top of page
BSOC-114: Sociological Research Methods -II

BSOC-114: Sociological Research Methods -II

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BSOC-114 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Sociological Research Methods -II, you have come to the right place. BSOC-114 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BASOH courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BSOC-114 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BSOC-114/ASST/TMA/ 2023-24

Course Code: BSOC-114

Assignment Name: Sociological Research Methods-II

Year: 2023-24

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment I

Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks.

Q1) What is ‘research design’? Explain its significance in social science research.

Ans) Research design is the blueprint or plan that outlines the structure, strategy, and components of a research study. It encompasses decisions about the overall approach, methods, procedures, and techniques that will be used to address the research problem or question. In essence, the research design guides the researcher in systematically collecting, analysing, and interpreting data to draw valid and reliable conclusions.

Components of Research Design:

a) Research Questions or Hypotheses: Research design begins with distinct study questions or hypotheses. These govern all research and design decisions.

b) Variables: Variable identification and operationalization are crucial. Operationalization entails measuring or manipulating variables, which are the qualities, attributes, or phenomena being researched.

c) Data Collection Methods: The research design determines data collection methods including surveys, experiments, interviews, observations, or a combination. The choice relies on the study questions and phenomenon being studied.

d) Sampling Strategy: Selected individuals or cases from the larger group must be planned. Research designs address sample size, representativeness, and generalizability.

e) Data Analysis Techniques: The design decides on statistical or qualitative data analysis approaches. This option is crucial to generating relevant findings using inferential statistics, content analysis, theme coding, or other methods.

f) Time Horizon: Study duration is considered in research design. It may be cross-sectional, longitudinal, or time-bound. This choice affects the study's capacity to track trends.

g) Research Setting: Designing for data collection in a lab, field, natural environment, or virtual space is crucial. Setting impacts external validity and real-world usefulness of study findings.

Significance in Social Science

a) Guidance and Structure: Research design gives a formal plan for doing the investigation. It helps the researcher organise problem formulation and conclusion drawing.

b) Validity and Reliability: A well-constructed research design enhances the validity and reliability of the study. By systematically addressing potential sources of bias and error, it promotes the accuracy and consistency of the findings.

c) Optimal Resource Utilization: Efficient research designs help optimize the use of resources, including time, personnel, and budget. Researchers can allocate resources strategically based on the design's requirements, preventing wastage.

d) Clarity of Methods: A clearly defined research design enhances transparency in the research process. It allows other researchers to understand and replicate the study, contributing to the cumulative nature of scientific knowledge.

e) Ethical Considerations: Research design includes ethical considerations to protect participants' rights and ensure the study's ethical conduct. It addresses issues like informed consent, confidentiality, and the minimization of harm.

f) Generalizability: The research design influences the extent to which findings can be generalized to broader populations or contexts. Careful design decisions, such as sampling strategies and control measures, enhance the study's external validity.

g) Informed Decision-Making: Researchers make informed decisions based on the research design. It guides choices about methods, tools, and procedures, allowing researchers to adapt and refine their approach based on the study's unique requirements.

h) Causation Inference: Some research designs, like experiments, offer causal inferences. Researchers can find cause-and-effect links by changing independent variables and controlling extraneous effects.

i) Adaptability: A good research design is adaptive. It lets researchers alter the study based on new findings, problems, or paths of discovery.

Q2) Discuss the role and responsibility of fieldworker towards people under study.

Ans) The role and responsibility of a fieldworker toward the people under study are fundamental aspects of ethical and effective research in the social sciences. Fieldwork involves direct engagement with individuals or communities to gather firsthand data, and the fieldworker's conduct significantly impacts the research process and the well-being of the participants.

Informed Consent:

a) Role: Obtain informed consent from participants before initiating any research activities. This involves clearly explaining the purpose of the study, potential risks, benefits, and participants' rights.

b) Responsibility: Fieldworkers are responsible for ensuring that participants fully understand the research and freely choose to participate. They should address any questions or concerns participants may have about the study.

Cultural Sensitivity:

a) Role: Acknowledge and respect the cultural context of the people under study. Cultural sensitivity involves understanding and appreciating cultural norms, values, and practices.

b) Responsibility: Fieldworkers should strive to avoid cultural biases, stereotypes, or misinterpretations. They must approach the community with humility, open-mindedness, and a willingness to learn from the participants.

Establishing Trust:

a) Role: Develop and maintain a trusting relationship with participants. Trust is crucial for accurate data collection and participant cooperation.

b) Responsibility: Fieldworkers should demonstrate sincerity, transparency, and reliability. Building trust requires consistent communication, respecting confidentiality, and addressing concerns promptly.


a) Role: Ensure the confidentiality of participants' information. Protecting privacy is essential for maintaining trust and ethical standards.

b) Responsibility: Fieldworkers must carefully handle and store sensitive data, avoiding disclosure of participants' identities or personal details. They should discuss confidentiality measures with participants during the informed consent process.

Minimizing Harm:

a) Role: Strive to minimize any potential harm that may arise from the research. This includes emotional, psychological, or social harm to participants.

b) Responsibility: Fieldworkers should be vigilant in recognizing signs of distress in participants and take appropriate measures to mitigate harm. Ethical considerations prioritize the well-being of participants over research goals.

Ensuring Voluntariness:

a) Role: Guarantee that participation is voluntary and free from coercion. Participants should not feel obligated to participate or fear negative consequences for refusal.

b) Responsibility: Fieldworkers must emphasize the voluntary nature of participation and clarify that individuals can withdraw from the study at any point without repercussions. Coercion or undue influence is strictly prohibited.

Participant Empowerment:

a) Role: Empower participants by involving them in the research process. Collaborative approaches enhance the relevance and impact of the research.

b) Responsibility: Fieldworkers should listen to participants' perspectives, involve them in decision-making when appropriate, and ensure that the research benefits the community in meaningful ways. Empowering participants fosters a sense of ownership and cooperation.


a) Role: Conduct debriefing sessions, especially when the research involves sensitive topics or emotional experiences. Debriefing helps participants process their involvement and addresses any lingering concerns.

b) Responsibility: Fieldworkers should be prepared to offer support, resources, or referrals for counselling if participants express distress during or after the study. Debriefing contributes to ethical closure and participant well-being.


a) Role: Engage in reflexivity by critically examining one's own biases, assumptions, and impact on the research process.

b) Responsibility: Fieldworkers should regularly reflect on their positionality, power dynamics, and potential biases that may influence interactions with participants. Reflexivity contributes to transparency and self-awareness in the research process.

Community Collaboration:

a) Role: Collaborate with the community, if applicable, throughout the research process. Community involvement enhances the study's relevance, ethical conduct, and positive impact.

b) Responsibility: Fieldworkers should engage in ongoing communication with community representatives, leaders, or stakeholders. Collaborative decision-making and reciprocal relationships contribute to ethical and respectful research.

Assignment II

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. Each question carries 10 marks.

Q3) What are different methods of drawing a sample.

Ans) Research requires sampling methods to accurately represent the population.

Random Sampling:

Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. This can be achieved through techniques like random number generation or using a randomization process.

Stratified Sampling:

The population is divided into subgroups or strata based on certain characteristics. Samples are then randomly selected from each stratum in proportion to its representation in the population.

Systematic Sampling:

Researchers select every kth individual from a list after selecting a random starting point. The sampling interval (k) is determined by dividing the population size by the desired sample size.

Cluster Sampling:

The population is divided into clusters, and a random sample of clusters is selected. Then, all individuals within the chosen clusters are included in the sample.

Convenience Sampling:

Participants are selected based on their availability and accessibility. This method is convenient but may introduce bias as it does not ensure a representative sample.

Purposive Sampling:

Researchers intentionally select participants based on specific criteria relevant to the research objectives. This method is used when certain characteristics are essential for the study.

Quota Sampling:

We sample a certain number of people from each subgroup to meet quotas. This is common in market research.

Snowball Sampling:

Participants refer or recruit study-eligible people. This strategy is useful for studying marginalised or hard-to-reach communities.

Judgmental Sampling:

Researchers pick population-representative volunteers by judgement. The researcher's competence is needed for this procedure.

Multi-Stage Sampling:

Uses multiple sample strategies throughout the study process. It may use stratified, cluster, and random sampling.

Q4) Explain observation as a technique of data collection.

Ans) Researchers observe and document natural behaviours, occurrences, and phenomena. This method collects qualitative data by directly watching and documenting events without interference.

Participant vs. Non-Participant Observation:

Participant observation involves actively participating in the observed group or setting, while non-participant observation involves only watching.

Structured vs. Unstructured Observation:

Unstructured observation allows for spontaneous detail recording, while structured observation uses established categories or checklists.

Covert vs. Overt Observation:

Covert observation helps avoid influencing participants' normal behaviour by keeping them unaware. Open observation entails the researcher watching the subjects.

Systematic Recording:

Researchers document observations using field notes, checklists, video/audio recordings, or coding techniques. It ensures data collecting uniformity and accuracy.

Naturalistic Setting:

Natural settings provide for realistic and ecologically valid observations of the phenomena under research.

Validity and Reliability:

Careful planning and training of observers contribute to the validity and reliability of observational data. Interobserver reliability measures the consistency among different observers, enhancing the method's credibility.

Ethical Considerations:

Ethical considerations are crucial in observational research, especially regarding privacy, confidentiality, and informed consent. Researchers must balance the benefits of knowledge gained with the potential intrusion into participants' lives.


Observer bias may influence results, and the Hawthorne effect, where participants alter their behaviour due to awareness of being observed, is a potential limitation. Additionally, the observer's interpretation may introduce subjectivity.


Anthropology, psychology, sociology, education, and ethnography use observation. It helps investigate social interactions, cultural customs, and natural behaviours.


Combining observation with other methods, such as interviews or surveys, enhances the reliability and validity of findings through triangulation—cross-validating data collected from different sources.

Q5) What do you understand by ethnography? Outline distinguishing features of ethnograpnic research.

Ans) Qualitative ethnography examines and describes a culture or social group. It immerses the researcher in the daily lives and experiences of the subjects to comprehend their social and cultural dynamics.

Immersion and Prolonged Engagement:

Ethnographers often live with their subjects. Immersion deepens cultural awareness.

Holistic Approach:

Ethnography attempts a complete understanding of a culture or people. Researchers study rituals, customs, language, beliefs, and social relationships.

Participant Observation:

While witnessing and documenting communal events, ethnographers participate. This participation feature sets ethnography apart from other observational methodologies.

In-depth Interviews:

In-depth, open-ended interviews with community members are part of ethnographic research. Personal experiences, opinions, and cultural meanings are explored in these interviews.

Cultural Sensitivity:

Ethnographers value communal norms, values, and customs. This method fosters participant trust and rapport.


Ethnographers reflect on their biases, assumptions, and preconceptions. Self-awareness enhances data analysis and critical thinking.

Thick Description:

Ethnographers describe phenomena in detail and context. Anthropologist Clifford Geertz called this "rich description" to capture cultural practises' complexities and implications.

Emergent Design:

Ethnographic research often employs an emergent design, meaning that the research evolves as the study progresses. Researchers may adjust their focus or methods based on emerging insights.

Naturalistic Setting:

Community ethnography lets researchers study behaviours and interactions in their natural setting. This improves research ecological validity.

Narrative Analysis:

Ethnographers interpret data narratively. This entails writing a tale about the participants' experiences and perspectives.

Cultural Relativism:

Cultural relativist ethnographers suspend judgement and evaluate activities within the cultural context rather than imposing external ideals.

Multi-method Approach:

Participant observation, interviews, and document analysis are typical ethnographic methods. Research using many methods improves validity and reliability.

Assignment III

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 6 marks.

Q6) Compare census with survey.

Ans) A census is a complete enumeration of a population, collecting data from every individual or unit, providing a comprehensive and accurate snapshot of the entire population. In contrast, a survey is a targeted data collection method that samples a subset of the population, gathering information from a selected group to make inferences about the larger population. The use of surveys is more practicable for big populations since they offer cost and time efficiency, whereas the use of a census ensures complete coverage but may need a significant amount of resources. Both approaches provide valuable data that can be utilised for a variety of research, planning, and policy considerations.

Q7) Distinguish between questionnaire and schedule.

Ans)Difference between questionnaire and schedule are:

Q8) What do you understand by extensive research?

Ans) Extensive research refers to an in-depth and comprehensive investigation that covers a wide range of aspects within a particular subject or field. It involves thorough exploration, analysis, and documentation of diverse facets to gain a holistic understanding. Extensive research typically encompasses a broad scope, delving into various dimensions and details, often producing a comprehensive overview of the topic. This type of research is characterized by its exhaustive nature, aiming to leave no significant aspect unexplored. When it comes to fields like academia, industry, and science, where a full understanding is necessary for making informed decisions or making academic contributions, extensive study is a frequent practise.

Q9) What is life history method?

Ans) The life history method is a qualitative research approach that involves collecting and analysing detailed narratives of an individual's life experiences, emphasizing personal perspectives, socio-cultural contexts, and significant events. Researchers use in-depth interviews to gather rich, chronological accounts, exploring the participant's life trajectory, relationships, and reflections. This method is common in anthropology, sociology, and psychology, providing a holistic understanding of the complexities and nuances of an individual's life. The examination of cultural patterns, the construction of identities, and the influence of social, historical, and personal elements on the life path of an individual are all topics that can be uncovered through the compilation of life histories.

Q10) What is the significance of interview guide?

Ans) An interview guide is a structured outline or set of questions designed to steer qualitative interviews in research. Its significance lies in providing a systematic framework for interviewers, ensuring consistency and reliability in data collection. The guide helps researchers maintain focus on research objectives, facilitates probing for in-depth insights, and ensures all relevant topics are covered. It enhances the comparability of responses across interviews, aids in reducing interviewer bias, and contributes to the validity of qualitative findings. An interview guide acts as a tool for researchers to navigate discussions, fostering a more organized and purposeful approach to collecting rich and meaningful data.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page