top of page
BSOG-173: Rethinking Development

BSOG-173: Rethinking Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BSOG-173 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Rethinking Development, you have come to the right place. BSOG-173 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BAG, BAHIH, BAPSH, BAPCH, BAPAH, BAEGH, BAPFHMH, BAECH, BSCANH, BAHDH, BAJDM courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BSOG-173 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BSOG-173/ASST /TMA /July 2023-24

Course Code: BSOG-173

Assignment Name: Rethinking Development

Year: 2023-24

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1) Explain political and socio-economic factors of development.

Ans) A nation's growth, stability, and overall well-being are all influenced by political and socio-economic elements, which play very important roles in the evolution of nations. There is a complicated web of interrelationships between these factors, which frequently contribute to the intricate pattern that is the developmental trajectory of a country.

Political Factors:

a) Stability and Governance: Development is contingent upon the existence of key prerequisites such as political stability and good governance. Investors are encouraged to make investments, economic progress is fostered, and the rule of law is maintained when the political situation is stable. From the other side of the coin, political instability, corruption, and inadequate governance can be detrimental to growth because they generate uncertainty and discourage investment from both domestic and international sources.

b) Policy Framework: The policies that a government chooses to implement have a significant influence on the socioeconomic development of a country. Trade policies, education policies, healthcare policies, infrastructure policies, and taxation policies all have the potential to either stimulate or stifle economic development. Governments that place a priority on equitable and sustainable development are more likely to foster an atmosphere that is fertile ground for sustained economic expansion.

c) Political Institutions: The strength and effectiveness of political institutions, such as the judiciary, legislature, and executive, are crucial. Robust institutions contribute to good governance, transparency, and the protection of individual rights. Weak or corrupt institutions, on the other hand, can lead to policy implementation failures and hinder development efforts.

d) Political Ideology and System: The political ideology adopted by a country and its governance system also influence development. Democracies often prioritize individual freedoms and participation, while autocratic regimes may focus on rapid economic development at the expense of political freedoms. The nature of the political system shapes the distribution of resources and the inclusivity of development initiatives.

Socio-Economic Factors:

a) Education: Access to quality education is a key driver of socio-economic development. Well-educated populations are better equipped to contribute to economic productivity, innovation, and social cohesion. Education also plays a critical role in reducing poverty and promoting equality.

b) Healthcare: A healthy population is essential for sustained economic development. Adequate healthcare ensures a productive workforce, reduces absenteeism, and lowers the burden of disease. Healthier individuals are more likely to contribute actively to their communities and economies.

c) Income Distribution: The distribution of wealth and income within a society affects its overall development. Countries with more equitable income distribution tend to experience higher levels of social cohesion and stability. Addressing poverty and reducing income inequality are crucial aspects of promoting sustainable development.

d) Infrastructure: Infrastructure development, including transportation, energy, and communication networks, is essential for economic growth. Well-developed infrastructure facilitates trade, reduces transaction costs, and attracts investment. Additionally, access to basic amenities like clean water and sanitation is critical for improving living standards.

e) Social Inclusion: Development should be inclusive, ensuring that all segments of society benefit from economic progress. Social inclusion addresses issues of gender equality, minority rights, and the well-being of marginalized groups. Inclusive development fosters social harmony and reduces the risk of social unrest.

Q2) Discuss the dependence theory of social development.

Ans) The dependence theory, also known as dependency theory, emerged in the 1950s and 1960s as a critical response to traditional theories of development that often emphasized the linear progression of societies toward modernization.

Developed primarily by scholars from Latin America, such as Raúl Prebisch and Andre Gunder Frank, the dependence theory challenges the notion that underdeveloped nations will naturally evolve and catch up with developed ones. Instead, it posits that the global economic system is structured in a way that perpetuates and exacerbates the disparities between developed and underdeveloped countries.

Tenets of Dependence Theory:

a) Unequal Global Economic Relations: Dependence theorists argue that the global economic system is characterized by asymmetrical relationships between developed and underdeveloped nations. This imbalance is perpetuated by the unequal distribution of economic and political power, favouring developed countries and multinational corporations.

b) Core-Periphery Model: A central concept in dependence theory is the core-periphery model. This model suggests that the world is divided into a core of developed nations and a periphery of underdeveloped nations. The core exploits the periphery by extracting resources, controlling markets, and maintaining economic dominance, resulting in a continuous cycle of dependency.

c) Terms of Trade: The theory emphasizes the issue of terms of trade, arguing that underdeveloped nations often face unfavourable conditions in international trade. Developed nations, through their economic dominance, dictate trade terms that benefit them while leaving underdeveloped countries vulnerable to fluctuations in commodity prices and external economic shocks.

d) Imperialism and Neo-Colonialism: Dependence theorists assert that imperialism and neo-colonialism play significant roles in perpetuating underdevelopment. While direct colonization may have ended, the economic influence of former colonial powers persists through economic and political mechanisms, hindering the autonomy of underdeveloped nations.

e) Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI): In response to dependence, some nations adopted Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) as an economic strategy. ISI involves reducing dependence on foreign goods by promoting domestic industries. However, the success of ISI has been debated, as it sometimes led to inefficiencies and failed to address underlying structural issues.

f) External Debt and Dependency: Dependence theorists highlight the role of external debt as a tool through which developed nations and international financial institutions maintain control over underdeveloped countries. The repayment of loans often leads to economic policies that prioritize the interests of creditors over domestic development.

g) Critiques and Contemporary Relevance: While dependence theory has provided valuable insights into global economic relations, it has faced criticism. Critics argue that it tends to oversimplify the complexities of development and neglects internal factors within underdeveloped nations. Additionally, the theory emerged during a specific historical context, and some argue that its applicability has diminished in the face of changing global dynamics.

The dependence theory remains relevant in discussions about economic justice, global inequality, and the impact of international trade on underdeveloped nations. It underscores the need for a more equitable global economic order that addresses the structural imbalances perpetuated by historical and contemporary forces. As the world continues to grapple with issues of economic disparity, the dependence theory prompts critical examination of the power dynamics inherent in international relations and development.


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q3) What is urbanism? How is it different from urbanization?

Ans) The term "urbanism" refers to the study of the physical, social, and economic characteristics of cities, as well as the planning, development, and experience of urban regions. The architecture, layout, infrastructure, culture, and lifestyle that are present inside urban settings are all included in its scope. An examination of the dynamics of cities and the interactions between people and the built environments in which they live is the focus of urbanism.

On the other hand, urbanisation is a more comprehensive process that describes the growing percentage of a population that resides in geographically concentrated urban regions. This phenomenon refers to the migration of people from rural areas to urban areas, which is accompanied by the rise and expansion of cities. The total change of societies from mostly rural to predominantly urban is referred to as urbanisation. Urbanization is a complicated phenomenon that encompasses population migration, industrialization, and the general alteration of society.

When compared to urbanism, which focuses on the characteristics and aspects of urban areas and investigates the patterns of urban life, urbanisation refers to the general process of population concentration and the expansion of urban regions within a region or country. There is a subfield of urban studies known as urbanism. The field of study known as urbanism investigates the social, cultural, and physical aspects of urban areas in order to gain a deeper understanding of the intricacies contained within city life. On the other hand, urbanisation focuses on the more general trend of increasing urban population and the changes in societal structure that are associated with this trend.

Q4) What is sustainable development?

Ans) Sustainable development is a concept that envisions meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is an approach to growth and progress that seeks to balance economic, social, and environmental considerations to ensure long-term viability and resilience. Sustainable development acknowledges the interconnectedness of economic, social, and environmental factors, emphasizing the need for integrated and holistic solutions.

Environmental Stewardship: Promoting responsible and efficient use of natural resources, minimizing pollution, and protecting ecosystems to maintain ecological balance.

Social Equity: Ensuring that development benefits all segments of society, addressing issues of poverty, inequality, and promoting inclusive participation in decision-making processes.

Economic Prosperity: Fostering economic growth that is inclusive, equitable, and environmentally sustainable, encouraging innovation and the responsible use of resources.

Inter-generational Equity: Considering the impact of present actions on future generations, aiming for a balance that does not compromise the well-being of future inhabitants.

Global Cooperation: Recognizing the interconnectedness of global challenges and fostering international collaboration to address issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and poverty on a global scale.

Sustainable development is frequently expressed through frameworks such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. These goals serve as a road map for global efforts to attain a world that is more sustainable and equitable by the year 2030. In order to ensure that everyone will have a prosperous and robust future, the goal is to strike a healthy balance between the expansion of the economy, the well-being of society, and the preservation of the environment.

Q5) Discuss the nature of post-industrial society.

Ans)The concept of a post-industrial society describes a shift in the structure and dynamics of economies away from manufacturing and industry toward services, information, and technology.

This transition represents a profound societal transformation characterized by several key features:

a) Economic Shift: Post-industrial economies shift from manufacturing to services. Finance, technology, education, healthcare, and information services grow as manufacturing and output decline.

b) Technological Advancements: Post-industrial societies are marked by rapid technological advancements, particularly in information technology and communication. The rise of the digital age has led to the automation of processes, the growth of the knowledge economy, and increased reliance on information and data.

c) Knowledge and Information Dominance: In post-industrial cultures, knowledge is essential and information drives economic and social activity. Success depends on education and intelligence, thus innovation, research, and development are prioritised.

d) Globalization: Post-industrial societies are often characterized by increased globalization, with greater interconnectedness and interdependence among nations. Information flows freely across borders, and global economic networks become more integrated.

e) Flexible Work Arrangements: The nature of work in post-industrial societies is often characterized by flexibility, with an emphasis on knowledge work, freelance opportunities, and the gig economy. Digital platforms enable remote work and collaboration.

f) Shift in Social Structure: The social structure in post-industrial societies tends to shift toward more diverse and dynamic forms. Class distinctions may become more based on education, skills, and knowledge rather than traditional economic roles.

g) Environmental Concerns: Post-industrial cultures face environmental issues from the industrial age. Sustainability, green technologies, and eco-friendly practises are emphasised.


Write a note on the following in about 100 words each.

Q6) Evolution.

Ans) Evolution is the process of gradual change in all forms of life over generations through the mechanism of natural selection. As a result of species adapting to their habitats throughout the course of time, it provides an explanation for the diversity of life on Earth. In his book "On the Origin of Species," Charles Darwin presented his theory of evolution, which stated that desirable characteristics are passed on to offspring, which ultimately results in the survival and reproduction of individuals who are more suited to their surroundings. The intricate web of life has been shaped by this process over the course of millions of years, which has the effect of affecting the development of species and contributing to the great biodiversity that is witnessed today.

Q7) Migration.

Ans) Migration refers to the movement of individuals or groups from one place to another, often across borders or within a country. It can be driven by various factors, including economic opportunities, political instability, environmental changes, or social reasons. Migration has been a fundamental aspect of human history, shaping cultures, societies, and economies. It can be voluntary or forced, temporary or permanent. The patterns of migration have an effect on demography, contribute to cultural variety, and have the potential to have enormous repercussions for both the economy and society. Within the context of the modern world, having a solid understanding of migration is absolutely necessary in order to handle concerns with human rights, labour markets, and global interconnection.

Q8) Entitlements.

Ans) Entitlements refer to rights or benefits to which individuals or groups are legally or morally entitled. These can include social welfare programs, government subsidies, or legal privileges granted based on citizenship, employment, or other criteria. Entitlements often aim to ensure basic human needs are met, such as access to healthcare, education, or social security. However, debates around entitlements often revolve around issues of equity, fiscal responsibility, and the role of the state. Balancing the provision of entitlements with sustainable resource allocation is a complex challenge faced by governments, impacting social policies and public discourse.

Q9) Welfare approach to development.

Ans) The welfare approach to development emphasizes improving the well-being and quality of life for individuals in society. It involves the provision of social services, healthcare, education, and safety nets to address poverty and inequality. Governments play a central role in implementing policies that ensure citizens' basic needs are met, fostering inclusive economic growth and social justice.

The welfare approach aims to create a more equitable and humane society, focusing on improving living standards and reducing disparities. It stresses the significance of social development in conjunction with economic advancement, encouraging an approach that is holistic in nature in order to improve the general welfare of the society as a whole.

Q10) Social environment.

Ans) For the sake of this discussion, the term "social environment" refers to the conditions, surrounds, and influences that individuals and societies interact with and evolve within. In addition to the cultural, economic, political, and interpersonal aspects that influence human behaviour and relationships, it also includes the political factors.

Norms, values, and institutions are all characteristics of the social environment, and they all play a role in the dynamics of society. As a result, it has an impact on socialisation, the construction of identities, and communal views. Alterations in the social environment have the potential to have an effect on the well-being of communities, opportunities, and social justice.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page