If you are looking for BSOC-102 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Sociology of India - I, you have come to the right place. BSOC-102 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BASOH courses of IGNOU.
BSOC-102 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BSOC-102/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: BSOC-102
Assignment Name: Sociology of India-I
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in the Sections.
Answer the following in about 500 words each. 20x2.
1. Who are the Indologists? Discuss their contribution to the understanding of Indian society.
Ans) A student of Indian literature, history, philosophy, etc. is an ideologist. The Indological approach offered several hypotheses, frameworks, and concepts that the academics claimed to have developed as a result of their research on Indian civilization. They mostly used a comparative and historical perspective. Their study of classical Sanskritic and Persian writings and literature forms the foundation of much of how they comprehend Indian civilization and its structure. Both William Jones and Henry Thomas Colebrooke had a great respect for both Indian and Western old cultures, but they were more focused on figuring out how different civilizations interacted with one another.
We cannot, however, claim that interest in India and Indian society is a recent phenomenon. According to Cohn, there are a variety of writings based on both first-hand observations of Indian society and secondary analysis of the Sanskrit texts, ranging from the scattered accounts of foreign travellers from the third century BC to that of historians in the courts of Indian rulers until about the 15th century. Only the 18th century and later Indologists provided a more organised description. The political, economic, and social systems of these earlier writings help us understand how they differ from those of the later period and how they are similar, i.e., the broad categories by which we understand India today. However, from a methodological standpoint, not all of them can strictly be classified as an indological perspective.
Thus, the accounts of explorers like Megasthenes, historians like Al-Biruni and later Abul Fazl Allami, the early Colonialists, or the Portuguese adventurers and administrators, the merchants, and the missionaries, who continued to write about India until the advent of the British rule, can all be found to have contributed to the ideological construction of India. There are many detailed descriptions of the culture that was in place at the period, but they are either based on scant observations of events in urban centres or on imprecise conceptions of the social structure. Megathenes, for instance, does not make mention to Varna theory due to his inability to understand native languages. Instead, he views society as being divided more along occupational lines.
Al Biruni and Abul Fazl, on the other hand, come to the Varna theory of the caste system and even recognise the internal divisions of caste thanks to their knowledge with Sanskritic literature. The simple fact that caste groups are mentioned as kin-based social categories shows that the textual understanding of the Varna system and the operational understanding of the caste groups existed simultaneously. Additionally, despite the fascination with matrilineal and polyandrous groups, the significance of untouchability and commensality taboos, etc. that is evident in European accounts, the majority of these accounts tend to concentrate on the Mughal courts and on political and business issues rather than Indian society, the people, and culture.
Both Dutch and French reports of Hinduism—written between 1631 and 1667 by merchant and traveller Jean Baptiste Tavernier, with a passing mention of the caste system—were published in 1670. More thorough accounts of the society and culture do not appear until much later, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The School of Indology serves as a reminder that India is "one," in that it has a traditional, Sanskritic, and higher civilisation that serves as evidence of this unity. However, it is foolish to assume that India's population is homogeneous and to reject the lower or more widespread level of civilisation.
2. Describe the different types of industries in India with examples.
Ans) The basic, secondary, and tertiary sectors serve as a representation of the various business models that make up an economy. The economic activities and revenue levels of these key industry types vary. The three basic sorts of industries will be thoroughly covered in this essay, along with their main distinctions.
The economy that makes use of the environment's natural resources, such as forestry, agriculture, fishing, and mining, is referred to as the primary industry. This particular industry is typically regarded as being more important in developing countries and being relatively minor in industrialised countries. Primarily, when we discuss developing nations, the principal industry is the largest one. When using Africa as an example, animal husbandry is significantly more significant than it is in Japan.
In a similar vein, mining was the mainstay of Wales' economy during most of its history. The entire nation of Wales can only thrive in this industry. It is now possible to use less human resources and complete the majority of the task with mechanical methods because to the enormous technology breakthroughs in the different industrialised countries. Because of this, the developed world needs a smaller proportion of human labour.
Examples include the mining, fishing, and engineering of mountains.
Construction and manufacturing-related businesses are primarily included in the secondary industry. This industry typically uses primary industrial products to produce a variety of other utilitarian goods, as well as to sell and export them. A number of these businesses generate large amounts of waste that can have a significant negative impact on the environment and create pollution. Additionally, this sector needs a lot of energy because the secondary industry requires numerous factories and machines to complete its tasks. Once more, the secondary industry is split into the heavy and light sectors.
The light industry often requires less space, less energy, and less raw material than other industries. Light businesses generate goods that are often of low value and that are very convenient to transport. The manufacturing of food, beverages, home and personal products, electronics, and textiles are the most common activities in this sector, which has a lower environmental impact.
The heavy industry has a number of traits such as huge and heavy products. Compared to light industry, this requires more capital industry and is more dependent on effort and investment. This industry is primarily made up of manufacturing, transportation, and construction companies. Examples include the refining of petroleum, the creation of machinery and ships, etc. They primarily need money and equipment. They are frequently criticised for having a significant negative influence on the environment.
Examples include the plastics, food, home appliance, textile, and leather industries as well as the entertainment and gardening sectors.
The service sector makes up the majority of the tertiary industry. This would cover a range of activities where individuals often contribute their knowledge and skills to raise potential, performance, and sustainability. The creation of a variety of nature services, such as guidance, care, experiences, access, and dialogues, is the tertiary sector's most salient feature.
Additionally, the distribution, transportation, and sales of products from the producer to the customer through a variety of channels may be included in the services. Similar to the restaurant sector, where raw items are utilised to prepare a variety of dishes that are then served to customers, the goods are transformed during this process. This industry places a greater emphasis on engaging with large crowds of people and providing excellent customer service than it does on changing various tangible commodities.
Examples include banking, medical, and dental services.
Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 10x3
3. Compare the Missionary perspective with that of the Orientalist and the Indologists.
Ans) In the late eighteenth century, early Evangelical Priests' writings contributed to the development of this viewpoint. In 1792, Charles Grant, one of the earliest Evangelical authors, published a pamphlet titled "Observations on the State of Society among the Asiatic Subjects of Great Britain Particularly with Respect to Great Morals, and on the Means of Improving it." Charles Grant served as a commercial official in Bengal between 1774 and 1790.
The missionaries and Indologists, who eventually became Orientalists , both agreed on the fundamental tenets of Indian society, but neither tried to incorporate its actual governmental structure, land tenure, actual legal systems, or commercial organisation. Missionaries and orientalists understood and concurred that:
All societal structures were founded on religious principles and practises;
The Brahman's primacy as the guardian of the holy legacy by his command over the understanding of the sacred text;
The four Varnas of Brahmanical philosophy were acknowledged, and it was believed that castes developed as a result of intermarriage between the four Varna members.
The biggest point of divergence was how they saw Indian culture. While missionaries believed that there was no magnificent past and that it had always been filled with absurdities, orientalists and indologists had great love for an ancient Indian civilisation and were greatly offended by the way in which Indian society had deviated from that ideal.
Cohn claims that missionaries' social backgrounds can also be used to explain the strategy they used. The missionaries, especially the Baptists, came from lower strata of British society with a fervour for reforming both their own and also Indian society, in contrast to the Indologists and Orientalists who tended to be from upper class origins and better educated. In contrast to Indologists and Orientalists who had a certain regard for the Indian traditional system, they were adamant about changing the social order in favour of Christianity.
4. Who are the subalterns and when did the subaltern studies emerge in India?
Ans) Antonio Gramsci is credited with coining the word "subaltern." The term "subaltern" was once commonly used to refer to soldiers of lower rank in the military, but today it is used to refer to those who are marginalised due to their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, caste, or sexual orientation. Thus, a subaltern viewpoint is necessary to comprehend society from below. People who are marginalised in a stratified society for a variety of reasons develop knowledge and have their own politics. However, the predominant historical literature and study removes them from these issues. The elite perspective is contrasted with the subaltern perspective, which focuses on those who are ignored and excluded.
After a group of academics began publishing articles and volumes on the tribal movement, peasant insurrections, and rebellions in colonial India under the title Subaltern Studies, the term "subaltern" entered popular academic discourse. It is obvious that the colonial authorities in India had to deal with numerous tribal uprisings and peasant insurgencies in addition to the major nationalist movement. The study of writing histories and mainstream historiography both overlooked such resistance and movements.
According to the academics involved in the subaltern studies group, the historical contributions made by the peasants and tribal people throughout the colonial era are still not fully recognised. Most of the time, the main class of scholars studied the Indian nationalist movement. Only the contributions of the elites were recognised in the history of Indian nationalism. Thus, the subaltern historiography was an effort to rebuild those historical narratives and people's politics and histories that had been disregarded by historians. According to the subaltern viewpoint, the tribal and peasants create their own history rather than being the subject of it. The main proponents of the subaltern worldview include B. R. Ambedkar, Ranajit Guha, David Hardiman, and others. Ambedkar was not only involved in the independence struggle but also led numerous demonstrations against caste-based violence against Dalits. Various tribal and peasant insurgencies from colonial India that were ignored by the prevailing historiography practises are currently being restored by Ranajit Guha and David Hardiman.
5. How does the informal economy differ from the formal economy? Explain
Ans) The Greek word for economy literally translates to "home management." Philosophers, including Aristotle, were interested in economics as a field of study, but the modern study of economics started in Europe in the 18th century, mainly in Scotland and France. The production and distribution of commodities and services in society are organised through a system known as the economy. It governs how resources are distributed, how products and services are produced, how much they are worth, and what kinds of things and services can be exchanged or bartered.
It has a structured system of employment with explicitly spelled out standards for hiring, contracting, and job duties.
It has a legal contract that maintains a standard connection between the employer and the employee.
The employee is required to work a set number of hours per day and is paid a set amount in addition to bonuses and benefits.
The employee is entitled to advantages like leave, savings, loans, and a suitable working environment.
The employee is covered by social security benefits like pensions, gratuities, life and health insurance, etc.
It lacks any established regulations or agreements.
It is only supported by verbal understanding.
It largely depends on daily earnings and does not have set salary or working hours.
The workplace is disorganised, crowded, and unclean.
In this form of economy, there is typically no collective bargaining for the employees.
They are not well informed on social protection programmes. They are unable to save money and do not believe that self-insurance is necessary.
Write a note on the following in about 100 words each. 6x5
6. What is jajmani system?
Ans) Through his groundbreaking book, "The Hindu Jajmani System," William Wiser introduced the term "Jajmani System" to Indian social anthropology. He learned how various castes interacted with one another in the production and trade of commodities and services through his research of a village in Uttar Pradesh. It was discovered that this system was present throughout India, albeit with various differences.
The Jajamani system, which is based on the agricultural system of production and distribution of products and services, serves as a bridge between the high caste groups who own land and the occupational castes. One may say that the Jajmani system is a distribution system in which workers from several lower castes, including carpenters, barbers, sweepers, etc., supply services to high caste landowner families.
It is a network of relationships that connects the various caste groups in the village on an economic, social, and ritual level. Patrons and service castes exist under this system. The castes are depending on one another in order to secure a variety of services since caste has a historical connection to a certain occupation.
7. Define the concept of tribe.
Ans) Tribe is a word that signifies "inhabited place" and is derived from the Latin word tribus. It refers to a community of people who identify as descended from a single ancestor. The colonial government of India categorised a wide range of social groups other than castes using the word "tribe." The term "tribe" refers to social groups that are substantially dissimilar from one another in terms of population size, linguistic and cultural characteristics, ecological conditions, and living standards. The tribes are considered to be "primitive" and "backward" in nature.
Following India's independence, the term "Scheduled Tribe" was used to refer to tribes that the Indian Constitution has designated as such. Due to their relative remoteness, unique cultures, and low levels of production and subsistence, tribal societies stand out from other types of groups. They are the local populace. They go by a variety of names, including "adivasi," "vanvasi," "vanyajati," "Janjati," and "anusuchit jati." "A social group of a simple kind, the members of which speak a common dialect, have a single administration, and act together for such common ends as fighting," according to W. H. R. Rivers, is what a tribe is.
8. Discuss briefly the impact of globalisation on tribes in India.
Globalization's effects on tribes include:
Tribals being uprooted: It is estimated that since independence, more than 16 million people—of whom 40% are tribal—have been uprooted from their villages as a result of the building of more than 1500 significant irrigation development projects.
Land Alienation of Tribals
For tribal development, land is a crucial element. It takes up their source of support. But the globalisation trend has cut indigenous people off from their source of support.
Problems of Indebtedness
Due to insufficient resources for subsistence, the global economy has saddled the indigenous people with numerous obligations. Tribal communities are in debt as a result of their low levels of education, low purchasing power, and lack of means for working for a living. Tribal people are forced into a state of extreme poverty by their debt.
Endangering of Intellectual Property Rights
The existence of intellectual property rights (IPR) in prehistoric cultures appears to be dwindling in the age of globalisation.
Extinction of Primitive Tribal Culture
Globalization's ethos has an effect on tribal people's cultural position as well as their socioeconomic circumstances.
9. How does Emile Durkheim describe the relation between religion and society?
Ans) The most prolific writer in the area of sociology of religion is thought to be French sociologist Emile Durkheim. The idea that religion is socially produced and not of divine origin is his greatest contribution in this field. For him, the current social climate influences the nature of religion. Durkheim wrote about the sources and origins of religion in society in The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1961).
He researched numerous aboriginal populations in Australia and North America to learn about their most basic religious practises. In order to understand religion in complex cultures, he resorted to the study of basic forms of religion. He did this by examining how religion is organised in simple communities. He believed that those primordial tribal cultures with simple social structures would be home to the most basic type of religion.
The fundamental elements of religion, according to Durkheim, are rites and beliefs. He refers to beliefs as collective representations that are outcomes of the underlying social structures and rites that relate to the diverse kinds of behaviour that beliefs produce.
10. List the four types of economy based on the way scarce resources are distributed in society.
Ans) The four types of economy based on the way scarce resources are distributed in society are as follows:
Traditional Economy: Small production units make up the traditional economy, which primarily serves the needs of families, tribes, and local communities. which assist the tiny industrial entities that produce goods and services. These economic entities have a strong ties to regional customs, traditions, and beliefs.
Centralised Economy: In this economic system, decisions about important economic issues are made more centrally. The means of production, notably the land, are in the jurisdiction of either the government or the centralised authority.
Market Economy: In a market economy, when there is little to no government interference, the forces of the market direct the production of products and services. The production of products and services is governed by the principles of supply and demand under this system.
Mixed Economy: The term "mixed economy" refers to a system that incorporates the economic traits of both the free market or private sector economy and the controlled public sector economy. It allows for the use of capital while safeguarding the public interest. In order to safeguard the interests of the public, it also permits centralised government organisations to interfere in crucial economic activity areas.
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