top of page
BRL-008: Human Resources

BRL-008: Human Resources

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BRL-008 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Human Resources, you have come to the right place. BRL-008 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BBARL, ADIR courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BRL-008 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BRL-008/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BRL-008

Assignment Name: Human Resources

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Marks: 100


Q1) What is meant by Human Resource Management? What are its objectives? Explain the role of HRM in Retailing.

Ans) Meaning

HRM is the management of people in such a way that they are committed, integrated, and contributing to the organization's goals. It also ensures that they stay with the organisation for a long period (low attrition rate), even if they are not wed to it. The process of managing people in organisations in a structured and thorough manner is the initial definition of HRM. To round out the operations, this includes staffing (hiring people), employee retention, pay and perks setting and management, performance management, change management, and handling leavers from the company. This is the classic definition of HRM, which some experts consider to be a modernised version of the Personnel Management function. The second definition of HRM includes the macro management of people in organisations, i.e. managing people in the form of a collective connection between management and employees. This strategy focuses on the HRM function's goals and outcomes.


HRM objectives can be broadly categorized into four types as presented below:

  1. Organizational Objectives: HRM's major goal is to secure the Organization's success by attracting and retaining high-quality, motivated employees. Individual performances are quite important in the retail industry.

  2. Functional Objectives: HRM must ensure that the appropriate individual is assigned to the appropriate job at the appropriate time. It should make quality performance easier by establishing a sound human resource policy framework. This goal is achieved in retail through a proper induction programme.

  3. Personal Objectives: HRM seeks to help employees accomplish their own objectives so that they may contribute to the achievement of organisational goals through effective training and product knowledge. This is important in order to keep, retain, and motivate individuals in the organisation, which will improve employee performance and happiness in the long run.

  4. Societal Objectives: Organizations must be ethically and socially responsible in response to society's requirements and difficulties. An organization's HRM should strive to achieve such social goals while limiting the negative effects of such policies on the organisation.

HRM in Retailing

It's fascinating to note that in the retail environment, Human Resource Management (HRM) is extremely volatile and susceptible. The reason for this is that in any other situation of manufacture (for example, clothing), the end user or consumer in particular, and the client in general, are not physically present with the people in the arena of activity. The folks in the scenario have no idea who they are, where they are, or how they got there.

Retail employees' jobs, particularly at the front end, are vital and necessitate a great level of involvement and devotion in their work. They are frequently required to execute multiple jobs while executing the job. Employee responsibilities include:

  1. Service Designer: After examining the customer's individual needs, wishes, and expectations, the employee will decide on the final retail service package on the spot. This indicates that thorough training of retail staff in consumer need analysis is necessary.

  2. Performer: A performer of services is a Retail Organization employee. He or she must deal with uncontrollable aspects (such as client complaints and grievances) while still delivering exceptional service by persuading customers to participate in the process.

  3. Technician: The salespeople should be well-versed in the technical aspects of the various items on offer. The majority of the time in retail, the manufacturers are responsible for product training, or in large multi-brand retail outlets, the companies appoint their own qualified technical salespeople.

  4. Associate: Employees from the Retail Organization and manufacturers work together to serve customers. Employees are expected to interact with customers and provide high-quality service. Furthermore, some services may necessitate group participation.

    For example, if a salesman is trying to sell the best microwave, a qualified technician will come to the customer's home and give a comprehensive demonstration of the product's capability and applicability. Then, in order to perform the service, a service professional may need to associate with the group members.

  5. Friend: A retail employee must interact with customers as well as coworkers in a team as a friend. On a variety of difficulties, coworkers and consumers seek assistance, cooperation, guidance, and support from others. Every employee of the Retail Organization should be able to respond positively to such requests.

  6. Empathizer: In retail services, empathy is a critical quality criterion. When contact staff are empathic, customers feel more at ease and perceive a higher level of quality. Employees in retail should have the patience and inclination to empathise with clients.

  7. Assurer: Customers should be reassured by the words and actions of retail staff. Customers need certainty in every service step since services are intangible, flexible, and perishable. Contact personnel are the Retail Company's representatives to the consumer. As a result, a contact employee must also serve as an assurer.

  8. Salesman: A retail employee's performance helps the company project a favourable image. Customers of the Store are likely to become customers of the Company's other services. Customers will be able to interact with Contact personnel up close and personal. As a result, their ability to influence and persuade clients to purchase further Company services is critical.

  9. Marketing Intelligence: Contact personnel are one of the most common sources of marketing intelligence. They are the best people to measure customers' reactions to company rules and quality standards. The input from contact personnel is quite useful.

  10. Researcher: In the service industry, particularly in retailing, innovation is critical to success. Employees at retail businesses are innovators in a variety of ways. They should be able to create a need or necessity in the end user or consumer as an innovation.

Q2) Define Manpower Planning? How can it be made effective? Explain.

Ans) Manpower planning is the process by which management determines how the organisation will transition from its existing manpower position to its desired manpower position in order to carry out the organization's integrated strategy. Future personnel planning is inextricably tied to an organization's strategic business plans. The demand for people and budgets is regulated by the demands of the customers. Materials, machines, money, and personnel are effectively managed to meet business needs. Manpower requirements, if appropriately planned in terms of needed profile, numbers, time, and location, will provide the company an edge over competitors in terms of output consistency.

Making Manpower Planning Effective

Human resource management begins with manpower planning. Failure to plan adequately results in failure of important human resource management functions. However, the majority of the research found that in Indian corporations, manpower planning receives very little attention. The lack of a solid information system in Indian organisations is one of the most important causes for the lack of attention. Added to these job market concerns are technology obstacles, economic uncertainty, and unique sociocultural value systems, all of which add gasoline to the fire. It's tough to make a reliable labour prediction when the environment is so volatile.

The following are some tips to follow in order to make manpower planning more effective:

Corporate Objectives: Integration of overall company objectives with Manpower planning objectives is a critical component of Manpower planning. In the majority of organisations, the economic and welfare goals are at odds.

Coordination: Manpower planning's main goal is to make the best use of available human resources. As a result, a separate division is established in large organisations to make thorough workforce planning. Manpower plans are made within the human resource division in some Originations, though. As a result, the effectiveness of the manpower plan hinges on the cooperation of staff in the human resource department with other departments. Human resource functions are increasingly being outsourced by businesses. As a result, in workforce planning, collaboration with external entities that engage in outsourcing becomes crucial.

Top Management Support: Manpower planning requires unwavering support from top management. However, top management in most organisations fails to recognise the necessity of manpower planning. It is important to note that top management support is critical to the proper design of manpower planning.

Information System: Knowledge on many areas of human resources is critical in the proper planning of manpower. Manpower planning becomes institutional and redundant in the absence of reliable and timely data. In this instance, making judgments based on labour planning is a waste of time. As a result, the effectiveness of manpower planning is predicated on the presence of reliable human resource information systems.

Q3) What is meant by selection of an employee in a Retail Organisation? Describe the steps involved in the induction process of an employee.

Ans) Employee selection is defined as the "process of interviewing and analysing candidates for a certain job and selecting an individual for employment based on certain criteria" by the Business Dictionary. The goal of selection is to choose the most qualified individual who can best match the job criteria in an organisation. To achieve this purpose, the Company collects and evaluates data on candidates' age, qualifications, abilities, and experience. The job requirements are matched with the qualifications of the candidates. The amount and quality of an employee's work is directly influenced by how well they are matched to their job.

Any misalignment in this regard can cost an organisation a lot of money, time, and effort, especially in terms of training and operational expenditures. Over time, the employee may get dissatisfied with the job and depart in frustration. The size of the labour market, the Company's image, the location of posting, the type of the position, and the salary package may all influence the number of aspirants who respond to the Company's recruitment efforts. The Company seeks to locate potential employees through the recruitment process and encourages them to apply for vacancies at various levels. As a result, recruiting creates a pool of candidates from whom to choose.

Choosing the incorrect staff can result in a slew of issues down the road. Employees may, for example, fail to perform satisfactorily in their roles, or they may depart soon after being employed because they are just not suited to the Company, or they may require considerable training and mentoring, which you may not have time to do. Employees that are a good fit for your company and have the necessary abilities and experience to accomplish the job are far more likely to meet expectations and stay in the role for a long time. Employees who are poorly recruited and lack the aforementioned attributes, on the other hand, are likely to be fired or quit on their own, frequently soon after being hired. Your business will then be back to square one, attempting to fill the vacant position, which can be an expensive endeavour. Meanwhile, other good employees suffer because they are forced to assume the responsibilities of the vacant position until it is filled again.

Steps in Induction Process

The HR department may initiate the following steps while organizing the induction program:

  1. Welcome to the Company.

  2. Give an overview of the company.

  3. Show the area and department where the new hire will be employed.

  4. Give the new hire the company's manual.

  5. Provide information on distinct work groups as well as the amount of unionisation inside the company.

  6. Provide information about compensation, benefits, holidays, and leave, among other things. Insist on the importance of timeliness or attendance.

  7. Explain future training possibilities and job prospects.

  8. Encourage the employee to ask questions to clear up any doubts.

  9. Take the employee on a tour of the company's buildings, facilities, and so on. Please hand him over to his boss.

Q4) Differentiate between the following:

(a) Recruitment and Selection

Ans) The two steps of the hiring process are recruiting and selection. The following are the distinctions between the two:

  1. Recruitment is the act of locating people for employment and encouraging them to apply for positions inside the organisation; whereas selection is the process of screening candidates in order to pick the most qualified candidates for open positions.

  2. The primary goal of recruitment is to build a talent pool of candidates to allow for the selection of the best candidates for the Organization by attracting more and more employees to apply, whereas the primary goal of the selection process is to choose the best candidate to fill the various positions in the Organization.

  3. Selection involves rejecting unfit individuals, whereas recruitment encourages more candidates to apply.

  4. Selection is focused with selecting the best eligible individuals through numerous interviews and examinations, whereas recruitment is concerned with gathering human resource sources.

  5. There is no recruitment contract, but selection resulted in a service contract between the company and the chosen individual.

(b) Herzberg’s Theory and Need Hierarchy Theory of Motivation

Ans) Need Hierarchy Theory

Abraham Maslow coined the term "Need Hierarchy Theory" to describe his needs theory. This is one of the first and most widely used motivation models/theories. To explain human behaviour, Maslow analysed numerous requirements and claimed that these needs have a hierarchy, with some needs being lower-order needs compared to higher-order needs. He also argued that unless the lower-order need is met, the higher-order need will not be met, and that once the lower-order need is met, the person will no longer be motivated. Maslow postulated five degrees of hierarchy for human needs.

As per his theory, needs are:

  1. Physiological Needs: These are critical requirements for human survival. The essential physiological demands of food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine, and education are the primary needs that must be met. No other driving elements, according to Maslow, can work unless these needs are met to a degree in order to maintain life.

  2. Security or Safety Needs: These are the desires to be free of physical threats such as the threat of losing one's employment, property, food, or shelter. It also offers safeguards against any potential emotional injury.

  3. Social Needs: People seek social recognition since they are social beings. People strive to meet social demands such as affection, acceptance, and companionship.

  4. Esteem Needs: People, according to Maslow, desire to be held in high regard both by themselves and by others once their social needs are met. This type of need results in feelings of power, prestige, position, and self-assurance. Internal esteem variables like self-respect, autonomy, and accomplishments are included, as well as external esteem factors like status, recognition, and attention.

  5. Need for Self-Actualization: This, according to Maslow, is the most important need in his hierarchy. It is the desire to become everything that one is capable of; it encompasses personal development, reaching one's full potential, and self-fulfilment. It entails maximising one's potential and achieving a goal.

Herzberg’s Motivation – Hygiene Theory

The "Motivation Hygiene Theory," also known as the "Two Factor Theory," was created by Fredrick Herzberg and his colleagues. According to Herzberg, there are certain factors that are consistently associated to job happiness, as well as other factors that are consistently related to job discontent. The following is a detailed description of these two factors:

Hygiene Factors: People are not motivated by hygiene or maintenance reasons; they merely avert unhappiness and maintain the status quo. Such elements do not promote positive outcomes, but rather prevent them.

The following are maintenance or hygiene considerations, according to Herzberg:

  1. Company Policy & Administration

  2. Technical Supervision

  3. Inter-personal relations with Supervisor

  4. Inter-personal relations with peers

  5. Inter-personal relations with subordinates

  6. Salary

  7. Job security

  8. Personal life

  9. Working conditions

  10. Status

Motivational Factors: These criteria are primarily job-related. Motivational variables improve job satisfaction and frequently result in an increase in total production. As a result, these variables boost employee morale, contentment, efficiency, and production.

They are as follows:

  1. Achievement

  2. Advancement

  3. Possibility of growth

  4. Recognition

  5. Work itself

  6. esponsibility

Q5) Write short notes on any two of the following:

(a) Motivation

Ans) Maintaining a highly engaged staff is the most difficult task in today's more competitive world. Learning how to influence an individual's behaviour is the first step in the art of motivation. This understanding aids in the achievement of both individual and organisational goals. Motivation is a situational term that changes in intensity between persons and at different times.

The word ‘motivation' comes from the word ‘motive.' A motivation is an inner condition that energises, activates, or drives a person's behaviour in the direction of their goals. It is a crucial aspect that motivates people to offer their best effort and aids in the achievement of business objectives. Employees' productivity will be boosted by strong positive motivation, but their performance will be harmed by negative motivation.

Motivation drives people to work hard, either individually or in groups, to get the greatest results possible. It is the will to act by putting in a high level of effort toward achieving organisational goals, which is conditioned by clever and efficient labour. The most crucial responsibility of management is to motivate people. It includes the skills of communicating, leading by example, challenging, encouraging, gaining feedback, involving, delegating, developing, and training, informing, briefing, and providing a just reward. Motivation is said to be an internal state of being, or a condition, which activates and directs one's behaviour. Motivation may also be defined as a want or need that guides and energises behaviour toward a specific objective.

(b) Human resource Information System

Ans) A human resource information system (HRIS) is a system for collecting, organising, analysing, storing, and disseminating data about people. It is essentially a database system that collects and stores large amounts of data. It refers to information that is kept in a computerised environment. HRIS improves the accuracy of information on human resources and jobs while lowering the cost of acquiring and analysing data. It encourages decision-makers to make use of relevant data during the decision-making process. Data security and dependability are two features of HRIS information.

The following are the components of an HRIS:

Input: In HRIS, input data is extremely important. The accuracy of the input delivered to the system determines the utility of the output. Documents and forms can be used to provide input. Data is collected, encoded, validated, and fed into the computer system for the purpose of entering information.

Database: A database is a collection of records containing employee data. The database stores information such as employee code, name, and address, date of hire, date of retirement, department of employment, pay range, and social security number. Unauthorized personnel cannot access data stored in the database since it is secured.

Programmes: A set of programmes is referred to as software. In the name of specific packages, tailored software programmes are available. They are made up of a series of programmes that take in data and process it according to the instructions. To process human resource data, software packages such as Oracle SAP, etc. are available on the market.

Modules: A module is a piece of software that accomplishes a specified task. These modules are used to process data and generate records as output. Human resource planning, recruitment, selection, remuneration, performance evaluation, performance appraisal, skill inventory, and training, as well as HR record keeping, are all covered by modules.

Query Output: Output data is generated by the interaction of database programmes and modules. Any inquiries about human resources can be answered using query language programmes. HRIS is used to create a number of output records. To aid decision-making and control, this output data is sent to various management levels.

Q6) What is Job Analysis? Explain the methods of job analysis in detail.

Ans) Human resource management tries to make the most of existing human resources. It is critical to ensure that everyone understands their job and what they may expect from it in order to achieve this goal. This helps them to appropriately chart their behaviour. The process of discovering the essential traits required to do the work effectively is known as job analysis.

 A good job analysis delivers information that can be used to make a variety of essential human resource management choices. Next to job analysis is job design. Job design entails attempting to organise tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a unit of work in order to achieve specific goals. Position design incorporates the work content and qualifications required for each job to fulfil the needs of both the person and the company. The production of a job description and specification follows the design of a job analysis.

Both of them are at the heart of the job's functions, responsibilities, and qualifications. Simultaneously, how roles are designed has a big impact on people and the organisation. You will learn about the concept, importance, and methods of job analysis in this unit. You will also get knowledge and understanding of work design and methodologies.

Job analysis is the process of evaluating which traits are required for satisfactory job performance as well as examining the working environment. It examines the work content of the job and the work content of the job. The job analysis method results in the creation of two documents: a job description and a job specification.

The tasks and responsibilities, job title, duties, machines, tools, and equipment, working conditions, and occupational hazards that are part of the job are listed in the job description, whereas the job specification lists the capabilities required to perform the job, such as education, experience, training, judgmental skills, communication skills, and personal skills.

Methods of Job Analysis

Job analysis methods can be categorized into three basic types:

Observation Method: Observation of work activities and worker behaviours is a job analysis method that can be used alone or in conjunction with other job analysis methods. The following are three observation-based job analysis methods:

Direct Observation: A person conducting the analysis simply observes employees performing their duties using direct observation. The observer either jots down general observations or fills out a form with defined remark categories. Everything is recorded, including what the worker accomplishes, the equipment used, and so on. Because mental processes are not observable, this method is limited in its ability to capture mental aspects of jobs, such as decision-making and planning.

Work Methods Analysis: Manual and repetitive production jobs, such as factory or assembly-line jobs, are described using this manner. Industrial engineers use this method to determine standard production rates.

Critical Incidents Technique: It entails observing and documenting instances of highly effective or inefficient conduct. In terms of the outcomes produced by the conduct, it is deemed "effective" or "ineffective." A person employing critical events must describe behaviour in retrospect, or after the fact, rather than while the activity occurs, in this style. It's more difficult to accurately capture past observations than it is to record behaviours while they happen.

Interview: In this procedure, the Analyst conducts interviews with the employee, his supervisor, and other relevant individuals, recording their responses to pertinent questions. The interviewer asks job-related questions, and the data is recorded in a prescribed format. The employee may not supply accurate information to preserve his own interests, hence this method has a flaw in that it does not provide accurate information. The success of this strategy is determined by the relationship that exists between the analyst and the employee.

Questionnaire: Jobholders are issued correctly designed surveys using this manner. The development of structured surveys on many areas of a work is underway. The features of each task are explained in terms of frequency, significance, difficulty, and link to total performance. The jobholders rate these dimensions on a scale of one to ten. The results of the poll are examined, and a job profile is created. This strategy delivers in-depth information about a position. This method's drawback is that it is time-consuming and expensive.

Q7) Discuss the importance and methods of training in an retail organisation.

Ans) Importance of Training

Companies all throughout the world acknowledge the necessity of training. The following are some of the reasons why training is so important:

  • Optimum Utilization of Human Resources: Training and development aids in the efficient use of human resources, which in turn aids employees in achieving both organisational and individual goals.

  • Development of Human Resources: It aids in the provision of an opportunity and a comprehensive structure for the technical and behavioural skills development of human resources in an organisation. It also aids employees in their personal development.

  • Employee Skill Development: It assists employees at all levels in improving their job knowledge and skills. It assists employees in broadening their intellectual horizons and developing their overall personalities.

  • Productivity: It aids in enhancing staff productivity, which aids the organisation in achieving its long-term aim.

  1. It aids in the development of a sense of teamwork, team spirit, and cross-team collaborations. It aids in instilling a desire to learn among personnel.

  2. It aids in the development and improvement of organisational health, culture, and effectiveness. It aids in the establishment of a learning culture within the company.

  • Organization Climate: It aids in the development of a positive attitude toward the organisation. Employees pick up on these feelings from their bosses, subordinates, and peers.

  • Quality: It aids in the enhancement of work and work-life quality. It contributes to the establishment of a healthy working environment. It aids in the development of positive employee relationships, ensuring that individual goals are aligned with company objectives.

  • Health and Safety: It aids in the improvement of the organization's health and safety, hence preventing obsolescence.

  • Morale: It aids in the improvement of employee morale.

  • Image: It aids in the development of a better business image.

  • Profitability: It leads to more profits and more favourable views toward profit-oriented behaviour.

    Employees become more successful in decision-making and problem-solving as the organisation grows. It aids in the comprehension and implementation of organisational policies.

  • Developing Leadership Skills: Employees' leadership skills can be developed through training and development.

Methods of Training

On-the-Job Training: In this manner, the trainee is assigned to a regular work and instructed on how to accomplish it. The teacher guides and supervises the pupil while he or she learns. The trainee learns through doing the work and observing it. As a result, it's known as "learning by doing."

Employees are trained on the job using the strategies listed below:

  1. Coaching: This method is typically used to teach staff at the manager level. It can also be applied to various types of employees. It is a face-to-face interaction. A superior or specialist in a certain field closely monitors an employee's performance and takes corrective action if necessary. This method focuses on identifying flaws and identifying places for development.

  2. Mentoring: For training purposes, junior employees are assigned to older personnel. The seniors will guide and educate the juniors on a variety of topics such as the organisation, job performance strategies, culture and traditions, vision and mission, teamwork, and group conduct, and so on.

  3. Committee Assignments: Under this strategy, employees are nominated as members of a committee to enhance learning. This strategy allows the employee to engage in the decision-making process, monitor other members' actions, and explore organisational issues.

Vestibule Training: A training centre called a vestibule is set up in this manner, and actual job situations are mimicked in it. Expert trainers are hired to deliver instruction using equipment and machines that are similar to those used in the workplace.

Apprenticeship Training: In this strategy, students in training institutes receive theoretical instruction as well as actual training learning. For this reason, the Indian government has established Industrial Training Institutes. The primary goal is to produce all-around artisans. During the training term, a stipend is usually paid. As a result, it's also known as the "earn as you learn" scheme.

Classroom Training: Training is delivered in company classrooms or educational institutions using this manner. Lectures, case studies, group discussions, and audio-visual aids are utilised to teach trainees new skills and knowledge. Some businesses have their own training centres or schools. Concepts and problem-solving skills can be taught in a classroom setting.

Internship Training: It is essentially a collaborative training programme in which educational institutions and businesses collaborate. Selected candidates continue their studies on a regular basis throughout the duration of the programme. They also work at a factory to gain practical experience and knowledge. This strategy assists in achieving a healthy balance of theory and practise. This strategy is commonly utilised in professional employment, such as MBBS, CA, and ICWA.


Q8) What are the various means of communication? Discuss the important aspects to make communication effective.

Ans) Means of Communication

The means of communication may be verbal and non-verbal:

Verbal Communication: Communication might take the shape of face-to-face expressions or written words.

  1. Oral Communication: Oral communication refers to information conveyed by the mouth; it also refers to the use of speech. Face-to-face contact, telephonic communication, speech, audio, and visual media (radio, television), lectures, conferences-interchange of views, meetings, and cultural affairs are all instances of oral communication.

  2. Written Communication: Written symbols are used to communicate (either printed or handwritten). Orders, instructions, letters, memos, reports, and information bulletins are only a few examples.

Non-Verbal Communication: Communication can also be accomplished through the use of signs and symbols. Here are several examples:

  1. Body Language: includes facial expression, eye contact, postures, gestures, touch etc.

  2. Space Language: It entails the surroundings (design & language). It also conveys social standing.

  3. Sign Language: A sign language is a language that employs visually transmitted sign patterns rather than sound patterns to communicate.

Aspects to Make Communication Effective

  1. Clarify Ideas before Communicating: A message can be communicated more clearly if it is analysed in a systematic manner. A professional can help the communication process by thinking through the message and evaluating who will receive and/or be affected by it in a systematic way.

  2. Examine the True Purpose of Communication: One must consider himself or herself, "What am I truly trying to achieve with this message?" After that, the communication can be correctly created.

  3. Take the Entire Environment, Physical and Human, into Consideration: What is being said, to whom, and when are all critical questions. Your ability resides in the manner in which you communicate what and when..

  4. When Valuable, take Advice from Others while Planning Communication: Consultation with others can provide you with more insight into the best way to approach the situation. Unbiased input can be provided by a third party who is not personally involved.

  5. Be Careful of the Overtones and the Basic Content of the Message: The way you deliver your message will have an impact on the listener. In reality, your tone and facial emotions should be taken into account.

  6. Use Crisp Language and be Clear: It's critical that the words are carefully picked and that the language is as concise as possible. To put it another way, use the fewest words possible to communicate the message and essential information.

  7. Follow-up on Communication: It is necessary to obtain feedback in order to ensure that the message has been received correctly.

  8. Communicate with the Future as well as the Present in Mind: The majority of communication occurs in response to the demands of the current situation. This, however, must be done in conformity with long-term objectives.

  9. Be a Good Listener: You can determine the receiver's level of interest in you by focusing on his reaction.

  10. Exhibit Congruency: Make sure your words and body language are in sync.

Q9) State the main causes of Grievance? Explain it procedure in detail.

Ans) Causes of Grievance

It is vital to locate and analyse the grievances of subordinates in order to effectively handle them. Corrective action should be conducted immediately if a grievance is confirmed to be genuine or true. The causes of the complaints must be identified before they can be addressed. Because of high turnover, absenteeism, and poor job quality, the manager may become aware of the presence of grievances. If the causes of concerns are not addressed, these issues will continue to grow.

The following categories can be used to categorise the sources of complaints:

Dissatisfaction with working circumstances:

  1. Improper matching of the worker with the job.

  2. Changes in schedules or procedures.

  3. Non-availability of proper tools, machines, and equipment for doing the job.

  4. Unreasonably high-performance standards.

  5. Poor working conditions.

  6. Bad employer – employee relationship, etc.

Grievances resulting from management policy:

  1. Wage payment and job rates.

  2. Leave.

  3. Overtime.

  4. Seniority and Promotion.

  5. Transfer.

  6. Disciplinary action.

Grievances resulting from personal reasons:

  1. Over – ambition.

  2. Excessive self-esteem.

  3. iImpractical attitude to life etc.


Any organization's first aim is to ensure that its employees have a good quality of life at work. The manner in which grievances are handled has the potential to disrupt the Organization's harmonious environment. Managers must be educated on the value of the grievance procedure and their role in preserving positive employee-union relations. Effective grievance handling is critical to establishing positive employee relations and ensuring a fair, prosperous, and productive workplace. The approach should be adaptable enough to satisfy the Organization's needs. It should be basic enough for a typical employee to understand.

Steps in Grievance Handling Procedure

  1. Identify the grievance and acknowledge the same,

  2. Listen carefully to the complainant,

  3. Define the grievance clearly,

  4. Gather the complete information with facts and figures,

  5. Study and seek for numerous solutions to the problem before deciding on the most feasible and possible answer and putting it into action.

  6. For an effective grievance procedure, ensure that there is follow-up at each level.

Model Grievance Procedure

The Indian Labour Conference adopted a code of discipline in 1957 that said that management and unions should establish a grievance procedure on a mutually agreed-upon basis that would assure a prompt and thorough investigation leading to a resolution. In India, the Model Grievance Procedure now includes five time-bound procedures, each of which leads to the next if the aggrieved employee chooses to appeal.

These are the steps:

  1. An arriving employee must first address his grievance verbally and in person to the management officer assigned for this purpose. The officer is required to respond within 48 hours of the complaint being presented. If the worker is dissatisfied with the officer's decision or does not receive a response within 48 hours, he will address his grievance to the department's head, either in person or with the assistance of the department's head.

  2. The department head must respond within three days, or if action cannot be taken within that time frame, the cause for the delay must be documented. If a worker is dissatisfied with the department head's decision, he can ask for his grievance to be referred to the Grievance Committee.

  3. If the workers desire it, the Grievance Committee must offer a recommendation to the manager within seven days. If a decision cannot be reached within this time frame, the reason should be documented. The management must carry out the committee's unanimous decision. If there are disagreements among committee members, the matter should be presented to the manager, together with the members' opinions and pertinent documentation, for a final decision.

  4. In any situation, the manager's final decision must be notified to the employee within three days of the Grievance Committee's recommendations being received.

  5. Even if the worker is dissatisfied with the management's final decision, he may be able to request a revision from the boss. He may bring a union official with him to enhance talks with management when filing this appeal. Within seven days of receiving the workman's revision petition, management will communicate their decision.

  6. If the employee is still unhappy, the matter may be referred to voluntary arbitration.

  7. The formal conciliation apparatus will not interview a worker who has filed a grievance for redress under the grievance procedure until all steps in the procedure have been completed. Only when a worker rejects top management's ultimate judgement will a grievance be considered a dispute. The Grievance Committee will be made up of 4 to 6 people.

Essentials of a Sound Grievance Procedure

The following aspects should be included in a good grievance procedure:

  • Legal Sanctity: The procedure should be created in accordance with existing legal requirements. Wherever possible, the procedure can make use of machinery that may already be in place under the legislation.

  • Acceptability: The grievance method must be acceptable to all parties involved; thus it should be designed in collaboration with management, workers, and the union. To be widely accepted, the procedure must ensure a sense of fairness and justice for workers, as well as reasonable union engagement.

  • Simplicity: The technique should be kept as simple as possible. The following issues should be addressed in this regard:

1. Every employee should be able to follow the method because it should be

2. straightforward.

3. It is necessary to carefully design channels for handling grievances.

4. Employees must be aware of who to contact at various levels.

5. All personnel should be given information regarding the procedure.

  • Training: Supervisors and union representatives must be trained in grievance handling in order for the grievance system to work effectively. All policies should be communicated to those who are affected.

  • Follow-up: The personnel department should assess the grievance procedure's operation on a regular basis and make any required changes to make it more effective. People's trust in the system grows when the system is monitored on a regular basis.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page