situation and what had led her to that point. Sessions then moved on to explore Jenny’s beliefs about herself: where they came from, how they affected her, and their appropriateness for current and future circumstances. A series of brainstorming sessions were used to understand Jenny’s needs, family relationships, and past, and identify her irrational beliefs. Once Jenny uncovered her core beliefs, the counsellor worked with her to replace them with more rational ones. Jenny ended counselling overjoyed with her new preferred beliefs, along with a renewed sense of confidence and control over her life.
Answer the following middle category questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks. 3 x 10 = 30
3. Explain the ethical guidelines in counselling.
Ans) The ethical guidelines in counselling are:
Being trustworthy: It involves the ideas of fidelity, loyalty, and keeping promises. The ability to trust is viewed as essential to comprehending and resolving ethical dilemmas. Adhering to this principle requires practitioners to act in accordance with the trust that has been placed in them; work to ensure that clients' expectations have a reasonable chance of being met; honour their agreements and promises; view confidentiality as a duty arising from the client's trust; and limit any disclosure of confidential information about clients to furthering the purposes for which it was originally disclosed.
Autonomy: Giving a person the freedom to decide what to do and how to do it is the essence of this idea. The importance of fostering a client's capacity for self-direction in treatment and throughout life is emphasised by this idea. The obligation of the counsellor to support clients in acting on their own ideals and making their own decisions is discussed. When promoting customer autonomy, there are two key factors to take into account.
Beneficence: According to the beneficence principle, you should always act in your client's best interests after conducting a thorough evaluation. Beneficence is a reflection of the counsellor’s obligation to promote the client's welfare.
Non maleficence: The idea of nonmaleficence states that we should not damage other people. This principle, which is frequently defined as "above all, do no damage," is seen by some as the most important of all the principles, even though technically they are all equally important.
Justice: Being just and fair to every client and respecting their human rights and dignity are requirements of the justice principle.
4. Explain the criteria for selecting an appropriate test.
Ans) Understanding the Purpose of a Test: The first step in attaining competency in selecting appropriate tests involves understanding the purpose or purposes for which an assessment is given. According to Mehrens, in its broadest sense, the purpose of any assessment is to gather data to facilitate decision making. However, many kinds of decisions and many different types of information may be gained from the use of tests and may serve to facilitate decision making.
Evaluating Test Quality: The second step in selecting an appropriate test is to evaluate its quality. Evaluating the quality of a test involves a careful analysis of the characteristics of the population to be tested; the knowledge, skills, abilities, or attitudes to be assessed; and the eventual use and interpretation of the test scores
Validity: Assessments need to be fair, reliable, defensible, and free of bias. They also need to be valid. In fact, validity is at the core of the test development process for any assessment.
Face Validity: Face validity asks the question, Based upon a surface examination, does the test look like it measures what it is intended to measure, with test questions that appear to provide an adequate measure of what the test as a whole is intended to measure? Face validity is simply a matter of whether or not the test questions on the surface seem to be relevant to the person taking the test. Some would argue that face validity is really not valid at all, especially if the process of examining an assessment is haphazard or not very systematic.
5. Discuss the role of counsellor in existential therapy.
Ans) An existential counsellor’s primary responsibility is to comprehend the client's subjective reality. Instead of taking an objective, detached approach, they place more of an emphasis on developing close, loving relationships with their clients. The counsellor makes sure the client understands the value of taking accountability for their actions and accepts responsibility for their life. Not an option is blaming the other person or the circumstance. Even if a client does attribute blame for their circumstances to others, the counsellor encourages them to consider how they may have contributed to the issue.
The counsellor encourages clients to develop self-awareness because this is the only way for them to accept and live properly. It's similar to the therapist holding up a mirror so that the client can look in it and face their own reflection. They become more prepared to make changes for the future as a result of realising how their lives are unauthentic and constrained. Each client's experience through therapy is thought to be individual and innovative. The therapist helps the client to do the same in real-life situations outside of therapy by creating a space for exploration and experimentation in their own authentic method of interacting to them.
Client’s experience in therapy
The patient takes an active part in existential therapy. Clients go through a range of emotions during the process of self-reflection and world-exploration, from fear to rage, joy, melancholy, and enthusiasm. As individuals become more conscious of the ways they are imprisoning themselves, they may also begin to experience little amounts of existential freedom. The emphasis is on agency and responsibility. Effective therapy involves helping patients put their realisations into practise. Existentialist Rollo May emphasises the need of taking baby steps toward a more happy, full, and meaningful existence with bravery and optimism, acknowledging their freedom and extending it through these baby steps.
Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks. 5 x 6 = 30
6. Case history
Ans) Two crucial counselling techniques—the case history and interview—provide background information and aid in issue evaluation and intervention. Defining and comprehending the issue the client is experiencing begins with taking a client's history. A case history is described as a prepared professional conversation that enables a counsellor or therapist to learn about a client's issues, symptoms, emotions, anxieties, and challenges as well as to gain understanding of the client's condition and attitude toward it.
Taking a client's history typically begins with gathering basic identification information about them, such as their name, age, sex, place of residence, socioeconomic status, level of education, marital status, etc. In addition, it's crucial to pay attention to the client's behaviour, symptoms, and presenting issue. It's also crucial to take note of body language, verbal clues, and nonverbal cues. More can sometimes be learned from body language and gestures than from what the customer says. Therefore, the case history provides you with detailed information on the customer and his or her issues. The counsellor must reassure the client of the security and confidentiality of any personal information supplied with them before beginning the case history-taking process.
7. Five stages of grief
Ans) A widely used model of grieving was provided by Kübler-Ross. She described the "Five Stages of Grief" that most people experience. Denial, rage, bargaining, depression, and acceptance are these. This concept states that the first stage occurs when the person is in a denial mindset and refuses to accept reality. From a few weeks to months, on average, it takes each person to progress from this stage to the next. Once reality sets in, people experience wrath and frequently ask themselves "why me?," "life isn't fair.," and "where is God?"
They may make arrangements with a higher power, the cosmos, or themselves during the negotiating phase. It is an effort on their part to regain control over their sense of helplessness. The bereaved person will entertain the notion that the person, relationship, or career may have been spared if they had only done one thing differently. They experience depression when they realise that their current beliefs and ways of thinking will not alter reality. The final step is acceptance, in which the person accepts the loss and the changed circumstances in her or his life.
8. Benefits of art therapy
Ans) There are numerous positive impacts of art therapy. Numerous studies have demonstrated that using art therapy has its advantages. Breast cancer patients who received art therapy reported general improvements in their physical and mental well-being. In a similar vein, Hurt’s analysis of the literature revealed that art therapy had a favourable effect on people who utilised it to express themselves while dealing with work-related stress.
In a research by Graves on individuals with brain injuries between the ages of 24 and 71, three patients reported less anxiety, four showed less depression, and five said they felt less pressured. The study includes five one-hour sessions as well as the creation of collages, 3D figures, and paintings. Other studies have discovered that art therapy is useful for treating depression and trauma. As a result, there are numerous ways that art therapy can be used to enhance our psychological and physical health. Both medical ailments and cases of emotional discomfort and psychological problems can benefit from it.
9. Cerebral palsy
Ans) A series of conditions known as cerebral palsy have an impact on a person's mobility, balance, and posture. The most typical motor impairment in children is cerebral palsy. Cerebral refers to something involving the brain. Palsy refers to muscle weakness or functional issues. A person's capacity to regulate their muscles is hampered by aberrant brain development or damage to the growing brain, which results in CP. Each person has a unique set of CP symptoms. A person with severe CP may require specialised walking aids or may not be able to walk at all, in which case they may require lifelong care. On the other hand, a person with mild CP might walk a little awkwardly but may not require any specific assistance. Though the precise symptoms can fluctuate during a person's lifetime, CP does not get worse over time.
10. Imagery re-scripting
Ans) As the name implies, imagery re-scripting is a technique in which the client is instructed to use his imagination to recreate painful events. He or she is instructed to consider other potential courses of action in order to lessen the upsetting effects of the actual event. For instance, the customer might be instructed to scale back the water and the violent winds in a traumatic occurrence like the Indian cyclonic cyclone "Amphan," which struck the States of Odisha and West Bengal. This method emphasises how recollections following the traumatic incident are similar to ghosts. In order to make the client's recollections less upsetting to live with, the counsellor helps paint the picture in other colours..
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