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BSOC-107: Sociology of Gender

BSOC-107: Sociology of Gender

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BSOC-107 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Sociology of Gender, you have come to the right place. BSOC-107 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BASOH courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BSOC-107/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BSOC-107

Assignment Name: Sociology of Gender

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in the Sections


Assignment – I


Answer the following in about 500 words each. 2×20


1. What is Gender Socialization? Explore the relationship of gender with biology, labour and sexuality.

Ans) The term "socialisation" refers to the process through which children in a society are addressed, handled, treated, clothed, regulated, and taught how to act in order to be a part of the society. Women go through a different procedure than males do. Depending on one's gender, socialisation takes place. This is referred to as "gender indoctrination," "gender socialisation," or "gendering." Gender socialisation is the process of being aware of gender roles with the aid of social institutions like the family and the media. The process of producing 'appropriate' men and women by laws and regulations is known as gender socialisation.


Some of these laws are enforced forcibly, while others we absorb. Gendering a child starts as soon as they are born, both in families and in society. As kids get older, they gradually internalise the gender-specific societal norms and expectations. Men and women are subject to various rules and expectations, which are influenced by culture and upheld by society. Men and women are socialised into various roles as a result, leading to gender inequities.


Gender and Labour

One way patriarchy functions is by segregating the kinds of daily tasks men and women engage in. The term "gender division of labour" refers to this. In contrast to the work done by women, which is devalued and taken for granted, men's actions and labour are highly recognised and rewarded in this society. The assigning of various jobs, responsibilities, and tasks to men and women based on social ideals of what men and women should and are capable of performing is known as the gender or sexual division of labour. Men and women work differently, but it is not because of their unique preferences or skills. Through three categories of work or activities—productive, reproductive, and community work or activities—Kamla Bhasin investigates the relationship between labour and gender.


Gender and Sexuality

Sexuality is a perception of maleness, femaleness, or other self-identification and the behaviour that results from that identification. Sole "male bodies" and "female bodies" are not the only types of sexuality. The historical era of modernity saw the establishment of this stark distinction between the bodies of men and women. According to Nivedita Menon, the divide between male and female identities was less distinct in Europe before the late sixteenth century as well as South Asia and Africa till the early nineteenth century. The most recent research on gender has acknowledged that there is more to sexuality than the simple binary of men and women. It is acknowledged that there is a "gender spectrum" that encompasses individuals who identify as cis-gender, trans-gender, lesbian, gay, bisexual, asexual, pansexual, etc. and who have both heterosexual and homosexual tendencies.


Gender and Hierarchy

Gender is not just a "difference," but also a "hierarchy." We have seen that socially categorising people into particular identities is done through the use of gender. However, we must keep in mind that this classification creates a hierarchy of unequal categories. In the majority of countries, "social stratification" is heavily influenced by gender. Not all genders are regarded as being equal. The types of possibilities and life chances that people and groups have been significantly shaped by their gender, and gender also has a significant impact on the roles that people, and groups play within social institutions, ranging from the family to the state. Men often hold the highest positions in this hierarchy, despite the fact that the roles of men and women differ from culture to culture. Compared to women and other genders, they enjoy greater social respect and authority. Men's responsibilities are appreciated and rewarded more highly than women's roles. Men and women consequently have uneven positions of authority, reputation, and income. Social inequities continue to be based on gender differences all across the world.


2. Discuss in detail sexual violence and its forms with examples.

Ans) Sexual violence was defined as "any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or advances, acts to traffic or otherwise directed, against a person's sexuality using coercion, by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting, including but not limited to home and work" by the WHO in its 2002 World Report on Violence and Health. Sexual violence is a deliberate act with the objective to severely degrade the victim(s) and undermine human dignity. quotation to end ” The following list of sexual assault types in India:


Sexual assault and rape are two different but related terms. It illustrates how men are able to rule women. Rape and sexual assault are both illegal. The victim of sexual harassment is not hurt physically. In rape, the victim behaves animalically to satiate their sexual desires. Rape is unwelcome, coerced sexual contact. It can affect all sexes, children, adults, seniors, those with disabilities, and even healthy people. Even if the perpetrator is a friend, a family member, or an acquaintance, it is still illegal. Individuals are frequently raped.

Incest and child sexual assault: Incest is a typical method of sexually abusing minors. These kinds of sex acts take place between relatives. The majority of incest happens in households of various classes and races between older male relatives and younger female children. Intimate friends that are close to the family's children often abuse them sexually. People who commit this kind of abuse are typically trusted by parents, including doctors, dentists, teachers, and babysitters.


Unwanted Sexual Contact/Touching: Unwanted sexual contact is the purposeful touching of another person's genitalia, anus, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks without that person's consent, or of a person who is unable to consent or refuse. This can happen either directly or through the clothing. In their schools and colleges, many students have encountered unwelcome sexual touch or contact. The authorities of various educational, private, and governmental offices have been ordered by the federal and state governments to establish an anti-sexual harassment committee in order to identify and eradicate instances of unwanted sexual contact and/or touch.


The Prevention of Workplace Sexual Harassment Act 2013 defines "sexual harassment" in accordance with the Vishaka Judgment of the Supreme Court. According to the law, "sexual harassment" refers to inappropriate sexual behaviour that is either overtly expressed or implied, such as unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favours, sexually suggestive comments, viewing pornographic material, or any other inappropriate sexual behaviour that is either physical, verbal, or nonverbal.


Human trafficking: The worst type of brutality committed against women and girls is human trafficking. The traffickers intimidate and control the victims with their physical power. Women who are recruited typically find themselves in circumstances where their freedoms are severely restricted. They frequently endure severe physical and mental abuse at the hands of their fictitious "owners," including rape, imprisonment, forced abortions, and physical abuse. The sufferers lose contact with their former selves and families and become socially alienated. The psychological, physical, and sexual violence linked to trafficking and sexual exploitation are the repercussions of trafficking on women.


Assignment – II


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 3×10


3. Discuss the issues and challenges for the Women’s movement.

Ans) The changing character of social movements, particularly women's movements in India but also around the world, has been the subject of much study and controversy in the 1990s. A significant amount of the literature on women's movements as well as social movements in general has lamented either the death of the movement or spoken about the phenomenon of NGOisation of the movement in the wake of the changing macro-economic policies and the introduction of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation in the Indian context. The decade following 1989 was characterised by the escalation of religious extremism, particularly the growth of the Hindu Right and the centralization of caste and religion following the Mandal controversy. The country's expanding communal forces raised various issues for the women's movement. Women were conceptualised by the movement as victims of interpersonal violence. Events in the 1990s and 2000s, however, revealed Hindutva women's involvement in violent crime.


Internal audits of the movement's own symbols and tactics have also been conducted, raising the question of whether the women's movement has an implicit Hindu component. (Agnes, 1994) It has been noted that the women's movement strove to claim for itself indigenous symbols like Kali and Durga, which obviously were symbols borrowed from the Hindu ruling majority, in an effort to refute the argument that it is western. It was brought up that the movement's leaders continued to be upper caste, middle class, and Hindu women, alienating Muslims and Dalits, in addition to the symbols and concerns they adopted.


4. What do you understand masculinity?

Ans) Masculinity is defined as qualities and attributes regarded as characteristic of men. When we talk about masculinity, we're talking about a person's gender. Gender is a social construct and is one of many ways we as humans make meaning and create social structures. A person's gender is based on how society sees them as a gendered being. Gender is based in part on biological characteristics genitalia, facial hair, etc., but it is largely based on society's idea of how a person of a particular gender should be. Gender is realized on a spectrum, one that intersects with a person's sex (physiological and biological), a person's sexual orientation (who they are attracted to), and their gender identity (how they see themselves as a gendered being, which may or may not align with their gender). These intersections are sometimes used interchangeably, but they are distinct, and each of us are a unique mix of these identities.


So, if gender is a social construct, it is important to know how the masculine construct is created. In the United States and in many Western cultures, the dominant masculine construct has been created for men by men. It is part of the day-to-day interactions that must be navigated by young boys as they grow into adulthood, and by men throughout their lives. It is everywhere – in films and TV shows, in advertising, music, video games, social media, sports commentary – and it is impossible to ignore.


This construct has been mis-labeled in recent years as "toxic masculinity." It is important to remember that although some behaviors associated with masculinity are harmful or toxic, masculinity itself is not. The construct is harmful, however, as it is a limiting definition of what a man is supposed to be.

5. Differentiate between family and household.

Ans) The main difference between family and household is that a family refers to a group of members who maintain kinship with each other while living in the same dwelling or different dwellings, whereas a household refers to a group of people who may or may not maintain kinship with each other while living in the same dwelling.


Family refers to a group of people with two or more members who have a relationship by marriage, blood, or adoption and live together in the same house or different houses, while household refers to a group who live in the same house, apartment, or annex. In a family, all members are related, whereas, in a household, the members are not always related. In a family, the members may live in the same dwelling or different dwellings, whereas in a household, the members live in the same dwelling. Although the members of the family have responsibilities and duties toward other members, in non-family households, the members do not have duties and responsibilities toward other members.


There are different types of families, such as nuclear family, extended family, and single-parent family, whereas there are two types of households as family household and non-family household. Both families and households are the basic units in the society to define demography. Another difference between family and household is that a family refers to a group of members who maintain kinship with each other by living in the same dwelling or different dwellings, whereas a household refers to a group of people who may or may not maintain kinship with each other while living in the same dwelling.


Assignment – III


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. 5×6


6. What is work?

Ans) Work, in sociology, is defined as the carrying out of tasks, which involves the expenditure of mental and physical effort, and its objective is the production of goods and services that cater to human needs. An occupation, or job, is work that is done in exchange for a regular wage or salary.


In all cultures, work is the basis of the economy or economic system. The economic system for any given culture is made up of the institutions that provide for the production and distribution of goods and services. These institutions may vary from culture to culture, particularly in traditional societies versus modern societies.


In traditional cultures, food gathering, and food production is the type of work occupied by the majority of the population. In larger traditional societies, carpentry, stonemasonry, and shipbuilding are also prominent. In modern societies where industrial development exists, people work in a much wider variety of occupations.


7. Which activities done by women are unaccounted?

Ans) Conventionally, work is defined as any activity undertaken in lieu of remuneration. The value of work is determined by the level of remuneration. Therefore, any work undertaken without remuneration is considered non-valuable and non-work. On the other hand, any work done outside, such as office, factory, field is considered more valuable then work done at home. The conclusion therefore is, men work outside, get remuneration so their work is valuable. Women work at home, get no remuneration, therefore their work is considered non-work having no or little value.


This is the reality of women's work across the world. Their contribution to the family and society is not valued as most of their work is considered as household work which as women and the role given to them by society they are obliged to perform. It remains unseen, invisible and unrecognised and in conventional terms, yielding no economic benefits.


8. What is human trafficking? Explain in your own words.

Ans) Human trafficking involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of labour or commercial sex act. Every year, millions of men, women, and children are trafficked worldwide – including right here in the United States. It can happen in any community and victims can be any age, race, gender, or nationality. Traffickers might use the following methods to lure victims into trafficking situations:

  1. Violence

  2. Manipulation

  3. False promises of well-paying jobs

  4. Romantic relationships


9. Is there any difference between social movements and women’s movements? Discuss.

Ans) Social movements are generally described as conscious, collective activities to promote social change, representing a protest against the established power structure and dominant norms and values. A main resource of such movements is the commitment and active—often, unpaid—participation of its members or activists.


Feminist movements, or groups of women mobilising for change, have been constant, yet ever-changing, features of modern history. Actions organised by feminist movements in the early part of the century were focused at the national or regional level. By the second half of the 20th century, these movements had gathered force to become a global phenomenon. While differences in approach and analysis had to be accounted for, nevertheless, women across the globe succeeded in building networks on critical issues and in drawing public attention, at the international level, to their demands.


10. What is embodiment?

Ans) Embodiment is the moment-to-moment process by which human beings may allow awareness to enhance the flow of sensations, feelings, thoughts, images and energies through their bodily selves. As human beings we are born into bodies that travel fluidly through an infinite range of movement and feeling. Over time, through physical and emotional injury, cultural messages, age, and sedentary habits, our movement expression gets narrower and narrower. We forget the physical freedom we once enjoyed.


Open Floor Movement Practice is a physical mindfulness practice and dance inquiry designed to reclaim our full embodiment. The emphasis of Open Floor is to expand sensate awareness, emotional intelligence, and our ability to relate intimately with others. To access the vastness of our own minds more readily, and the spirit that moves us all. The practice is open and exploratory rather than prescribed. It is designed to move us between the continuums of fixed and fluid, habit and choice, inclusion and exclusion and other vast, creative possibilities.

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