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BTMC-131: History of Tourism – I

BTMC-131: History of Tourism – I

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BTMC-131 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject History of Tourism – I, you have come to the right place. BTMC-131 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAVTM courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BTMC-131/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BTMC-131

Assignment Name: History of Tourism-1

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A


Answer the following in about 500 words each.


Q1) Explain the reason and social condition that led to the growth of tourism in ancient time.

Ans) The invention of the wheel was a big part of how civilization grew and changed. People moved from place to place because the seasons changed, animals moved, and people had to move to stay alive. Since early travellers moved on foot, they made smaller societies that were limited to smaller areas where they could farm and grow crops for production.


As their needs grew, so did their desire to trade and do business. This drove people to cross borders and go to faraway places. Their desire to find out what was out there and their interest in the unknown led them to climb mountains, cross rivers, and look for a glimpse of vast, unexplored lands. This led to the start of early tourism. History books say that travel and tourism began with the rise of the Egyptian, Eastern Mediterranean, and Roman Empires.


Nearing Costa Rica, the beginnings of tourism can be traced back to the middle of the nineteenth century, when people moved around in response to their needs for food, shelter, and ways to get around. Experts say that people in the Middle Ages had free time and a well-developed transportation system that let them travel and use their time. Ancient civilizations show that people travelled for reasons other than business and trade, such as religion, sports, health, education, leisure, relaxation, and spiritual pursuits.


There are three main social conditions that contributed to the growth of tourism:


Agriculture:  Agriculture paved the way to harmony among the people. Since agriculture required a lot of people to work together, these different classes had to work together to make sure that crops were grown, irrigation systems were built, monuments were built as did many other projects. As the number of people in these communities grew, villages formed. From these villages, cities grew. All early civilizations can be found in the form of cities. People from villages and smaller towns moved to these cities to trade and do business, so they became hubs of activity.


Social Condition: The most important things about civilizations were their level of ability, their skills, and the jobs they were given. People were divide into several strata for better administration.

Without a social structure that protected people and a leader in the form of a ruler or king, it was hard to keep people safe and make sure they were taken care of. In such a system, there would have been no rules, leading to chaos. If there are no rules, slaves and workers might rebel against their own leaders, merchants and sellers might not sell any of their goods, and priests might fight to get the throne and run the kingdom.


Religion: Most ancient societies had their own religions that brought people together.

This religion was based on a set of beliefs, rituals, customs, and ways of acting that helped people understand the meaning of life and God. People who shared the same beliefs and practises also crossed cities, travelled to faraway places, and met people they didn't know but could find something in common with and build trust and respect with through their religious communions and ties.


Q2) Who was “Byzantine”? Describe the contributions of Byzantines to modern world.

Ans) The word "Byzantine" comes from the word "Byzantium," which was the name of an ancient Greek colony that was started by a man named Byzas. It was on the European side of the Bosporus, a waterway between Asia and Europe that was used for trade and as a passageway. In 330 AD, when Constantine I was emperor of Rome, he chose this city to be the site of New Rome, with Constantinople as its capital. This made the city extremely popular. It is important to note that Emperor Constantine was the one who chose Christianity and made it Rome's official religion.


A set of activities and experiments done by the Byzantines laid the groundwork for future technological progress. Ancient philosophy and metaphysics were linked to science in the Byzantine era. Isidore of Miletus, a Greek mathematician, put together the work of Archimedes. Leo, a mathematician, came up with an optical telegraph, which was a system of beacons that were used as an alarm to warn people of an enemy attack long before it happened.


The Byzantines came up with the idea of "pendent" architecture. Byzantines liked to use their high skills to make things like the mechanical sundial with complicated gears, the Antikythera mechanism, and toys with lots of mechanical tricks. These mechanical devices were very delicate and complex, which made people take notice at first. The Byzantines also learned about hydraulics and how to use it because they used hydraulic power to grind their grains in ship mills.


Byzantines were also very good at helping sick people get better at places called hospitals. They knew about uroscopy because a doctor named Theophilus Protospatharius used it to find out what was wrong with people before microscopes were invented. This method also spread to Europe. Famous Byzantine doctors like Vienna Dioscorides, Paul of Aegina, and Nicholas Myrepsos authored books about medicine and came up with the idea for an antidote.


In the military field, the Byzantines were smart enough to come up with grenades. This was done with jars made of ceramic that were filled with nails, glass, and explosives. Byzantine literature also talked about flame throwers that could be held in the hand. Byzantines also tried to make tools that could destroy citadels and fortifications, which led to the development of canons. During the time when the Byzantine Empire was falling apart, the city of Trebizond became a popular place to study astronomy, mathematics, and medicine.


Even though Constantinople was finally taken back in 1261 AD, the Byzantine Empire lasted for another 200 years as a small rival state. During the 14th and 15th centuries, AD, the Ottoman Empire took over its neighbouring lands by force. When the Ottoman Empire took Constantinople in 1453, it was the end of the Byzantine Empire. But in 1461, the Ottomans took over the last imperial Byzantine state, the Empire of Trebizond. This meant that the Ottomans ruled all of Byzantine.


Even though the Ottomans took over all of Byzantium, the art, literature, and other parts of Byzantine culture stayed there for a long time. It also had an effect on places like Russia, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece.

Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.


Q3) Discuss the different types of tourism.

Ans) Modern tourism is one of the most interesting things about our time, and it gives us a chance to learn and makes the world a better place. There are nine distinct kinds of tourism: 

  1. Rest and Getting Better: Holiday or vacation travel come under this category. The goal is to get a break from daily life; relieving the stress of societies that have moved away from manual labour and toward sedentary work.

  2. Escape tourism: It is a way for a lot of people to get away from everyday life and go to a made-up world of freedom.

  3. Communication: This is a form of mass tourism in which large groups of people enjoy the amenities of tourist enclaves.

  4. Culture and Education: This kind of tourism is based on sightseeing tours to see and experience other countries, but not necessarily in depth.

  5. Freedom: Tourism gets you away from home and work, and it's more about amenities and comforts than about experiences.

  6. Health: This form of tourism is with the intention to restore health.

  7. Tours with a Special Focus: This is set up based on what the tourists want, which could be anything from golf or fishing to medical, historical, archaeological, or other interests.

  8. Adventure and Wildlife: This type includes travelling far from modern civilization, with bearers and porters and mules, camels, elephants, or jeeps, mixing trekking, hiking, and camping with the luxury of a first-class hotel.

  9. Convention Tourism: It is a way to combine work and fun by holding meetings or conventions at tourist spots.

Q4) Describe purpose of tourism in detail.

Ans) Purpose of tourism as follows:

  1. Sun, sea, sand, and sex: This is what Americans call the "4 S formula". Tourists who want to get away from temperate climates to tropical ones expect to be able to swim in the ocean and have access to a sandy beach and good weather (sun shine). This form (4S) has been called "Tourism in a Ghetto" by many analysts.

  2. Leisure, Touring, Sightseeing, and Culture: The linear or modal itineraries also need a much better transportation network and capacity, and hotels must offer their best services, especially check-in/check-out and room service, because guests and rooms change often.

  3. Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR): This form is a big reason why Indians travel within the country, hence very significant to the transport industry. These tourists don't have the freedom to choose where they go, but they are interested in the town or city's tourist attractions.

  4. Business and Incentive Travel: Business Travels do not include tourist centres. Instead, they go to business or diplomatic centres. They may want special services like communication and secretarial facilities, meeting and convention facilities, car rental, and places to stay.

  5. Health and Medical Care: This category includes medical services from hospitals, clinics, healing homes, and other health and social institutions. It also includes medical treatments at health and spa resorts and other specialised places.

  6. Shopping: This includes things like buying goods for personal use or to give as gifts. Doesn't include things bought to resell or use in a future production process, which would be business and professional.


Q5) Elaborate the facilities listed for travellers in the “Arthshastra”.

Ans) The Natyashastra shows how merchants are protected and how important they are in Indian society. The royal capitals were the urban centres of trade and industry, and they were supported by a network of small towns in the countryside. There was a lot of trade on land and on inland waterways. Military roads made it easier for merchant caravans to move quickly and bring expensive goods to the Royal Court.


Brahmin villages turned into places where people came to learn, like travellers and scholars. There were places for travellers who were poor to stay, called ‘panthagars’. Monasteries also drew monks, merchants, and people who did not live there. Greek stories say that in India, there were good roads for chariots and that horses, elephants, and camels were common ways to get around.


There were also trees for shade, wells, rest houses, and security. The Arthashastra talks about how important the state's transportation system is, how routes are grouped, and what kinds of vehicles are used. This shows that India had a well-developed way for the military, business travellers, and regular people to get around.


The state also kept an eye on and controlled travel on inland waterways. In cities, bazaars were places where goods from the countryside could be bought. There are strict rules about how travellers can move around. They had to carry a note to get from one territory to another without getting hurt. Taverns and dance halls were allowed for the travellers' entertainment. Gambling was legal and helped bring in money for the state.

Assignment C

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.


Q6) What is a destination?

Ans) A destination is both a place and an event, which are the two things that bring people there. Destinations can be spread out over a large area. A place is appealing because of its reputation or the things it has to offer. In a site attraction, a place like the Shimla hills, the coast of Kerala, or the Khajuraho temple complex acts as a draw. With an event acting as a pull, tourists go to a certain place because of what is going on there. When both the place and the event are interesting, like at the Konark Dance Festival or the Elephant March or Boat Race in Kerala, the success of the destination grows.


Q7) What do you mean by “Special Interest Tourism?

Ans) Special Interest Tourism rejects "natural" enjoyment as coarse, vulgar, and servile. It replaces it with refined, disinterested, and gratifying pleasures that focus on culture and art as the main difference between the new power-elite and the old rich and the working class. After World War II, as the power of the working class went down and the service and middle classes grew, new kinds of tourism grew in the west. Tourists with a special interest in a country have a list of books to read about that country. They want to travel, not just visit a place. They want to make their own decisions and avoid packages.


Q8) Which approach is best for tourism study?

Ans) The study of travel and tourism encompasses a wide range of topics, one of which is the interplay between various components. Due to the inherent characteristics of the thing, it is difficult to provide a single definition that everyone can agree with. Interdisciplinary research on tourism, which draws from a wide range of fields and approaches to examine the industry, is by far the most popular approach. It encompasses the study of a variety of different approaches, such as anthropological, psychological, political science, legal, sociological, geographical, economic, and so on. Studying tourism using the Managerial Approach is also a well-liked way to approach the subject. This strategy takes a more firm-oriented approach. It places an emphasis on management responsibilities like as planning, organising, leading, and controlling, as well as staffing, pricing, and advertising.


Q9) What is a spectator sport?

Ans) A spectator sport is one where people come to watch. Sports that people watch can be either professional or amateur. They are usually different from sports that people take part in, which are more for fun. In modern times, sports tourism has been thought of as a unique way to travel. People who go to an event are in charge of making it a success. People used to travel to faraway places to watch sports or take part in them. Even though sports were the main reason people went to these events and the places where they took place were centre for sports, but it is also a great place for pilgrimages, religious tourism, and cultural tourism.


Q10) What is red-tapism and bureaucracy?

Ans) Red tapism is one of the major factors that hinder tourism. Most bureaucrats don't realise that it's a specialised field and not everyone can plan or run the operations. States like Goa, Rajasthan, Kerala, and Haryana that have done well at developing tourism have given those in charge of developing tourism a stable place to work. Many times, the resources of tourism departments are used to help politicians or other powerful people, rather than to develop tourism and bring in money. It's important for tourism that the problem is dealt with by people who know a lot about the tourism industry and its effects, not by people who are new to the area.

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