top of page
BSOC-102: Sociology of India - I

BSOC-102: Sociology of India - I

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BSOC-102 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Sociology of India - I, you have come to the right place. BSOC-102 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BASOH courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BSOC-102 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BSOC-102/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: BSOC-102

Assignment Name: Sociology of India- I

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A

Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.

Q1) Describe the nature and history of emergence of sociology in India.

Ans) The emergence and development of sociology in India have a rich and diverse history that reflects the country's social, cultural, and intellectual evolution. Here, we will describe the nature and history of the emergence of sociology in India:

Nature of Sociology in India:

  1. Multidisciplinary Character: Sociology in India is characterized by its multidisciplinary nature. It draws from various disciplines such as history, anthropology, economics, and political science to understand the complex and diverse social fabric of the country.

  2. Diversity and Complexity: India's vast and diverse society with its multiple languages, religions, castes, and ethnic groups provides a fertile ground for sociological inquiry. Scholars in India often explore issues related to caste, class, gender, religion, ethnicity, and regional variations.

  3. Social Reform and Social Movements: The history of sociology in India is closely linked to social reform movements, such as the Bhakti and Sufi movements, and later, the reform efforts of figures like Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Jyotirao Phule. Sociology played a role in critiquing social norms and practices and advocating for social change.

  4. Global and Local Perspectives: Indian sociologists often blend global sociological theories with indigenous perspectives to address local issues. They recognize the importance of context-specific approaches in understanding social phenomena.

History of Emergence:

  1. Colonial Period (Late 19th Century - 1947): The study of society and culture in India can be traced back to the British colonial period when British administrators and scholars sought to understand and govern the diverse Indian society. This period laid the foundation for the systematic study of Indian society.

  2. Foundation of Sociological Societies: The establishment of the Indian Sociological Society (ISS) in 1951 and the Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS) in 1977 marked important milestones in the development of sociology as a formal discipline in India. These institutions provided a platform for scholarly exchange and research.

  3. Prominent Early Sociologists: Early Indian sociologists like G.S. Ghurye, D.P. Mukerji, and Radhakamal Mukerjee played crucial roles in shaping the discipline. Ghurye's work on caste, Mukerji's studies on family and kinship, and Mukerjee's contributions to rural sociology were pioneering.

  4. Post-Independence Growth: After India gained independence in 1947, there was a surge in sociological research and scholarship. Institutions like the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and universities across the country promoted sociological studies.

  5. Diversity of Research Areas: Indian sociologists have contributed to a wide range of research areas, including social stratification, development studies, gender studies, urbanization, and globalization. They have also examined issues related to education, politics, health, and social change.

  6. Influence of Western Sociological Thought: While Indian sociologists have been influenced by Western sociological theories and methods, they have also critiqued and adapted them to the Indian context. For example, scholars like M.N. Srinivas developed the concept of "Sanskritization" to understand social mobility in India.

  7. Contemporary Challenges: In recent years, Indian sociologists have focused on contemporary challenges such as urbanization, environmental sustainability, globalization, and the impact of technology on society.

The nature of sociology in India is characterized by its multidisciplinary approach, diversity, and emphasis on both global and local perspectives. Its history is deeply intertwined with the country's social and political developments, and Indian sociologists have made significant contributions to the understanding of India's complex and dynamic society.

Q2) Discuss the agrarian class structure in India with examples.

Ans) The agrarian class structure in India is characterized by a complex hierarchy of landownership and labor relations. It plays a pivotal role in the country's socioeconomic fabric and has undergone significant transformations over the years. Here, we'll discuss the key components of the agrarian class structure in India, along with examples:

  1. Landowners (Zamindars and Landlords): Historically, landownership in India was concentrated in the hands of zamindars (land revenue collectors) and landlords. These were often wealthy, powerful individuals or families who owned vast tracts of land and controlled agricultural production. Zamindari systems were prevalent during British colonial rule, where land revenue was collected by intermediaries. One prominent example is the Taluqdari system in Uttar Pradesh. For Example The feudal lords of Rajasthan, known as the Thakurs, held significant landownership and power in the region.

  2. Peasantry (Tenants and Small Farmers): The peasantry includes a wide range of agricultural workers, from small and marginal farmers to tenants and sharecroppers. These individuals often lack significant landownership and may work on land owned by others. They are vulnerable to changes in land tenure laws and fluctuating agricultural markets. For Example In states like Punjab and Haryana, small and marginal farmers cultivate their own land, but there is also a significant presence of tenant farmers who lease land from landowners.

  3. Agricultural Laborers: At the bottom of the agrarian hierarchy are agricultural laborers who work on farms but do not own land. They are often among the most poor groups in rural India, facing issues of low wages, lack of job security, and limited access to resources. For example, In states like Bihar and Jharkhand, where land fragmentation is common, many agricultural laborers work on the land of others.

  4. Dalits and Landlessness: A significant proportion of landless laborers in India belong to marginalized and oppressed communities, often referred to as Dalits or Scheduled Castes. These groups have historically faced discrimination and have limited access to landownership. For example In some regions, like parts of Tamil Nadu, there have been movements advocating for land redistribution to Dalits, emphasizing land as a means of social and economic empowerment.

  5. Changing Dynamics: India has seen various land reform measures aimed at redistributing land from large landowners to landless laborers and small farmers. However, the success of these reforms has varied by region and state. Land fragmentation due to inheritance and land ceiling laws has also played a role in changing the agrarian landscape.

  6. Commercialization of Agriculture: With globalization and economic liberalization, there has been a shift toward commercial agriculture in India. Large corporate entities and agribusinesses have entered the sector, influencing land-use patterns and labor relations. For example contract farming agreements between corporations and farmers for the cultivation of cash crops like sugarcane or cotton are becoming common in states like Maharashtra.

  7. Agrarian Movements: Throughout India's history, there have been agrarian movements and struggles advocating for the rights of landless laborers and tenant farmers. These movements often seek land reforms, access to resources, and fair wages. For example The Naxalite movement in parts of India, particularly in states like Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, has strong agrarian and land-related components.

Assignment B

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q3) Compare the administrative perspective with that of the Orientalist and the Indologists.

Ans) There are several various ways to researching and comprehending India, particularly during the time of colonial rule. These include the administrative perspective, the Orientalist perspective, and the Indologist perspective. The following is a comparison of these points of view:

Administrative Perspective:

  1. Focus: The administrative perspective was primarily concerned with the governance and management of India as a British colony. It aimed to facilitate colonial rule, maintain law and order, and extract economic resources from the subcontinent.

  2. Practical Goals: Revenue collection, infrastructural development, and bureaucratic reform to administer India were administrators' priorities. Effectively managing a varied and complex society was the goal.

  3. British-Centric: This approach was British-centric, focusing on British Empire interests in India. It rarely respected indigenous languages, customs, or traditions.

Orientalist Perspective:

  1. Scholarly Interest: Orientalism was a scholarly movement in Europe that sought to study and understand the cultures, languages, religions, and history of the East, including India. It was driven by intellectual curiosity.

  2. Textual Analysis: Orientalists used religious and philosophical writings to understand Indian culture and civilization. They exoticized and glorified the East.

  3. Cultural Exploration: Orientalists were fascinated with Indian culture and its contributions to world civilization. They were drawn to strange and mystical things.

Indologist Perspective:

  1. Interdisciplinary Approach: Indology is an Orientalism discipline that studies India. To fully understand India, Indologists combined linguistic, historical, religious, and cultural research.

  2. Cultural and Historical Context: Indologists aimed to place India within its cultural and historical context. They sought to uncover the historical evolution of Indian civilization and its intellectual traditions.

  3. Respect for Indigenous Knowledge: Many Indologists respected indigenous knowledge systems and valued Indian philosophical and religious texts, unlike certain Orientalists. They carefully translated and interpreted these texts.

Q4) Who are the subalterns? Discuss one of the subaltern movements in India.

Ans) The term "subalterns" refers to marginalized and oppressed groups in society who are often voiceless and powerless, subjected to various forms of social, economic, and political discrimination. These groups include but are not limited to lower-caste communities, tribal populations, landless laborers, and other marginalized communities who have historically been excluded from the mainstream discourse and decision-making processes.

A significant Indian subaltern movement is known as the Dalit Panther Movement. The Dalit Panthers were a social and political movement that emerged in the 1970s and advocated on behalf of Dalits, a group that has historically been marginalised and subject to discrimination. An outline of the essentials:

Dalit Panther Movement:

  1. Background: The Dalit Panther Movement was inspired by the Black Panther Party in the United States and aimed to address the socio-economic and political injustices faced by Dalits in India. It emerged in the state of Maharashtra but soon gained prominence across the country.

  2. Objectives: The movement sought to challenge the deep-rooted caste-based discrimination and oppression faced by Dalits. It aimed to raise awareness about Dalit issues, demand equal rights and opportunities, and challenge the social hierarchy perpetuated by the caste system.

  3. Activities: The Dalit Panthers organized rallies, protests, and campaigns to highlight caste-based atrocities, discrimination, and violence. They also emphasized the need for self-respect and self-assertion among Dalits.

  4. Impact: The movement shaped Indian Dalit politics and activism. It helped Dalits become more aggressive and politically informed. It also boosted Dalit leaders and political parties.

  5. Legacy: The Dalit Panther Movement inspired future Dalit movements and the Indian social justice and equality movement. It was crucial in highlighting Dalit suffering and combating caste-based injustice.

Q5) Describe the features and types of industries in India.

Ans) India's industrial sector is diverse and dynamic, encompassing a wide range of industries that contribute significantly to the country's economic growth and employment generation. Here are some of the features and types of industries in India:

Features of Industries in India:

  1. Diversity: India's industrial landscape is characterized by diversity, with industries ranging from traditional and labour-intensive sectors to modern, high-tech industries. This diversity reflects the country's vast and varied economic structure.

  2. Employment Generation: Industrial sectors, especially labour-intensive ones like textiles, leather, and small-scale manufacturing, play a crucial role in generating employment, providing livelihoods to a large portion of the population.

  3. Contribution to GDP: The industrial sector is a significant contributor to India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It includes both manufacturing and construction industries, which contribute to economic growth.

  4. Large-Scale and Small-Scale Industries: India has a mix of large-scale industries, often associated with heavy manufacturing and infrastructure development, as well as small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which are important for local economies.

Types of Industries in India:

  1. Manufacturing Industries: These include textiles, chemicals, medicines, cars, electronics, machinery, and food manufacturing. Manufacturing drives value creation and industrial expansion.

  2. Service Industries: India's service sector has seen remarkable growth, particularly in IT and information technology-enabled services (ITES), business process outsourcing (BPO), finance, healthcare, and hospitality.

  3. Agriculture-Based Industries: India's agricultural sector supports food processing, dairy, sugar, and agrochemicals. These industries value agricultural products and promote rural livelihoods.

  4. Infrastructure and Construction: Infrastructure development, including roads, railways, airports, and real estate, is a crucial industry. It contributes to economic growth and urbanization.

Assignment C

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q6) What is the meaning of social structure?

Ans) Social structure refers to the organized patterns of social relationships, roles, institutions, and hierarchies within a society or a specific social group. It encompasses the way individuals and groups are interconnected, their positions in society, and the norms and expectations that guide their behaviour. Social structure provides a framework for understanding how society is organized, including aspects like social classes, family units, institutions (e.g., government, education, religion), and the distribution of power and resources. It contributes to the stability and functionality of a society by helping to shape and influence the roles, behaviours, and opportunities that are available to individuals within a particular social environment.

Q7) Define the concept of tribe.

Ans) A tribe is a social group characterized by shared cultural, linguistic, and often ancestral ties, typically residing in a specific geographic area or region. Tribes are often distinguished by a common identity, traditions, customs, and a sense of belonging among their members. They may have their own governance structures, leadership, and systems of organization. Tribes have historically played important roles in human societies, especially among indigenous or pre-industrial communities, and continue to exist in various parts of the world today. They are often associated with close-knit, community-oriented lifestyles and may have unique practices that distinguish them from other social groups.

Q8) Briefly discuss the impact of globalisation on family in India.

Ans) Globalization has had a significant impact on the family structure in India. Increased economic opportunities and urbanization have led to changing roles within families. Many family members now migrate for work, resulting in both economic benefits and emotional challenges due to separation. Western cultural influences through media and technology have altered family dynamics, impacting traditional values and relationships. Moreover, the rise of dual-income households and nuclear families has become more common. Even while globalisation has resulted in increased economic prosperity, it has also resulted in increased complications in family life. These complexities include problems relating to generational gaps and shifting gender roles within the context of the family.

Q9) Define the concept of organic solidarity given by Émile Durkheim.

Ans) Organic solidarity is a sociological concept introduced by Émile Durkheim, emphasizing the interdependence and integration of individuals in modern industrial societies. Durkheim contrasted organic solidarity with the earlier concept of mechanical solidarity, which was prevalent in traditional, pre-industrial societies. In organic solidarity, social cohesion arises from the specialization of labor and the diverse roles people play in complex, interrelated systems. Unlike mechanical solidarity, where individuals are similar and bound by shared values and norms, organic solidarity relies on the complementary functions and interconnections between people in a highly differentiated society. This concept underscores how modern societies rely on the mutual dependence of individuals and the interlocking nature of their roles.

Q10) List the four types of economy based on the way scarce resources are distributed in society.

Ans) Economies can be classified into four types based on the way scarce resources are distributed in society:

  1. Traditional Economy: Traditions, customs, and history allocate resources in traditional economies. Innovation is limited by generational production and economic activities. Indigenous and rural societies use traditional economics.

  2. Market Economy: Supply and demand allocate resources in market economies. Businesses and people set production, quantity, and price. This economy depends on competition and limited government.

  3. Command Economy: A command economy allocates resources by the government or central authority. It determines product types, quantities, and prices. Government planning trumps individual choice.

  4. Mixed Economy: Most modern economies are market-command hybrids. Government and private sector share resources in mixed economies. The private sector operates businesses and responds to market pressures, whereas governments regulate, provide public goods and services, and implement social programmes.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page