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BTMC-131: History of Tourism – I

BTMC-131: History of Tourism – I

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

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Assignment Code: BTMC-131/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: BTMC-131

Assignment Name: History of Tourism

Year: 2023-24

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Section A

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1) Write an essay on “Pluralistic character of Indian Society”.

Ans) India's rich tapestry of cultural, religious, linguistic, and regional diversity gives birth to a pluralistic society, a harmonious coexistence of multiple cultures, beliefs, and traditions. This pluralism has been a hallmark of India's identity, fostering unity in diversity and contributing to its vibrant social fabric.

India's pluralistic character emanates from its long history of diverse civilizations and influences. With over 2,000 ethnic groups, 1,600 languages, and numerous religions, it stands as a testimony to the amalgamation of varied customs, ideologies, and practices. This diversity is rooted in the assimilation of different cultures and traditions, evolving through centuries of intermingling and interactions.

Religious pluralism in India is striking, offering a space where Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, and other faiths coexist peacefully. Each religion brings its distinct customs, rituals, and philosophies, contributing to the nation's ethos. This cohabitation of various religious beliefs has fostered tolerance, mutual respect, and the celebration of festivals across communities.

India's linguistic diversity is equally remarkable, with each state and region presenting a unique language and dialect. This multitude of languages represents a treasure trove of cultural heritage, literature, and artistic expressions. Despite the linguistic differences, Indians have embraced multilingualism, showcasing a remarkable ability to communicate across diverse linguistic boundaries.

An additional element of India's pluralistic society is the country's great cultural variety. The nation is home to a vast array of customs, artistic expressions, musical styles, dancing styles, and culinary traditions, all of which are representative of the unique characteristics of its various areas. This cultural tapestry, whether it is the vibrant celebrations of Holi and Diwali or the varied cuisines from various states, creates a sense of solidarity among Indians that transcends the limits of their own regions.

The pluralistic nature of India is reflected in the country's political scene as well. One factor that contributes to a pluralistic political ethos is the federal form of governance, which allows states to maintain their independence and maintain their own different identities. This decentralised system is able to serve a wide range of needs, which reflects the varied goals of a number of different communities and areas.

The pluralistic nature of Indian society, on the other hand, does not come without its share of difficulties. Despite the fact that variety is being celebrated, there are still instances of social tensions, religious conflicts, and discrimination based on caste that are occurring, which are tearing away the fabric of unity. The existence of these issues highlights the necessity of making ongoing efforts to promote inclusiveness, social harmony, and equitable opportunities for persons of various backgrounds.

In conclusion, the pluralistic nature of India is a witness to the amalgamation of a wide variety of cultures, languages, religious traditions, and other aspects of Indian society. This vivid tapestry of diversity serves as a source of strength, creating resilience, solidarity, and a collective sense of identity. It is a source of strength. Embracing and maintaining this pluralism will continue to be essential in order to guarantee that future generations will inherit a society that is peaceful and welcoming to all.

Q2) Analyse the changes in the concept of pilgrimage tourism in India from ancient to recent Times.

Ans) Pilgrimage tourism in India has evolved significantly over centuries, witnessing profound changes in its concept, purpose, and execution from ancient to recent times.

Ancient Times:

a) Spiritual Journeys: In ancient India, pilgrimage was deeply rooted in spiritual quests and religious rituals. Devotees embarked on arduous journeys to sacred sites seeking spiritual enlightenment, blessings, and the fulfilment of religious obligations.

b) Sacred Geographies: The concept of 'Tirtha Yatra' epitomized the pilgrimage tradition, focusing on sacred geographic locations associated with legends and religious texts. Sites along rivers, confluences, coasts, hilltops, and places of historical significance held spiritual sanctity, fostering pilgrimages.

c) Social and Cultural Aspects: Pilgrimage transcended spiritual pursuits, reflecting social and cultural norms. It became a social ritual, binding communities, and families, while also fostering cultural exchanges among different regions and communities.

d) Limited Accessibility: Travel to these sacred sites was challenging, often involving long, perilous journeys on foot or animal-back due to the lack of transportation infrastructure. Pilgrims endured hardships, considering the journey itself as part of their penance.

Medieval Era:

a) Patronage and Development: During the medieval era, rulers and dynasties provided patronage to pilgrimage sites, leading to infrastructural improvements. Construction of temples, resting places, and pathways eased the pilgrimage journeys, attracting more devotees.

b) Religious Syncretism: Pilgrimage sites became melting pots of diverse cultures and faiths, fostering religious syncretism. Shrines like Ajmer Sharif gained significance for both Hindu and Muslim devotees, symbolizing unity amidst religious diversity.

Colonial Period:

a) Impact of Colonial Rule: The colonial era brought disruptions to pilgrimage traditions. British rule restricted access to certain pilgrimage sites, causing a decline in pilgrim numbers and impacting the socio-cultural fabric associated with these sites.

b) Documentation and Preservation: The colonial period saw documentation of pilgrimage sites, their historical significance, and attempts at preserving ancient monuments. Archaeological surveys and preservation efforts aimed to protect heritage sites.


a) Infrastructure Development: Post-independence, India focused on infrastructure development, improving connectivity to pilgrimage sites. Roads, railways, and airports were constructed, facilitating easier access for pilgrims.

b) Commercialization and Tourism: Pilgrimage tourism witnessed commercialization, with the emergence of hospitality services, hotels, restaurants, and souvenir shops catering to the growing number of pilgrims-turned-tourists.

c) Global Outreach: In recent times, pilgrimage tourism has gained international recognition. Sites like Bodh Gaya, the birthplace of Buddhism, attract global devotees and tourists, reflecting India's rich spiritual heritage on a global scale.

Recent Trends:

a) Spiritual and Adventure Fusion: Pilgrimage tourism now embraces adventure elements. Devotees seek more than spiritual experiences; they desire adventure activities in conjunction with their pilgrimages, blending spirituality with adrenaline-filled pursuits.

b) Technological Integration: Advancements in technology have transformed the pilgrimage experience. Online bookings, virtual tours, and mobile apps offer pilgrims convenience and accessibility to plan their trips efficiently.

c) Sustainability and Conservation: There is a growing emphasis on sustainable pilgrimage tourism. Efforts are made to preserve the cultural integrity of sites, promote eco-friendly practices, and maintain the ecological balance around pilgrimage destinations.

India's pilgrimage tourism has evolved from ancient spiritual quests to modern, commercialized tourism. While it continues to uphold its spiritual essence, pilgrimage tourism has adapted to changing times, embracing technological advancements, sustainable practices, and catering to diverse expectations of contemporary pilgrims.

Section B

Answer the following in about 250 words each.

Q3) Define a tourist, tourist product and destination.

Ans) Tourist: A tourist is an individual who travels away from their usual place of residence for leisure, recreation, or purposeful discovery. Tourists engage in various activities such as sightseeing, adventure, relaxation, cultural experiences, or social interactions during their travels. They explore destinations, immerse themselves in different cultures, and seek unique experiences outside their routine environment. Tourists contribute to the economy of the visited locations through spending on accommodation, food, transport, and leisure activities.

Tourist Product: A tourist product refers to any offering, service, or experience specifically designed or utilized by tourists during their travels. It includes a wide range of elements such as accommodations (hotels, resorts), transportation services (flights, trains), tour packages, attractions (museums, historical sites), recreational activities (adventure tours, theme parks), entertainment, shopping, dining, and other amenities that cater to the needs and preferences of travellers. These products are tailored to enhance the tourist experience and fulfil their travel desires, forming an integral part of the tourism industry.

Destination: A destination is a specific geographical area, site, or location that attracts visitors, often due to its unique features, natural beauty, cultural significance, historical importance, or recreational opportunities. It could be a city, region, country, or any place recognized for its tourism potential. Destinations offer a diverse array of attractions, infrastructure, services, and experiences to meet the demands and interests of tourists. They play a pivotal role in the tourism industry, serving as focal points for travel, exploration, and leisure activities, aiming to provide memorable and fulfilling experiences to visitors while contributing to the local economy and community development.

Q4) Elaborate the reasons for the growth of tourism.

Ans) The growth of tourism can be attributed to various factors that collectively contribute to its expansion and increasing popularity worldwide.

a) Globalization: The increased interconnectedness of the world has made travel more accessible, convenient, and affordable. Advancements in transportation, especially air travel, have significantly reduced travel time and costs, making distant destinations more reachable.

b) Economic Growth: Rising disposable incomes, a growing middle class, and improved living standards have enabled more people to afford travel for leisure, leading to increased spending on tourism-related activities.

c) Technological Advancements: The digital era has revolutionized the tourism industry. Online booking platforms, travel apps, and social media play pivotal roles in planning, promoting, and sharing travel experiences, making travel information more accessible.

d) Cultural Exchange and Awareness: There is a growing interest in exploring diverse cultures, traditions, and lifestyles. People seek authentic experiences, leading to an increase in cultural and heritage tourism.

e) Government Initiatives: Many governments have recognized the potential of tourism as an economic driver. They invest in infrastructure development, promote tourism campaigns, and ease visa regulations to attract more visitors.

f) Emergence of New Destinations: Emerging destinations, previously less explored, are gaining popularity due to their unique attractions, natural beauty, or cultural significance, diversifying tourist choices.

g) Changing Lifestyles and Preferences: With a shift toward experiential living, people are valuing experiences over material possessions. Adventure tourism, wellness retreats, eco-tourism, and niche travel experiences are on the rise.

h) Increased Connectivity and Accessibility: Better transportation networks, improved connectivity, and the expansion of low-cost carriers have opened new routes and destinations, encouraging more travel.

i) Environmental Awareness: Despite some negative impacts, there is a growing emphasis on sustainable tourism. Travelers are seeking eco-friendly options and destinations committed to conservation efforts.

Q5) Write a note on ancient sub-Saharan Africa’s empire.

Ans) Ancient sub-Saharan Africa was home to several influential empires that made significant contributions to the region's history, culture, and civilization. Some of the prominent empires include:

a) Kingdom of Aksum: Aksum was established and flourished in the region that is now known as Ethiopia and Eritrea around the first century after the common period that we are currently living in. The kingdom was a vast economic empire that was notable for its control over trade routes that went over the Red Sea. It was one of the oldest Christian countries in the world. The fact that it converted to Christianity was another reason for its widespread notoriety.

b) Ghana Empire: The ancient Ghana Empire resided in West Africa from the eighth to the eleventh century. It is important to note that this empire should not be confused with the present nation of Ghana. It was a significant commercial centre that was well-known for its control over trade routes for salt and gold.

c) Mali Empire: Spanning from the 13th to the 16th centuries, the Mali Empire was renowned for its wealth, led by rulers like Mansa Musa. It controlled vast territories, including Timbuktu and Gao, and was a centre of Islamic scholarship, trade, and culture.

d) Songhai Empire: In the aftermath of Mali's decline, the Songhai Empire emerged as one of the most powerful and influential African dynasties. Askia Muhammad, who ruled throughout the 16th century, was the person who brought it to its highest point. Its centre is located in the Niger River Valley. It was renowned for its powerful military, commercial, and administrative capabilities..

Section C

Answer the following in about 100 words each.

Q6) What is “Silk Route”?

Ans) The Silk Road, or Silk Route, refers to an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West, facilitating the exchange of goods, culture, and ideas between China and the Mediterranean. Spanning over 4,000 miles, these routes traversed through Central Asia, across deserts and mountains, facilitating the trade of silk, spices, precious metals, textiles, and other commodities. Named after the lucrative Chinese silk trade, the Silk Road was not merely a single route but a network of paths that played a vital role in cultural exchange and economic growth between the civilizations of Asia, Africa, and Europe from around 200 BCE to the 1400s CE.

Q7) What do you mean by “Christology”?

Ans) Christology refers to the theological study or doctrine concerning Jesus Christ within Christian beliefs. It explores and examines the nature, person, and role of Jesus Christ, often delving into questions about his divinity, humanity, and the relationship between these aspects. Christology explores topics such as the incarnation (the belief that Jesus is God in human form), the Trinity (the relationship between God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit), Jesus's teachings, miracles, death, resurrection, and the significance of these elements within Christian faith and salvation. It is a foundational area of study within Christian theology.

Q8) How does a discipline evolve?

Ans) A discipline evolves through a process of continuous exploration, research, and development. It begins with foundational knowledge, theories, and practices that are refined and expanded over time through scholarly inquiry, technological advancements, and societal changes. Evolution occurs through the accumulation of new discoveries, perspectives, and methodologies that challenge and enrich existing ideas. As scholars delve deeper, interdisciplinary connections often emerge, fostering new branches of study. This evolution is fuelled by critical analysis, experimentation, and the incorporation of diverse perspectives, contributing to the growth, adaptation, and transformation of the discipline over generations.

Q9) What is multidisciplinary approach?

Ans) A multidisciplinary approach involves integrating knowledge, methods, and perspectives from various disciplines to address complex problems or topics. Unlike interdisciplinary approaches that merge disciplines into a unified framework, multidisciplinary methods involve utilizing insights from separate disciplines without necessarily integrating them. It enables diverse viewpoints, theories, and methodologies to coexist within a broader context, fostering comprehensive understanding. Each discipline retains its distinct principles, contributing specific expertise to analyse multifaceted issues. This approach encourages collaboration, allowing for a holistic examination of a subject by drawing upon the strengths of different disciplines to tackle multifaceted challenges.

Q10) Why is it necessary to go for joint promotion in tourism?

Ans) Joint promotion in tourism is essential to leverage combined resources, expand outreach, and maximize impact. Collaboration among different entities—destinations, travel agencies, attractions—increases visibility and amplifies marketing efforts. It allows for cost-sharing, enhancing marketing campaigns' scope and effectiveness, attracting a broader audience. Joint promotions also create synergy, presenting diverse offerings as a unified, attractive package, appealing to varied traveller interests. By pooling resources and expertise, partners can access wider markets, creating a cohesive narrative that promotes multiple attractions or destinations simultaneously, thereby benefiting from shared exposure and increasing overall tourism prospects.

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