top of page
BPCG-172: Youth, Gender and Identity

BPCG-172: Youth, Gender and Identity

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BPCG-172 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Youth, Gender and Identity, you have come to the right place. BPCG-172 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG, BAPAH, BAEGH, BAECH, BAHIH, BAPSH, BASOH, BSCANH, BAGS courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BPCG-172 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPCG-172/ Asst /TMA /2021-22

Course Code: BPCG-172

Assignment Name: Youth, Gender and Identity

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

NOTE: All questions are compulsory.

Assignment One

Answer the following descriptive category questions in about 500 words each. Each

question carries 20 marks. 2 x 20 = 40

Q1. Explain the social psychological perspectives on identity.

Ans) Identity is explained from several theoretical angles. Here are a few notable ones:

Symbolic Interactionism

Symbolic interactionism, a sociological social psychology perspective, holds that humans behave towards objects not based on their physical attributes, but on their meanings. For example, an old table may be considered as a waste of space or a treasure. Humans see themselves as objects because they can reflect back on themselves. They can appraise themselves, make decisions, and plan for the future, and are self-aware or mindful of their own existence. So self is an object. C.H. Cooley's social self/looking glass self-notion is here. Simply put, he remarked, other people are our mirrors.

Social Identity Theory

The social identity theory (SIT) is developed by Henri Tajfel. SIT assumes that a person’s social identity is constituted by the vast number of social identifications that person has with various social categories like class, race, gender and also more transient ones like educational institution, hobby class etc. Not all those identifications are primed, or activated, or salient, at any one time. Rather, social identity at any one time is made up of a few identifications selected to suit the particular social context. This motive for a positive social identity propels much social behaviour and is expressed as a tendency to evaluate one’s ingroup memberships positively. A positive social identity comes about only through social comparison between the ingroup and some relevant out-group.

The value of being an Indian fan, or a psychology student can only be evaluated through comparison with other relevant out-group identities. SIT proposes that there is a motive to evaluate group memberships positively so as to enhance social identity, and that this positive differentiation of in-group from out-group is achieved though comparison of the in-group to an out-group. Members of in-group are perceived as being different from each other (in-group differentiation) and members of the out group are perceived as being all the same (out-group homogeneity). These cognitive mechanisms of social categorization, social identification and social comparison are at the base of stereotypes of and prejudices towards out-groups.

Eriksonian Perspective

Erikson was one of the famous thinkers to construct identity theory. Erikson's definition of identity encompassed internal and external elements. It is the knowledge of one's self-sameness and continuity, and the style of one's uniqueness that coincides with the sameness and continuity of one's meaning for others in the immediate community. Adolescence and youth are the stages when an individual begins to feel like an individual, a unique human being ready to fit into a meaningful position in society. Identity formation is the process of selecting and combining talents, aptitudes, and skills to fit the social context. It also requires establishing defences against threats and anxieties while learning to prioritise desires, wants, and duties.

Erikson views identity as a bipolar dimension extending from synthesis to confusion. When it comes to developing an adult identity, identity confusion is the result of the inability to create a stable foundation of ideals from childhood and current identifications. Various characteristics, such as love preferences, religious philosophy, job and political choices, combine to define one's identity. This is shown to others and to oneself. An identity synthesis is closer to completion and consistency of integration. Incomplete aspects cause identity confusion. Identity uncertainty can range from not knowing what to do after school to feeling like one's life has no purpose.

Besides identity turmoil, youth stage can lead to identity consolidation around negative characteristics. It is based on all those identifications and roles that were presented to them as most undesired, harmful, and yet most genuine. It is characterised by “scornful and snobbish hostility” against good and desirable duties. As a result of the apparent impossibility of positive identities. A young person's intense hatred for practically all aspects of their upbringing is a negative identity. A person like this is likely to identify with values that are unaccepted in their own environment. Totalitarian identity is another harmful form of adolescent identity seen in religious fanatics. It is the obsession with what is undeniably correct or ideal.

Q2. What is youth culture? Describe the various features of youth culture.

Ans) Age also influences the development of youth culture. The youth is a stage between childhood and adulthood. Schooling gives children and adolescents a shared meaning and experience. They are still dependent on their parents and other adults. At the same time, they must be self-sufficient like adults. In this era of transition, the adolescent relies on others to help him make sense of himself. Erikson contends that teenage identity and role uncertainty is a key psychological issue. The youth culture can help adolescents establish their identities.

Features of Youth Culture

Generational consciousness:

Generational awareness is a feature of youth cultures. It is a subjective awareness of specific historical occurrences. For example, ‘The Children of Liberalization' are an Indian generation born immediately after the 1991 economic changes. They were born in an India undergoing significant economic, technological, and social transformation due to globalisation. The violence of Partition and political tyranny of Emergency are unfamiliar experiences for these ‘Liberalization Children'. Instead, they grew up in an era of market economy, coalition politics, technological growth, and hedonistic materialism in a globalised globe. A global culture of creativity and initiative has seen Indians write success tales all across the world. These historical possibilities foster a feeling of generation and cohort.

Relationship of youth lifestyles with class, ethnicity and gender:

Youth cultures are typically expressions of class, ethnicity, and gender resistance. Larrikinism was a class-based adolescent culture in 19th century Australia. Larrikanism is the culture of working-class teenagers who target ‘respectable citizens' with insults, assaults, loitering, riots, and resisting arrest. Contemporaries portrayed Larrikan culture as one of overt sexuality, high costume, drinking, gambling, violent sports, and quasi-gang organisation.

Adolescence and Smith noted that larrikins were not campaigning for better wages and working conditions. Rather, they were rejecting capitalism itself. Hip-Hop is an ethnic centred youth culture. It is a poetic-musical movement of African diaspora youth against racism and inequality. Youth cultures also convey gendered roles and beliefs. Motorcycle gangs are an example of how the usage of motorcycles shows a specific masculinity. The research on female presence in political-cultural youth groups is limited. Critics of subcultural studies claim the term “subculture” has male overtones. In order to be a part of subcultural practises, one must incorporate fans/audience.

Counter culture:

Youth culture is often described as a counterculture to mainstream culture. It is considered as anti-authoritarian and anti-parental. A subculture's youth are seen as continuously seeking methods to create a space for their own ways of being that conflict with the adult world. America's hippie counterculture of the 1960s is a classic example of youth culture. The hippies felt excluded from a middle class characterised by consumerism and repression. They opposed the Vietnam War and marched in anti-war protests.

They established a distinct style of dress and drug use. Hippies wore loose flowing clothes with beads and sandals. Many males had beards. They lived in communal or cooperative housing. They were often social outcasts who avoided traditional occupations and careers. Their principles were peace and love. Rather, make love than war. They preached openness and tolerance as alternatives to middle-class limitations and regimentation. The hippies supported hallucinogenic drug use as a technique to expand consciousness.

Assignment Two

Answer the following middle category questions in about 250 words each. Each question

carries 10 marks. 3 x 10 = 30

Q3. Explain the concept of youth from a socio-cultural perspective.

Ans) Getting a job, raising a family, and being acknowledged as complete and contributing citizens are all prominent social markers of youth. The United Nations defines youth as persons aged 15 to 24. WHO defines adolescence as the age range of 10 to 19 years, “youth” as the age range of 15-24 years, and “young people” as the age range of 10 to 24 years.

Regardless of the age range of youth, it is that era of life when one transitions from childhood dependence to adult freedom. Thus, the youth period varies per culture.

Socio-cultural Perspective of Youth

Youth is not just age. Age is a biological fact. However, the meaning and experience of ageing is heavily determined by our society, culture, and historical era. In this way, youth is constructed. Notably, many of the inherited assumptions in juvenile psychology come from developmental psychology's universal phases of development. But, like any other stage of life, culture has an impact on youth. Youth is a fluid concept that changes with time and space. Youth is defined, understood, and developed in cultural and historical contexts. In this light, understanding Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective is critical. This idea states that development is influenced by micro, meso, exo, macro, and chronosystems.

The microsystem encompasses the person's family, peers, school, and neighbourhood. The youth's connection with parents, friends, and teachers helps him construct youth. The mesosystem connects microsystems or contexts. Examples are the connections between family, school, and religion experiences, and family, school, and peer experiences. The exosystem connects a passive social situation to the individual's immediate context. Experiences at work may influence a child's home life. The macrosystem is the culture in which people live. Cultural norms, traditions, and values shape a youth's development. The chronosystem is a patterning of environmental occurrences, life changes, and socio-historical situations.

The socio-cultural approach helps us understand the diversity of the youth population. So, youth isn't a category. It is also a dynamic process of experiencing life at a given developmental stage. It shares certain universal or common patterns with adolescence, which is a global biological process. The impact of social institutions, culture, and changing economic and political circumstances on adolescents must be acknowledged.

Q4. Discuss how globalization has influenced youth work identity.

Ans) Education patterns have shifted as part of the globalisation movement. The possibilities of life-long learning have been revolutionised by distance education, online education in video and audio formats, and increasing exposure to information and knowledge in a range of areas. Exposure to locations and contexts outside of the known and familiar, as well as knowledge and proficiency in one or more languages and the willingness to travel, emerge as major determinants influencing both schooling and work. This is a good thing because it means that adolescents are not restricted in their learning by their actual location. It is possible to learn new subjects or areas of interest even while working. However, there is a lack of connection and respect for a teacher who is present to lead the learner and answer questions as they occur.

Second, in today's worldwide world, job patterns have shifted. Young people in the changing society change occupations faster than in the past, when it was the standard to secure a job and stick with it. This is especially true in some areas, such as IT, where people operate in international teams, on multiple time shifts, and on flexible schedules. As a result, the previous pattern of a defined work schedule, a fixed period of employment, and a constant pattern of work has changed. On the bright side, this has resulted in fresh information and international exposure. Faster career advancement is also a benefit. However, the youth's work identity is highly weak, and they are quite uneasy because their jobs are never secure, and their labour becomes obsolete much faster. A heightened sense of aspiration is created by increasing foreign exposure. It's also difficult for today's kids to comprehend and respect the achievements of previous generations.

Q5. Explain the General Aggression Model.

Ans) Anderson and Bushman developed the General Aggressiveness Model, which they believe is the most complete of all the theories of aggression available. It takes into consideration a wide range of circumstances that can lead to aggression in an individual. However, it also discusses the mediating influence of our cognitive and decision-making processes on the actual violent behaviour that we exhibit in our daily lives. Individuals' current internal states are depicted in the model below as being influenced by a variety of person-related and situation-related variables, such as personality, frustration, provocation, usage of alcohol, media violence, and so forth.

In other words, they cause an individual's arousal level to be raised, angry emotions to be elicited, and negative/aggressive thoughts to be generated. The individual then interprets the current circumstance, that is, engages in evaluation of the situation, and decisions are made as a result, which can result in either impulsive action (aggressive) or reasoned action depending on the situation. The initial input variables advance through the routes of affect, cognition, and arousal, and reach the conclusion of aggression or non-aggression through the mediating influence of appraisal and decision processes.

Assignment Three

Answer the following short category questions in about 100 words each. Each question

carries 6 marks. 5 x 6 = 30

Q6. Body image in adolescents

Ans) Adolescents must also adjust to their changing body image and sexuality. Our perception of our body type, how we look, and our physical attractiveness is all part of our body image. They become obsessed with their bodies as a result of their physical development. Early maturing adolescent girls struggle to cope with their changing bodies and may even face name-calling. Negative peer reactions and bullying are common among adolescent guys who mature later than their peers. Negative experiences, especially those involving the body, can lead to psychological concerns such as body image issues, eating disorders, and internalised guilt over one's gender or sexual identity. Adolescents are acutely aware of the importance of having a distinct identity while yet fighting to be accepted by their peers. Greater cognitive growth entails a greater knowledge of available options and the ability to make better decisions. As a result, there are confrontations with parents about personal freedom. Peer pressure is a major psychosocial concern in adolescence, particularly in the early phases.

Q7. Holland’s theory of vocational choice

Ans) John L. Holland's theory of vocational choice is one of the most commonly investigated and utilised theories of career development. His hypothesis proposes that people project their self- and world-of-work views into occupational titles and make career decisions that satisfy their chosen personal orientations, based on the idea that personality variables influence job choices. Self-perception theory and social stereotyping are two constructs from personality psychology, vocational behaviour, and social psychology that are incorporated into the theory. Holland's theory of vocational choice is used to evaluate people in terms of two or three main personality types, and then match those types to the environmental factors of probable jobs. According to the hypothesis, the greater the degree of congruence between person and occupational qualities, the greater the likelihood of positive career outcomes such as satisfaction, persistence, and achievement.

Q8. Gender stereotyping

Ans) Gender stereotyping is to assume negative characteristics and prejudices in a person that you are interacting with, simply because, the person belongs to that identity category. Gender stereotyping is defined as an overgeneralization of characteristics, differences and attributes of a certain group based on their gender. Gender stereotypes create widely accepted biases about certain characteristics or traits and perpetuate the notion that each gender and associated behaviours are binary.  Under this assumption, if a man or a woman act differently from how their gender is expected to behave there is a disconnect in the evaluator’s mind.  As our society moves to a broader construct of what “gender means,” individuals who are stuck in this binary idea of gender have a difficult time wrapping their brains around individuals who do not fit into a strict gender dichotomy, or do not identify with any gender at all.

Q9. Importance of emotion regulation in reducing aggressive behaviour

Ans) In addition to learning to control or regulate good emotions, one must also learn to manage or regulate unpleasant emotions that are sure to arise in day-to-day interactions and situations. Frustration, provocation, rage, and hostility are some of the consequences/outcomes of a lack of emotion control or inefficient emotion management. This has an impact on our social interactions and relationships. Emotional awareness, emotional acceptance, and competency in a variety of emotion management strategies are three skills assumed to underpin deliberate emotion regulation, according to Roberton, Daffern, and Bucks in a review study. They suggested that treatment that included all of these abilities could increase a person's ability to manage challenging emotion states more adaptively, resulting in less violent behaviour.

Q10. Spill over model of work-life balance

Ans) The spill over model proposes that information flows from one world, such as work, to another, such as family, and vice versa. Spill over is a phenomenon in which a person's experiences in one domain influence their experiences in another. Positive and negative spill over are the two forms of spill over. It has to do with the spread of happiness from one location to another. Positive spill over describes how positive outcomes and successes in one domain can lead to similar happiness and experiences in another. Bad spill over, on the other hand, relates to the fact that difficulties and issues in one area might lead to negative feelings, which can then be transmitted to the other domain.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page