top of page
BPSE-146: Conflict Resolution and Peace Building

BPSE-146: Conflict Resolution and Peace Building

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BPSE-146 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Conflict Resolution and Peace Building, you have come to the right place. BPSE-146 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BAPSH, BAG courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BPSE-146 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BPSE-146/ASST/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: BPSE-146

Assignment Name: Conflict Resolution and Peace Building

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment - I

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1) Trace the life cycle of a conflict.

Ans) The life cycle of a conflict involves various stages from its inception to resolution, with each phase characterized by distinct dynamics, challenges, and opportunities. Understanding this life cycle is crucial for effective conflict management and resolution:

a) Latent Conflict:

1) Root Causes: Conflicts often originate from underlying issues such as social, economic, political, or cultural disparities. These root causes may include historical grievances, identity struggles, economic inequality, or political marginalization.

2) Dormant Tensions: During this phase, tensions remain latent, simmering beneath the surface without manifesting into overt conflict. Factors like structural inequalities, lack of effective communication, or historical animosities contribute to the latent state of conflict.

b) Perceived Injustice and Grievances:

1) Triggering Events: A specific incident or series of events can trigger the eruption of conflict. These events are often perceived as unjust or discriminatory, fuelling grievances and animosities among affected groups.

2) Escalation: Grievances intensify, and factions may mobilize to address perceived injustices. Public protests, demonstrations, or localized conflicts may emerge as a response to these triggers.

c) Open Hostilities and Escalation:

1) Escalation of Violence: Conflicts enter a phase of open hostilities with the use of force, violence, or other aggressive means. This may involve protests, riots, or, in more severe cases, armed confrontations between opposing groups.

2) Polarization: Societies become polarized, with clear divisions between conflicting parties. Escalation often leads to an increase in the number of stakeholders involved and the intensity of the conflict.

d) Stalemate and Negotiation:

1) Realization of Costs: Parties involved may recognize the escalating costs of the conflict, prompting a desire for resolution. International pressure, economic sanctions, or humanitarian crises can contribute to this realization.

2) Negotiation Initiatives: Efforts towards peace negotiations, dialogues, or diplomatic interventions begin. External factors, such as mediators or international organizations, may play a crucial role in facilitating talks between conflicting parties.

e) Settlement or Resolution:

1) Agreement or Treaty: Successful negotiations result in the formalization of agreements, treaties, or peace accords. These documents outline the terms for conflict resolution, addressing key issues and grievances.

2) Post-Conflict Reconstruction: The post-conflict phase involves rebuilding institutions, infrastructure, and communities. Transitional justice mechanisms may be established to address past grievances, and reconciliation efforts seek to heal societal wounds.

f) Post-Conflict Challenges:

1) Reintegration: Former combatants need to be reintegrated into society, which may pose challenges due to trauma, social stigma, or economic disparities.

2) Reconciliation: Rebuilding trust and fostering reconciliation among affected communities is a complex process, requiring long-term efforts in addressing deep-rooted animosities.

g) Sustainable Peacebuilding:

1) Institutional Strengthening: Strengthening governance institutions, rule of law, and democratic processes is essential for preventing the recurrence of conflict.

2) Addressing Root Causes: Long-term peacebuilding involves addressing the root causes of the conflict, such as socio-economic disparities, political exclusion, or cultural tensions.

h) Prevention and Early Warning:

1) Early Warning Systems: Establishing mechanisms for early warning and conflict prevention helps identify potential triggers and address issues before they escalate.

2) Diplomacy and Mediation: Diplomacy, conflict resolution, and mediation efforts become integral in preventing conflicts from spiralling out of control.

Understanding the life cycle of a conflict provides insights into designing effective interventions at each stage, emphasizing the importance of addressing root causes, promoting dialogue, and building sustainable peace in post-conflict societies.

Q2) Write a note on sources of conflict –II.

Ans) Sources of conflict are multifaceted and can emanate from various social, economic, political, and cultural factors. In part II, we'll delve into additional sources of conflict:

a) Economic Disparities:

1) Resource Allocation: Unequal distribution of resources, such as land, water, and natural wealth, often leads to conflicts. Disputes over resource ownership and access can escalate into socio-economic struggles and even violent confrontations.

2) Poverty and Inequality: High levels of poverty and economic inequality contribute to social unrest. Lack of access to basic necessities, educational opportunities, and employment can create a sense of deprivation, leading to conflicts over economic rights.

b) Identity Politics:

1) Ethnic and Religious Differences: Differences in ethnicity, religion, language, and culture can be sources of conflict. When identity becomes a basis for political mobilization, it may lead to polarization and the marginalization of certain groups.

2) Nationalism and Separatism: Nationalistic fervour, especially when linked to demands for autonomy or independence, can fuel conflicts. Ethnic or regional groups may seek self-determination, challenging the existing political order.

c) Political Exclusion and Marginalization:

1) Exclusionary Policies: Political systems that marginalize or exclude certain groups based on ethnicity, caste, or gender can result in social discontent. Lack of representation and participation can lead to political movements and protests.

2) Authoritarianism: Authoritarian governance and the concentration of power can create a fertile ground for dissent. Suppression of political opposition and limited political freedoms may trigger resistance and conflict.

d) Environmental Degradation:

1) Resource Scarcity: Competition over scarce resources due to environmental degradation, deforestation, or climate change can lead to conflicts. Water scarcity, in particular, has been a catalyst for disputes and tensions in various regions.

2) Displacement: Environmental degradation, coupled with unsustainable development, can lead to forced displacement of communities. This often results in conflicts over land, resources, and livelihoods.

e) Globalization and Economic Interests:

1) Competition for Markets and Resources: In the globalized world, nations and corporations often compete for markets and resources, leading to geopolitical tensions and conflicts. Economic interests, such as control over strategic trade routes or access to natural resources, can be sources of international conflicts.

2) Cultural Homogenization: The spread of global cultures can clash with local identities, sparking resistance and cultural conflicts. Perceived cultural imperialism can fuel nationalist sentiments and anti-globalization movements.

f) Historical Grievances:

1) Legacy of Colonialism: Historical injustices, particularly those rooted in colonialism, can create lasting grievances. Conflicts may arise from unresolved territorial disputes, economic exploitation, or social divisions imposed during colonial rule.

2) Genocides and Atrocities: Historical genocides and atrocities leave deep scars, often perpetuating intergenerational conflicts. The memory of past violence can shape present identities and fuel cycles of revenge.

g) Technology and Information Disparities:

1) Digital Divide: Disparities in access to technology and information can widen social gaps. Inequitable access to information and digital resources can contribute to feelings of exclusion, especially among marginalized communities.

2) Cyber Warfare: The use of technology in conflicts has expanded to cyber warfare, with nations and non-state actors engaging in cyber-attacks as a means of asserting influence or causing disruptions.

Understanding these additional sources of conflict is crucial for developing comprehensive strategies for conflict prevention, resolution, and sustainable peacebuilding. Addressing the root causes and complexities of conflicts requires interdisciplinary approaches that consider the interconnectedness of social, economic, political, and cultural factors.

Assignment - II

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q1) Examine Quincy Wrights classification of types and levels of conflict.

Ans) Quincy Wright, a prominent scholar in international relations, classified conflicts based on their types and levels, providing insights into the nature and dynamics of conflicts:

Types of Conflict

a) Personal Conflicts:

1) Interpersonal Disputes: These conflicts occur between individuals or small groups due to personal differences, disagreements, or clashes of interest. They often involve emotional tensions and may escalate into larger conflicts.

b) Local Conflicts:

1) Community or Regional Disputes: Involving conflicts within a specific locality, community, or region, these may revolve around resource allocation, land disputes, or cultural differences. They often remain contained within a limited geographical area.

c) State Conflicts:

1) Interstate Conflicts: These conflicts occur between sovereign states and can range from diplomatic disputes to armed confrontations. They may involve territorial claims, ideological differences, or geopolitical rivalries.

d) Supranational Conflicts:

1) Conflicts at the International Level: Supranational conflicts transcend national boundaries and involve international organizations, alliances, or entities. They encompass issues like global security, trade disputes, or conflicts over shared resources.

Levels of Conflict

a) Attitudinal Level:

1) Perceptual Differences: This level involves differences in attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs among individuals or groups. Conflicts may stem from ideological, religious, or cultural differences.

b) Behavioural Level:

1) Actions and Reactions: Conflicts manifest at this level through observable behaviours, actions, and interactions among conflicting parties. This involves verbal disputes, protests, violence, or military actions.

c) Structural Level:

1) Systemic Causes: Conflicts at this level are rooted in systemic structures, including political, economic, or social frameworks. Structural conflicts arise due to inequalities, power struggles, or institutional injustices.

Wright's classification underscores the diversity and complexity of conflicts, highlighting their various origins, scales, and manifestations. This categorization provides a framework for analyzing conflicts across different dimensions, facilitating a deeper understanding of their causes and potential resolution strategies. It acknowledges that conflicts exist at multiple levels, from personal and local disputes to those with broader geopolitical implications, and can arise due to diverse reasons, from individual attitudes to systemic injustices.

Q2) What is social identity theory of conflict? Explain.

Ans) The Social Identity Theory (SIT) of conflict, proposed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner, explores how social identity influences intergroup behaviour and the emergence of conflicts:

a) Core Principles of Social Identity Theory:

1) Social Categorization: SIT posits that individuals categorize themselves and others into social groups based on shared characteristics such as ethnicity, religion, nationality, or other affiliations. This categorization leads to the formation of an in-group (the group an individual identifies with) and an out-group (those perceived as different or external).

2) Social Identification: Individuals derive a sense of self and esteem from their identification with a particular group. They associate themselves with the characteristics, values, and norms of their in-group, fostering a positive self-concept.

3) Social Comparison: People tend to compare their in-group favourably with out-groups, leading to perceived differences and often favouritism towards their own group. This comparison aims to enhance the status and esteem of the in-group.

b) Role in Conflict:

1) Intergroup Discrimination: SIT asserts that conflicts arise when there is competition or perceived threats between different social groups. This competition intensifies in-group solidarity and differentiation from the out-group, leading to prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination against the perceived 'other.'

2) In-Group Cohesion: In times of conflict or competition, individuals within the in-group tend to exhibit increased cohesion and cooperation, aiming to strengthen the collective identity and solidarity against the out-group.

3) Deindividuation and Polarization: Individuals may undergo deindividuation, perceiving themselves as part of a collective identity rather than as individuals. This can lead to increased polarization between groups, fuelling conflicts and intensifying ingroup-outgroup dynamics.

4) Conflict Resolution: SIT acknowledges that conflicts rooted in social identity can be mitigated through measures that reduce intergroup biases, promote positive intergroup contact, and foster a common identity that transcends group boundaries.

c) Implications:

Social Identity Theory underscores how individuals' sense of self is intertwined with their group identities, leading to perceptions of 'us versus them.' It explains the dynamics of intergroup conflicts by highlighting the role of social categorization, identification, and comparison in shaping attitudes and behaviours towards out-groups. Understanding SIT aids in developing strategies for conflict resolution by addressing prejudices, fostering positive intergroup relations, and promoting a shared identity that mitigates intergroup tensions.

Q3) Write a note on conflict management.

Ans) Conflict management refers to the process of handling and resolving disputes, disagreements, or tensions among individuals, groups, or nations in a constructive manner to prevent escalation and foster peaceful resolutions. It involves various strategies and techniques aimed at addressing the root causes of conflicts, managing their intensity, and seeking mutually agreeable solutions. Here are key aspects of conflict management:

Key Elements of Conflict Management

a) Understanding and Analysis:

1) Identifying Root Causes: Effective conflict management starts with understanding the underlying reasons triggering conflicts, whether they stem from structural, interpersonal, or socio-political issues.

2) Conflict Mapping and Analysis: Assessing the nature, stakeholders involved, and the impact of conflicts helps in devising appropriate management strategies.

b) Communication and Dialogue:

1) Open Communication: Encouraging open and honest communication among conflicting parties facilitates the exchange of perspectives, reduces misunderstandings, and builds trust.

2) Constructive Dialogue: Engaging in dialogue that focuses on active listening, empathy, and mutual respect aids in finding common ground and exploring potential solutions.

c) Negotiation and Mediation:

1) Negotiation Techniques: Negotiation involves bargaining and seeking compromises to meet the interests of conflicting parties. Principled negotiation and win-win approaches aim for mutually beneficial outcomes.

2) Mediation and Third-Party Intervention: Engaging impartial mediators or third parties helps in facilitating discussions, managing emotions, and guiding parties towards finding sustainable solutions.

d) Conflict Resolution Strategies:

1) Collaborative Problem-Solving: Encouraging collaborative efforts to address shared concerns and finding solutions that accommodate the interests of all parties involved.

2) Conflict Transformation: Shifting perspectives and altering relationships to address deeper issues and transform conflicts into opportunities for positive change.

e) Building Peace and Reconciliation:

1) Long-Term Solutions: Conflict management strategies often focus on sustainable peacebuilding, fostering reconciliation, and healing societal divisions.

2) Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Efforts in rebuilding communities, infrastructures, and governance systems to promote stability and prevent relapses into conflict.

Conflict management strategies aim to minimize destructive aspects of conflicts while maximizing opportunities for positive change, emphasizing the importance of dialogue, cooperation, and sustainable solutions to achieve peaceful outcomes.

Assignment - III

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q1) Civil society and conflict resolution

Ans) Civil society plays a crucial role in conflict resolution by acting as a bridge between conflicting parties and fostering dialogue, reconciliation, and peacebuilding efforts. It encompasses non-governmental organizations, grassroots movements, religious groups, and community associations that mobilize to address social issues. Civil society organizations often engage in mediation, advocacy, and humanitarian work, providing platforms for dialogue, promoting understanding, and facilitating trust-building measures among conflicting groups. Their impartiality, community connections, and grassroots presence enable them to bridge gaps, advocate for peaceful solutions, and contribute significantly to fostering sustainable peace and reconciliation processes within societies affected by conflict.

Q2) Role of UN in promotion of world peace

Ans) The United Nations (UN) plays a pivotal role in promoting world peace through various mechanisms:

a) Peacekeeping Operations: The UN deploys peacekeeping missions to conflict zones worldwide. These missions aim to facilitate ceasefires, protect civilians, support peace processes, and assist in post-conflict reconstruction.

b) Conflict Prevention: The UN engages in preventive diplomacy and mediation efforts, intervening early to address tensions and prevent conflicts from escalating. It offers good offices and facilitates dialogue between conflicting parties.

c) Humanitarian Assistance: The UN provides humanitarian aid to alleviate suffering in conflict-affected regions, offering food, shelter, healthcare, and protection to affected populations.

d) Promoting International Law: Through international law, the UN seeks to regulate conflicts, prevent aggression, protect human rights, and promote peaceful resolutions of disputes through legal frameworks and international treaties.

Q3) Negative and Positive peace

Ans) Negative peace refers to the absence of overt violence or direct conflict between parties. It denotes a state where conflicts are suppressed, often through the absence of war or visible tensions. However, negative peace does not necessarily address the underlying causes of conflicts. It can be fragile and prone to relapse into violence if the root issues remain unaddressed. Genuine peace is more than the absence of violence; it requires addressing structural inequalities, grievances, and deeper-rooted issues to achieve long-term stability.

Positive peace, on the other hand, embodies the presence of conditions that create a harmonious and just society. It involves addressing the root causes of conflicts, fostering social justice, equality, and sustainable development. Positive peace aims for structural transformation, ensuring that conflicts do not reemerge. It encompasses reconciliation, social cohesion, and the establishment of institutions that promote human rights, democracy, and equality. Positive peace aims to build resilient societies capable of handling conflicts non-violently.

Q4) Peace –building

Ans) Peacebuilding involves a multifaceted and long-term process aimed at creating sustainable peace in societies affected by conflict or violence. It goes beyond addressing immediate symptoms and focuses on tackling the root causes of conflicts. This comprehensive approach involves various strategies, including:

a) Conflict Prevention: Identifying and addressing underlying factors that may lead to conflicts, promoting early intervention, and fostering dialogue to prevent tensions from escalating.

b) Reconciliation and Healing: Encouraging dialogue, truth-telling, and reconciliation efforts among conflicting parties to address historical grievances, build trust, and heal societal wounds.

c) Institutional Strengthening: Building or reforming institutions that promote good governance, the rule of law, and inclusive political systems, ensuring participation and representation for all groups.

d) Socio-economic Development: Investing in development programs, education, job creation, and infrastructure to reduce inequalities and create opportunities for marginalized groups.

e) Human Rights and Justice: Upholding human rights, promoting accountability, and establishing fair and transparent justice systems to address past injustices and prevent future conflicts.

Q5) Meaning of post–conflict re–construction and rehabilitation

Ans) Post-conflict reconstruction and rehabilitation refer to the comprehensive efforts undertaken after a conflict or war to rebuild societies, infrastructure, and institutions, aiming to restore stability, facilitate recovery, and foster sustainable peace. This process involves various elements:

a) Physical Infrastructure: Repairing or rebuilding damaged infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, schools, hospitals, and utilities, to restore essential services.

b) Institutional Development: Rebuilding or establishing governance structures, justice systems, and public institutions to ensure effective functioning and promote stability.

c) Economic Recovery: Stimulating economic growth, creating job opportunities, and investing in livelihood restoration to uplift communities affected by the conflict.

d) Social Reintegration: Reintegrating displaced populations, demobilizing combatants, and addressing the needs of vulnerable groups to promote social cohesion and inclusion.

e) Psychosocial Support: Providing mental health services, trauma counselling, and community-based support to address the psychological impacts of conflict on individuals and communities.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page