If you are looking for BRL-101 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Overview of Retailing, you have come to the right place. BRL-101 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BBARIL, DIRIL courses of IGNOU.
BRL-101 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BRL-101/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: BRL-101
Assignment Name: Overview of Retailing
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
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(A) Short Type Questions
Q1) ‘A consumer undergoes different stages while taking purchase decision’. In the light of this statement, briefly explain the consumer decision making process with suitable examples.
Ans) The consumer decision-making process is the process by which consumers go through to make a purchasing decision. This process typically involves five stages: problem recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and post-purchase evaluation.
Problem Recognition: The consumer recognizes a need or a problem that needs to be solved. For example, a consumer may feel hungry and recognize the need for food.
Information Search: The consumer then seeks out information about the various options available to solve the problem. This may involve gathering information from different sources such as personal experience, recommendations from friends and family, or online reviews. For example, a consumer may search for nearby restaurants on their smartphone or ask friends for recommendations.
Evaluation of Alternatives: The consumer evaluates the various options available to them based on their personal needs, preferences, and budget. For example, the consumer may evaluate different restaurants based on factors such as price, quality, and convenience.
Purchase Decision: The consumer then decides to purchase the product or service that they believe will best meet their needs and preferences. For example, the consumer may decide to visit a particular restaurant and place an order.
Post-Purchase Evaluation: Finally, the consumer evaluates their purchase experience and decides whether they are satisfied with their decision or not. This evaluation may be based on factors such as the quality of the food, the price, the service, and their overall experience. For example, the consumer may leave a review of the restaurant on a website or social media platform.
It's worth noting that the consumer decision-making process can vary depending on the type of purchase and the individual consumer. Some purchases may involve a longer and more complex decision-making process, such as buying a car or a house, while others may be more straightforward, such as buying a snack from a vending machine
Q2) How do you distinguish modern retail formats from traditional formats? Explain with examples.
Ans) The key differences between modern retail formats and traditional formats are:
Store Layout: Modern retail formats are typically larger and have a more organized layout, with clearly marked sections and aisles. Traditional retail formats, on the other hand, may have a more cluttered layout with products displayed in baskets or on shelves.
Products Offered: Modern retail formats offer a wide range of products, often organized by category and with a larger selection of brands and options. Traditional retail formats, on the other hand, may have a limited selection of products and brands, often catering to a specific niche market.
Technology Integration: Modern retail formats often integrate technology to enhance the shopping experience, such as self-checkout machines and electronic payment options. Traditional retail formats may rely on cash transactions and have limited use of technology.
Pricing Strategy: Modern retail formats often adopt a low pricing strategy, with frequent discounts and offers to attract customers. Traditional retail formats may have a more flexible pricing strategy, with prices being determined based on demand and supply.
Examples of modern retail formats include hypermarkets such as Walmart and Carrefour, supermarkets such as Tesco and Safeway, and department stores such as Macy's and Nordstrom. These stores offer a wide range of products under one roof, often at competitive prices. They also leverage technology to enhance the shopping experience, such as offering online ordering and home delivery.
Examples of traditional retail formats include street vendors, kiosks, and mom-and-pop shops. These stores often cater to a specific niche market, such as selling fresh produce or handmade goods. They also offer a more personalized shopping experience, with the store owner often having a direct relationship with the customers.
Q3) Explain various factors involved in pricing strategy along with suitable examples.
Ans) Various factors involved in pricing strategy:
Cost of Production: The cost of production is one of the most important factors in pricing strategy, as it determines the minimum price that a product can be sold for. The price should be set high enough to cover the cost of production and generate a profit.
Competition: The level of competition in the market also influences pricing strategy. In a highly competitive market, prices may need to be lower to remain competitive. In contrast, in a market with few competitors, prices may be higher.
Target Market: The target market also plays a role in pricing strategy. Prices should be set based on the willingness of the target market to pay for the product or service. For example, luxury products are priced higher as they are targeted towards a high-end market.
Brand Positioning: The brand positioning also influences pricing strategy. Brands positioned as premium or high-end typically have higher prices, while brands positioned as budget or value-oriented have lower prices.
Distribution Strategy: The distribution strategy also influences pricing strategy. If a product is sold through multiple channels, such as in-store and online, the price may need to be adjusted to account for differences in distribution costs.
Economic Conditions: Economic conditions, such as inflation and changes in consumer spending, can also influence pricing strategy. During a recession, for example, prices may need to be lowered to remain competitive and maintain sales.
Examples of pricing strategy include:
Penetration Pricing: This involves setting a low price for a new product to gain market share quickly. For example, a new smartphone manufacturer may set a lower price than established competitors to attract customers.
Price Skimming: This involves setting a high price for a new product to maximize profits before competitors enter the market. For example, a new video game console may be priced higher when it is first released before competitors enter the market.
Discount Pricing: This involves offering discounts on products to attract customers or clear out inventory. For example, a clothing store may offer discounts on winter coats during the summer months.
Premium Pricing: This involves setting a high price for a product to position it as a premium brand. For example, a luxury car manufacturer may set a higher price than competitors to position itself as a premium brand.
Q4) Describe the importance of atmosphere in retail marketing mix. Discuss the salient features of atmosphere in grocery stores.
Ans) The importance of atmosphere in retail marketing mix:
Attracts Customers: A well-designed atmosphere can attract customers to a store, and they are more likely to spend time and money in a pleasant environment.
Enhances the Shopping Experience: A positive atmosphere can enhance the shopping experience for customers, making them feel comfortable and more likely to return in the future.
Creates Brand Identity: A unique atmosphere can create a distinct brand identity and help differentiate the store from its competitors.
Influences Customer Behaviour: The atmosphere can influence customers' behaviour, such as how long they stay in the store, what they purchase, and how much they spend.
The salient features of atmosphere in grocery stores include:
Layout and Signage: The layout and signage of a grocery store are critical in creating a welcoming and organized atmosphere. A well-designed store layout can guide customers through the store and highlight key products and promotions.
Lighting: Lighting can impact the mood and atmosphere of a store, and in grocery stores, it is essential to have adequate lighting to showcase fresh produce and other products.
Music and Scent: Music and scent can create a pleasant atmosphere and influence customers' mood and behaviour. In grocery stores, the use of ambient music and fresh scent can create a welcoming environment and enhance the shopping experience.
Temperature and Ventilation: Temperature and ventilation are critical in creating a comfortable atmosphere for customers, especially in grocery stores where fresh produce and other perishable products are sold.
Decor: Decor elements such as colour, texture, and design can create a unique and attractive atmosphere in a grocery store. For example, using natural colours and materials can create a sense of freshness and healthiness, which can be appealing to customers shopping for healthy food options.
Q5) How can we measure the profitability of a retail store? Explain how can performance of a retail store be monitored?
Ans) The key metrics used to measure the profitability of a retail store:
Gross Margin: Gross margin is the difference between the revenue and the cost of goods sold. It indicates the profitability of products sold in the store.
Net Profit Margin: Net profit margin is the ratio of net profit to revenue. It indicates the overall profitability of the store, including all expenses such as rent, utilities, and labour costs.
Return on Investment (ROI): ROI is the ratio of net profit to total assets invested in the store. It measures how effectively the assets are used to generate profits.
Sales per Square Foot: Sales per square foot is the ratio of total revenue to the store's selling area. It indicates how effectively the store utilizes its space to generate sales.
To monitor the performance of a retail store, retailers can use a variety of tools and techniques:
Sales Reports: Sales reports provide information on sales performance, including sales by product, sales by day or week, and sales by customer segment. This information can be used to identify trends, adjust pricing strategies, and optimize product assortments.
Inventory Reports: Inventory reports provide information on inventory levels, including inventory turnover, stock levels, and out-of-stock items. This information can be used to identify slow-moving products, optimize inventory levels, and improve stock availability.
Staff Performance Reports: Staff performance reports provide information on employee productivity, including sales per employee, customer satisfaction ratings, and employee turnover rates. This information can be used to identify training needs, optimize staffing levels, and improve customer service.
Customer Feedback: Customer feedback, such as surveys, reviews, and feedback forms, provide insights into customer satisfaction levels, preferences, and concerns. This information can be used to improve the customer experience, optimize product offerings, and identify areas for improvement.
Q6) Explain the applications of various technologies in store management.
Ans) The applications of various technologies in store management are:
Point of Sale (POS) Systems: POS systems are used for processing transactions, tracking inventory, and generating sales reports. They can also be integrated with other software, such as accounting and customer relationship management (CRM) systems, to improve data management and analysis.
Electronic Shelf Labels (ESL): ESLs are digital price tags that can be updated remotely, reducing the time and cost associated with manual price updates. They also enable retailers to adjust prices in real-time, respond to competitors' pricing strategies, and promote discounts and special offers.
Inventory Management Software: Inventory management software is used to track inventory levels, monitor stock movements, and generate inventory reports. It can also be used to optimize ordering and replenishment processes, reducing stockouts and overstocks.
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Systems: CRM systems are used to manage customer data and interactions, enabling retailers to personalize the customer experience, track customer loyalty, and improve customer retention.
Mobile Devices: Mobile devices, such as tablets and smartphones, can be used by store associates to access product information, check inventory levels, and process transactions on the shop floor, reducing the need for customers to wait in line at the checkout.
Augmented Reality (AR): AR technology can be used to enhance the customer experience by providing virtual try-on options, product information, and interactive displays, creating a more immersive shopping experience.
Artificial Intelligence (AI): AI technology can be used to analyse customer data, optimize pricing strategies, and automate inventory management processes, improving efficiency and reducing costs.
Electronic Payment Systems: Electronic payment systems, such as mobile wallets and contactless payments, can improve the checkout experience by reducing transaction times and increasing convenience for customers.
Q7) Discuss various specific set of skills and capabilities which are required for retailing.
Ans) The specific set of skills and capabilities which are required for retailing are:
Customer Service: Retailers need to have excellent customer service skills to be successful. They should be able to understand the needs and preferences of the customers, communicate effectively, and resolve any issues that may arise.
Sales and Marketing: Retailers need to have a solid understanding of sales and marketing principles. They should be able to create effective marketing strategies, set prices, and promote products and services to attract customers.
Inventory Management: Retailers need to have strong inventory management skills to ensure that they have enough stock to meet the demand of the customers. They should be able to forecast demand, order products in advance, and manage the stock levels efficiently.
Financial Management: Retailers need to have a good understanding of financial management. They should be able to manage the cash flow, prepare budgets, analyse financial statements, and make informed decisions based on the financial data.
Technology: Retailers need to have a good understanding of technology. They should be able to use technology to manage inventory, process sales, and analyse data. They should also be familiar with various software applications that are used in retailing.
Communication: Retailers need to have excellent communication skills to interact with customers, suppliers, and employees. They should be able to communicate effectively in person, over the phone, and through email.
Leadership: Retailers need to have strong leadership skills to manage employees and run the retail business successfully. They should be able to motivate and inspire their team, delegate tasks, and lead by example.
(B) Essay Type Questions
Q8) Briefly explain various legislations that govern retail industry. Also describe their impact on the retail industry.
Ans) The retail industry is a complex and ever-evolving sector that plays a vital role in the global economy. To ensure that the retail industry operates fairly and efficiently, various legislations have been put in place to regulate the industry. These legislations are designed to protect consumers, promote fair competition, and ensure that retailers operate in a safe and secure environment.
Consumer Protection Laws
Consumer protection laws are designed to protect consumers from unfair business practices. These laws cover a wide range of issues such as product safety, labelling, advertising, and warranties. In the United States, the Federal Trade Commission is responsible for enforcing these laws. The impact of these laws on the retail industry is significant. Retailers must ensure that their products are safe for consumers and that they do not make false or misleading claims in their advertising.
Labour laws are designed to protect the rights of workers. These laws cover a wide range of issues such as minimum wage, overtime pay, working conditions, and discrimination. In the United States, the Department of Labour is responsible for enforcing these laws. The impact of labour laws on the retail industry is significant. Retailers must ensure that they comply with these laws to avoid penalties and legal action.
Environmental laws are designed to protect the environment and promote sustainability. These laws cover issues such as waste management, pollution prevention, and energy conservation. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for enforcing these laws. The impact of environmental laws on the retail industry is significant. Retailers must ensure that they comply with these laws to avoid penalties and legal action.
Intellectual Property Laws
Intellectual property laws are designed to protect the rights of individuals and companies that create original works. These laws cover issues such as copyright, trademark, and patent. In the United States, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office is responsible for enforcing these laws. The impact of intellectual property laws on the retail industry is significant. Retailers must ensure that they do not sell counterfeit products or infringe on the intellectual property rights of others.
Tax laws are designed to regulate the collection and payment of taxes. These laws cover issues such as sales tax, income tax, and payroll tax. In the United States, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is responsible for enforcing these laws. The impact of tax laws on the retail industry is significant. Retailers must ensure that they collect and pay the appropriate taxes to avoid penalties and legal action.
Legislations govern the retail industry to ensure that retailers operate fairly and efficiently. These legislations protect consumers, promote fair competition, and ensure that retailers operate in a safe and secure environment. The impact of these laws on the retail industry is significant, and retailers must ensure that they comply with these laws to avoid penalties and legal action.
Q9) (a) Discuss in detail the various rural retailing formats.
Ans) The various rural retailing formats are:
Village Shops: Village shops are small retail stores that serve the local community in rural areas. These shops typically offer a limited range of products such as groceries, household items, and personal care products. They are usually run by local entrepreneurs who have a good understanding of the needs and preferences of the local community.
Haats/Bazaars: Haats or bazaars are weekly markets that are set up in rural areas. These markets offer a wide range of products such as fruits, vegetables, livestock, clothing, and household items. They are an important source of income for local farmers and traders, and they provide a social gathering place for the local community.
Mobile Vans: Mobile vans are retail stores on wheels that travel to rural areas to serve customers. These vans are equipped with a wide range of products such as groceries, personal care products, and household items. They are designed to reach customers in remote areas that are not easily accessible by other means of transportation.
Cooperative Stores: Cooperative stores are retail stores that are owned and operated by a group of farmers or residents. These stores offer a wide range of products at competitive prices. They are designed to provide a source of income for the local community and to promote local entrepreneurship.
Supermarkets: Supermarkets are larger retail stores that offer a wide range of products such as groceries, personal care products, and household items. They are typically located on the outskirts of rural areas and are designed to serve a wider geographic area. Supermarkets are usually owned and operated by large retail chains.
Rural retailing formats are designed to meet the unique needs and preferences of rural customers. These formats range from small village shops to larger supermarkets. Each format has its advantages and disadvantages, and retailers must choose the format that best suits their business model and target market.
Q9) (b) What do you understand by the franchising concept? Briefly describe various types of franchising in retailing.
Ans) Franchising is a business model in which a company (the franchisor) grants the right to use its brand name, products, services, and business model to another company or individual (the franchisee) in exchange for a fee. Franchising is a popular business model in the retail industry, and it allows retailers to expand their business without the need for significant capital investment. There are several types of franchising in retailing. Some of the most common types are:
Product Distribution Franchising: In product distribution franchising, the franchisor grants the right to sell its products to the franchisee. The franchisee then sells the products to customers in their territory. This type of franchising is common in industries such as food and beverage and automotive.
Business Format Franchising: In business format franchising, the franchisor grants the right to use its brand name, products, services, and business model to the franchisee. The franchisee then operates the business according to the franchisor's specifications. This type of franchising is common in industries such as fast food and retail.
Management Franchising: In management franchising, the franchisor provides the franchisee with the training and support needed to manage the business. The franchisee is responsible for hiring and managing employees and running the day-to-day operations of the business. This type of franchising is common in industries such as hotels and restaurants.
Conversion Franchising: In conversion franchising, the franchisor converts an existing business to a franchise. The franchisor provides the franchisee with the necessary training and support to operate the business as a franchise. This type of franchising is common in industries such as convenience stores and gas stations.
Master Franchising: In master franchising, the franchisor grants the right to sub-franchise in a specific geographic area to a master franchisee. The master franchisee then sub-franchises to individual franchisees in that area. This type of franchising is common in international markets
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