If you are looking for BRL-003 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Retail Management Perspectives and Communication, you have come to the right place. BRL-003 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BBARL, DIR courses of IGNOU.
BRL-003 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BRL-003/TMA/2021-22
Course Code: BRL-003
Assignment Name: Retail Management Perspectives & Communication
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Q1) Define Management and explain its essential features.
Ans) Management is the process of planning, organising, leading, and managing an organization's activities to effectively use its resources to achieve its objectives. To put it another way, management is the art of getting things done with and through formally structured groups. The profitability of a shopping mall, for example, is determined by how people pool their money, time, and intelligence to seek, procure, and sell things in order to profit. However, according to several schools of thought, management definitions can be divided into four divisions. These are the schools:
The Process School views management as a collection of functions working together to achieve a common organisational goal. Management, according to Henry Fayol, entails forecasting, planning, organising, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
Human Relations School: This school views management as the interaction of the social system with organisational resources. It sees management as the process of creating human resources through the management of interpersonal connections. The emphasis here is on the individuals and their growth.
Decision School: This school views management as a decision-making process. So, if a business is operating well, this school views the success as a result of management making the right judgments. As a result, proponents of this school advocate for providing managers with the appropriate level of decision-making authority.
Systems and Contingency School: Organizations are viewed as dynamic systems with specific goals to attain, according to the systems school. Each system is divided into smaller parts or subsystems, each with its own set of objectives. A component of the system's goals would be achieved by accomplishing the subsystem's goals. As a result, successful management entails striking a balance between all of the subsystems' competing goals in order to increase the overall system's efficiency. The Contingency School, on the other hand, thinks that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to managing businesses. Organizations should be designed, goals should be defined, and policies and strategies should be developed in conformity with the current environmental conditions.
Universality: In the sense that it is a common and fundamental aspect in all businesses, management is a universal phenomenon. Regardless of the size, nature, or location of the business, management theory can be utilised in all managerial circumstances. Management can be adopted in any company, whether it is a tiny convenience store, a neighbourhood supermarket, or a multi-product huge hypermarket.
Social Process: Management is the art of accomplishing tasks with and through others. It means that without the engagement of e and relations, management is impossible. Employing, developing, retaining, and inspiring people are all part of management. As a result, it is regarded as a social process.
Intangible: Management is not something that can be felt or seen. An organisation, on the other hand, is run by an unseen force. It is the most important aspect of a company. Only the process's outcomes may be measured in terms of sales, earnings, employee, or stakeholder satisfaction, and so on.
Continuous Process: Management is a continuous procedure. Although the goals that an organisation strives to attain are time-bound, the management cycle continues to run as long as the company exists.
Composite Process: Despite the fact that management functions can be studied and learned separately, they cannot be executed in isolation. As a result, each function is intertwined with the others or serves as a conduit for achieving the goals of the others. The controlling function, for example, is the process of comparing actual performance to standards. The criteria, on the other hand, are set by the planning process. As a result, the control function cannot be executed unless it is preceded by the planning function.
Coordinating Force: All aspects of an organisation are bound together by management: it is via management that all men, material, money machinery, and markets are brought together for business activity. The synergy of the activity of many divisions within the firm is formed by management.
Goal-Oriented: The goal of management is to achieve organisational goals at all times. The extent to which the desired objectives are met is used to assess an organization's performance. As a result, every function and department within the corporation strives to meet pre-determined goals.
Creative Organ: The management theory's ongoing goal is innovation. The essence of management is the creation of new methods, strategies, and processes. While management draws solutions to organisational challenges from previous experiences, it also seeks to re-invent or re-conceive new solutions.
Q2) What is the importance of planning in retail? Enumerate various steps in the planning process.
Importance of Planning in Retail
Effective planning is critical to the success of a retail firm since it determines earnings. If the proper stock isn't allocated to the right areas at the right time, sales and the overall success of a retailer will suffer. A good planner should have a good understanding of the product and be analytical. There are various advantages to using the retail planning process.
Effective cost control
Effective stock management
Effective store management
Effective display management
Efficient customer Service
Enhanced customer satisfaction
Providing the requested product, at the right place and at right time.
Striking a balance of size and operations as per local needs.
Increased profit by planning
More profitable product combinations.
Reduced frequency of over-stocking.
Minimal “Stock Outs”
The other benefits include:
Planning timely promotional campaigns.
Improved negotiations by increased buying power
Faster stock turnover ‘
Enhanced forecasting capabilities
High goodwill in the market
Steps in Planning Process
There are eight steps in the planning process:
Identification of Opportunities: The business world is a dynamic and ever-changing environment. Many opportunities arise as a result of changes. It is necessary to examine the developments and identify the appropriate opportunities. Over example, the Indian economy has been rising at a rate of 9% for the past two years, increasing the population's purchasing power. Retailers in India have benefited from the rise in income and changing spending capacities of a huge number of consumers. Retailers who have recognised such business prospects have constructed large retail show rooms in a variety of product categories, and their businesses are growing year after year. Their expansion and business goals are built on their ability to spot the appropriate opportunities at the right moment.
Setting Objectives: The next phase in the planning process is to define objectives after the opportunities have been recognised. The desired outcomes are specified in the objectives. Managers should be clear about the plan's target outcome. The desired outcome could be in terms of profit, market share, turnover (sales), customer retention, and so on. Setting objectives allows for the identification of end points for what has to be done, where major emphasis should be placed, and what should be accomplished through the execution of a plan.
Determining Planning Premises: 'Planning assumptions are planning premises.' In other words, the premises are the expected internal and external factors that influence plans and their execution in an organisation, either directly or indirectly. Political, social, technical, competitive, economic, and other external premises are among them. Company policies, people and financial resources, strengths, and limitations, and so on are all part of the internal premises. Plans are often formed by considering both internal and external premises as appropriate to a particular plan type.
Identification of Alternatives: It is thought that an objective can be accomplished in a variety of ways. If a retailer wants to improve sales volume, for example, it can implement sales promotion schemes such as discounts, free presents, one-to-one deals, and so on. It can aggressively promote itself by issuing a series of commercials, conducting door-to-door campaigns, constructing hoardings at strategic locations, and sponsoring events. It can also accomplish the goal via cultivating and promoting consumer relationships. As a result, a manager will have a variety of options for achieving the intended goal. As a result, identifying alternatives is a crucial phase in the planning process. An alternative is a method of resolving a problem or obtaining a desired outcome. As a result, each option is capable of fulfilling the goal. Such alternatives must be listed in order to be evaluated.
Evaluation of Alternatives: At this point, each option is evaluated across all dimensions to determine its contribution or benefit in light of available resources and limits. To determine which option is most useful to the organisation, an evaluation criteria will be devised. As a result, a cost-benefit analysis will be performed against each alternative, with present and future advantages in monitory and non-monitoring terms. will be compared to each alternative, and then an evaluation statement for all options will be created.
Decision on Future Course of Action: Decision making is the process of choosing the best option. Planning is the process of deciding on the best course of action for the future. As a result, the optimum plan of action is chosen for implementation.
Development of Support Plan: Support plans are frequently required in addition to the basic plan. The strategy to establish customer relationships, for example, may necessitate support strategies in the areas of human resources, training, and communication.
Development of action Plan: An action plan is simply a list of the activities that must be completed in order for a plan to be carried out successfully. The action plan specifies the timeline for each component of the plan and assigns roles and duties. In other words, it specifies what to do, when to do it, where to do it, how to do it, who will do it, and when to do it.
Q3) Identify important leadership traits giving suitable examples.
Ans) Personal attributes that distinguish effective leaders are referred to as leadership traits. The ability of an individual or an organisation to guide individuals, teams, or organisations toward the achievement of goals and objectives is referred to as leadership. It is crucial in management since it aids in maximising efficiency and achieving strategic and organisational objectives. Leaders assist in the motivation of others, the provision of advice, the building of morale, the improvement of the work environment, and the initiating of action.
In addition to the physical energy required for work monitoring, successful leadership necessitates good intellectual qualities. The higher the leader's position and responsibility, the larger the expectation in terms of leadership attributes. The following are leadership characteristics or qualities:
Broad interest and a sound educational and technical background
Initiative and creative ability
Ability to communicate with subordinates
Ability to take quick decisions
Sense of responsibility
Ability to guide and teach
As a result, a leader uses his power to persuade his subordinates to carry out certain tasks or operations.
Q4) What is meant by accounting? Explain briefly various accounting concepts.
Ans) Accounting is a commercial language. Accountants all throughout the world have evolved specific concepts, rules, Tubes, and processes in order to make the language transmit similar meaning to all persons. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) are what they're named (GAAP). Accounting concepts and conventions can help you understand accounting principles:
Accounting concepts can be thought of as the fundamental assumptions or circumstances that the science of accounting is built on. The most widely accepted ideas are:
Business Entity Concept: The commercial enterprise and its owners, according to this view, are two distinct entities. The company organisation, not the proprietor, is liable for the transactions and their consequences. According to this principle, the proprietor's company affairs are separate from his or her personal affairs.
Money Measurement Concept: All business transactions must be reported in terms of money alone, i.e. in the currency of the country where the firm is located, according to this notion. Transactions that are not measurable in terms of money, such as the quality of management or the quality of products, should not be recorded in accounting records.
Going Concern Concept: This is based on the assumption that the business enterprise will continue to make a profit for an endless period of time. Simply put, it presupposes that every corporate organisation will have a long life and will not be dissolved very soon.
Dual Aspect Concepts: This concept emphasizes that every business transaction has two aspects.
Receiving the benefit aspects, and
Giving benefit aspect.
These two elements are weighed in monetary terms. The recipient of the money is referred to as a debtor, while the giver is referred to as a creditor. As a result, every debit must be matched by a credit, and vice versa. The entire superstructure of the double entry system of accounting has been raised as a result of this dual feature. The dual aspect notion is used in the accounting equation.
'Equation of Accounting
Equities (liabilities + capital) = Assets
The term "assets" refers to the resources possessed by the company, while "equities" refers to the claims of creditors and owners of the company against the assets.
As a result of this dual aspect principle, every debit must be matched by an equal and comparable credit.
Accounting Period Concept: Every corporate entity must compute profit or loss at regular intervals, referred to as accounting periods, for purposes of calculating profit, financial position, tax computation, and so on. The standard accounting period is one year. A balance sheet and profit and loss account must be prepared at regular intervals according to the accounting period idea.
Cost Concept: Fixed assets, such as buildings, plant and machinery, furniture, and so on, must be documented in the books of accounts at the price paid for them. At the time of purchase, the asset is recorded at cost. For accounting purposes, market value is irrelevant.
Realisation Concept: Revenue is only considered earned when a sale is made, according to this principle. The legal right to receive money from a transaction is known as realisation.
Accrual Concept: Revenues are recognised when they simply become receivable, even if no cash is received, and expenses are recognised when they simply become payable, even if no cash is paid immediately, according to this idea. Both are accounted for in the accounting period in which they occur.
Q5) Enumerate the communication objectives in an organisation.
Ans) The following are the main communication objectives in an organisation: Information: Every company need data from both external and internal sources. A retailer requires data on consumer behaviour, purchasing habits, and motivations, changing fashion trends, information from suppliers, and changes in the business environment, which include economic demand, legal and political changes, technological and demographic changes, competition, and the natural environment, among other things.
To increase operational efficiency, information from within the organisation is critical. The proper, adequate, timely, and reliable information aids in the resolution of many issues and is also beneficial in the prevention of issues. Employees must be informed on job assignments and procedures, job status in the hierarchy and decision-making processes, general policies, and organisation activities, among other things, in order for them to understand what they must do and what is expected of them.
For organisational planning and business strategy development, businesses require information on the business environment, competition, and their strategies, as well as internal data.
Order: It's a command to someone. It's a message that's authoritative. Orders can be categorised in a variety of ways.
Written Orders: When the order is highly responsible in nature, repetitious, a legal obligation, or it is not practicable to make oral orders, written orders will be issued.
Oral Orders: Oral orders are favoured when it comes to operational matters. This order is straightforward, saves time, and does not jeopardise relationships.
General Orders: General directives are provided when something is common to everybody.
Specific Orders: When a problem is unique to a person, department, or activity, special orders are issued.
Mandatory Orders: These orders must be followed by all those who are subjected to them.
Discretionary Orders: These commands are recommendations in nature. There is no requirement that a person obey such directives.
Procedural Orders: These directives specify work patterns and processes and are tied to job specifics.
When orders are clear, complete, and provided in a nice manner, they are effective. Before issuing an order, it's also a good idea to double-check whether an order can be executed in a certain context within the organisation.
Suggestion: Employee suggestions are welcomed by companies. In fact, by soliciting comments from all employees, customers, and other members of the public who are connected to the retail business, continual improvements can be made. They will be encouraged to make recommendations. To invite, collect, process, evaluate, and interpret proposals for the benefit of the organisation, a proper method must be created.
Persuasion: Persuasive communication helps retailers influence customers' attitudes, beliefs, and sentiments. It is also vital to influence staff' attitudes in order to get them involved in the task.
Education and ‘Training: It is impossible to overstate the value of education and training in an organisation. Management, staff, and the general public must all be educated. In the retail industry, tracking is critical. Employees will receive training in a variety of aspects of their jobs, as well as interactive skills. Trailing should be offered on a regular basis to keep employees' knowledge and abilities up to date. In order to engage in the creation and consumption of services, consumers may require knowledge and training.
Warning: When someone does not follow the norms, rules, and regulations, they will be warmly welcomed. Some warnings are universal, such as "no parking," "no smoking," "beware of pets," "don't touch," and so on. Employees may display negligence, record tampering, mishandling of products, lack of regularity, timeliness, gossiping, spreading rumours, mistreating customers and other employees, and other similar behaviours, according to the management of a retail firm. It may be necessary to win them in such cases.
Motivation and Morale: Communication is important in motivating employees and customers. People are motivated to meet their unmet wants and desires. Communication is used by the retailer to inform customers about unique sale offers that meet their needs and preferences. Employee morale is defined as their sense of belonging to an organisation. Employees who are well communicated are more likely to create morale and loyalty to the company.
Relationships: For retailers, relationship marketing is a top focus. Communication is essential for establishing and sustaining positive connections with customers and other members of the public. Within the organisation, communication also aids in the development of connections between employees, departments, and superiors and subordinates.
Q6) Explain the advantages of good listening.
Ans) The finest praise a person can pay another is to listen. Listening effectively will benefit both you and those around you. Some of the advantages of listening are as follows:
Listening Increases Accuracy: Better listening leads to better recall of key facts and situations, leading in fewer misunderstandings and errors.
Listening Increases Confidence: Because he or she will get along better with others, a superior who listens well to subordinates will have higher self-esteem and self-image.
Listening can Bring Harmonic Climate: When dealing with a crisis or discussing an emotionally charged issue or matter, focusing on listening helps both the speaker and the listener keep calm and cool down. We have a better understanding of each other.
Listening Helps in Enhancing Productivity: If those working on problems are encouraged to describe difficulties and begin working on solutions before 'advice-giving,' productivity will increase and problems will be solved more rapidly. It dismantles the walls that separate individuals.
Listening Minimizes the Loss of Potential Revenues: Supervisors and other workers in a business with good listening habits will develop an effective environment that leads to high-quality services, which may contribute to client loyalty.
Listening Prevents Miscommunication of Objectives and Priorities Among People: In every organisation, misunderstanding results in inefficient use of valuable time and scarce resources. As a result, listening results in failure to achieve the specified goals. Listening may help an organisation or institution achieve its goals by establishing a strong communication foundation.
Listening also Prevents Time Loss: Listening saves time because proper listening transmits accurate information the first time, allowing the decision maker to make a decision in the next movement.
Q7) How can cross cultural communication be made effective?
Ans) The following methods can be used to make cross-cultural communication more effective:
Assume that there will be Cultural Differences: Retail staff should start by assuming that there would be cultural variances until certain similarities are discovered and proven. Understanding the variances allows them to adjust their communication style.
Be Responsive in Communication: Assuming that the other person is responsible for communicating with you is unjust. Employees in the retail industry should be proactive and take responsibility for initiating communication and ensuring that the other party understands it.
Listen Carefully: When engaging with people from other cultures, it is critical to acquire listening skills. It is by listening to the entire storey without interjecting that one can better comprehend the needs of the other party and learn about cultural differences. It is critical to adhere to this. One should not pass judgement on anything until the discussion is complete.
Respect Others: It's crucial to learn how to show respect to people from all cultures. Respect for others is communicated through appropriate gestures, eye contact, and other means.
Tolerate Ambiguity: It is important to learn to moderate frustration when others' communication is unclear and unfamiliar. Tolerance aids in the discovery of clues to the message's meaning. If required, one can enlist the assistance of others without putting the other party in an uncomfortable position. While sending and receiving a message, try to put yourself in the shoes of others. It's important to consider the receiver's perspective.
Break Through Language Barriers: One of the most often used means of communication is language. The diverse language vocabulary among different cultures causes communication challenges. While English is an accepted language for interacting with many cultures around the world, it is not a primary language in most countries. The ability to communicate in a few different languages is a valuable asset for retail staff.
Slow Down Your Speech: Even if English is the most often spoken language in a cross-cultural setting, this does not imply that you should communicate at normal speed. Slow down, enunciate clearly, and double-check your pronunciation.
One After the Other, Questions: Do not keep asking questions like, "Do you want to continue or should we stop here?" Only the first or second inquiry should be asked in a cross-cultural context. Allow your listener to respond to one question at a time.
Negative Questions Should Not Be Asked: When negative questions and replies are used in cross-cultural communication, it leads to misunderstandings. "Are you not coming?" can elicit a response like "Yes, T am not coming."
Q8) “A variety of perceptual biases may interface with effective decisionn making”. Elaborate.
Ans) Problem analysis and the identification of "potential solutions" can be hampered by a number of perceptual biases:
The proclivity to assess before investigating. Assumptions prevent the intellect from exploring the matter further.
The proclivity to assess new and past experiences. This leads managers to look for what is similar in a new challenge rather than what is distinctive.
The proclivity to rely on existing solutions rather than considering new or inventive ones.
The inclination to deal with problems on their face value rather than asking questions that might reveal the reasons behind the problem's more visible elements.
The proclivity to focus decisions on a single aim. Most, Multiple goals must be addressed at the same time while dealing with a problem.
The proclivity to mix up symptoms and issues.
The proclivity to disregard insoluble issues in favour of more pressing ones.
The proclivity to act or behave without first considering.
Managers are frequently compelled to act in haste before all facts are available, and this is frequently done before the underlying problem is identified or comprehended. Knowing about these hurdles can help you analyse issue circumstances and make rational conclusions.
The following gates can be utilised to overcome the above-mentioned hurdles to effective decision-making:
When given a challenge to solve, group leaders might encourage open inquiry and unbiased examination of a wide range of ideas rather than proclaiming their own position.
The organisation can assign the identical challenge to two separate independent groups and compare the answers they come up with.
Members of the group may be required to take breaks at intervals and seek advice from other parts of the organisation before returning to make a final decision.
Outside specialists can be invited to group meetings and encouraged to question group members' viewpoints.
One person could be designated as a devil's advocate at each group meeting to question the testimony of those advocating the majority position.
Divide the group into two halves for individual discussions and comparisons when assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of various solutions. » Schedule a second meeting after reaching a preliminary consensus on the first course of action, during which members of the group can express any remaining questions and ponder the entire matter before confirming the decision — and taking action.
In other words, if groups are aware of the issues with "groupthink," they can take a few specific and very straightforward steps to reduce their chances of falling victim to this problem. Recognizing the issue is half the battle when it comes to making more effective decisions in the workplace.
Q9) What do you mean by non-verbal communication? Discuss common types of non-verbal communication.
Ans) Nonverbal communication (NVC) is commonly defined as the process of communicating through the exchange of nonverbal messages. Gestures, body language or posture, facial expression, and eye contact; object communication such as clothing, hairstyles, or even architecture; symbols and info graphics; prosodic features of speech such as intonation and stress, as well as other paralinguistic features of speech such as voice quality, emotion, and speaking style can all be used to convey messages.
Types of Non-Verbal Communication
Body Language (Kinesics): The articulation of the body, or movement resulting from muscle and skeletal shift, is known as body language (Kinesics). All physical and physiological acts, automatic reactions, posture, facial expressions, gestures, and other bodily movements are included. Kinesics is described using terms such as body language, body idiom, gesture language, organ language, and kinesics acts.
Facial Expressions: Smiles, frowns, raised eyebrows, yawns, and sneers are all facial expressions that communicate information. The recipient is always monitoring the recipient's facial expressions as they vary throughout the conversation. There is evidence that many facial expressions have comparable meanings across civilizations.
Posture: Attention, participation, and relative status between people are all indicated by posture. Posture can also convey the intensity of emotional states, and it's virtually usually researched alongside other nonverbal communication behaviours.
Below is a list of some postures and the messages they convey:
Slumped posture = low spirits
Erect posture = high spirits, energy, and confidence
‘Lean forward = open and interested
Lean away = defensive or disinterested
Crossed arms = defensive
Uncrossed arms = willingness to listen
Gestures: Unambiguous or ambiguous gestures are also possible. Point to the water, then to your mouth. This is an example of a gesture that is clear. Another individual who is watching you is nearly certain to notice that you are thirsty. There's very little room for misinterpretation here. Gestures account for a significant percentage of a communication. A speaker who simply stands and speaks with no movement is boring. This isn't to say that all gestures are beneficial; some can be harmful. In order to improve the information, a person's gestures should ideally flow with the vocal channel. Gestures should also match the oral meaning; otherwise, they will be counterproductive. Credibility is aided by the use of appropriate gestures at the appropriate times. There is no such thing as a "proper" gesture for any given scenario, but the illusion of spontaneity and naturalness is one of the keys to employing appropriate gestures. To put it another way, gestures should be made without trepidation.
Eye Contact (Oculesics): The study of the role of the eyes in nonverbal communication is known as oculesics. People use their eyes to convey their attention, according to studies. This can be accomplished by making great eye contact. When a salesperson gives a presentation, for example, the prospect communicates boredom by breaking eye contact and/or looking at other objects.
Touch (Haptics): Haptics is the study of nonverbal communication through touch. Handshakes, holding hands, kissing (cheek, lips, hand), back slap, shoulder pat, brushing arm, and so on are all examples of communicative touches. Humans rely heavily on their sense of touch. It's crucial for expressing physical intimacy. In the context of physical abuse, striking, pushing, tugging, pinching, kicking, strangling, and hand-to-hand fighting are kinds of touch that can be both sexual (such as kissing or oral sex) and platonic (such as hugging or tickling). Touch can be used as a euphemism for either physical abuse or sexual touching in sentences like "T never touched hider" or "Don't you dare to touch him/her."
Proxemics: How humans use and interpret space is referred to as proxemics. For most of us, having someone stand that near to us makes us feel uneasy. We have the impression that our ‘space' has been violated. To gain power and intimacy, people want to expand their area in a variety of ways. We have a habit of erecting permanent barriers to demarcate our region. Your 'bubble,' or the area you create between yourself and others, is your personal space. Only when someone stumbles into your bubble or tries to enter it does this invisible boundary become evident. Your ability to send and receive signals is influenced by how you define your own space and use the surroundings in which you find yourself.
Appearance and Artifacts: Because a person's first impression is focused on appearance, personal appearance is a crucial criteria used to judge them. Changes in dress styles, hairstyles, and other items or artefacts can all help people modify their image. The meaning of nonverbal communication is conveyed by physical qualities of the body, dress, and accessories. Facial shape, body shape, height, skin colour, body odour, hair, abnormalities, and other physical characteristics of the body are among them. Clothing is an example of attire, while accessories are other appendages or manipulable objects in the environment that may reflect messages from the designer or the user, such as fragrance, cosmetics, furniture, art, pets, or other possessions like glasses, jewellery, handkerchief, flowers, helmet, and so on.
Paralanguage: The study of nonverbal cues in the voice is known as paralanguage (also known as vocalics). Tone, pitch, accent, and other acoustic aspects of speech, generally known as prosody (which also includes intonation and vocal stress in speech), can all emit nonverbal information. The nonverbal parts of communication used to modify meaning and express emotion are referred to as paralanguage. The tone, volume, and, in rare situations, intonation of speech are all examples of paralanguage, which can be expressed deliberately or unintentionally. The definition is sometimes limited to noises produced by the voice. Paralinguistic is a term used to describe the study of paralanguage.
Dysfluency is a broad term that encompasses a variety of issues. Silences, fillers (uh, ah), hesitations, entire word and phrase repetitions, and revisions are examples of dysfluencies heard in regular conversation. Sound or syllable repetition, prolongations (unnatural stretching out of sounds), and blocks are all dysfluencies that are more common with stuttering (sound gets stuck and cannot come out).
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