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BTMC-132: Fundamentals of Management

BTMC-132: Fundamentals of Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

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Assignment Code: BTMC-132/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: BTMC-132

Assignment Name: Fundamentals of Management

Year: 2023-24

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Section A

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1) Define the term “Business”. Explain the essential features and objectives of business.

Ans) The term "business" refers to the systematic exchange or offering of goods and services for monetary value. It encompasses both economic transactions and commercial activity. The manufacture, transfer, or sale of tangible items such as consumer products and machinery, in addition to the provision of intangible services such as banking, transportation, or insurance, is the fundamental element of the business.

Essential Features of Business:

Dealings in Goods and Services: Producing, exchanging, or selling tangible and intangible commodities and services is what business is all about. Products that fall within this category include consumer products such as food and clothing, as well as producer goods such as machinery and services such as banking and transportation.

Production and/or Exchange: Activities that include the production, transfer, or exchange of commodities or services for value are considered to be "business" activities in the context of the economy. A buyer-seller connection is required for transactions, which frequently involve the exchange of monetary value.

Continuity and Regularity: There is a distinction between transactions that are one-time or infrequent and business activities, which are ongoing or recurring. On the other hand, the frequency may change depending on the kind of activity being performed.

Profit Motive: The generation of profits is the basic motivation underlying the activities of a company system. Customers are extremely important, but revenues are even more important for the continued existence, expansion, and recognition of a corporation.

Element of Risk: There are risks involved in every commercial endeavour, including those that are difficult to forecast and have the potential to result in monetary losses. To achieve long-term success, it is necessary to manage these risks, which may be able to be insured or may be beyond estimation.

Objectives of Business:

Economic Objectives:

a) Satisfactory Profits: The foremost economic goal of business is to generate profits, ensuring sustainability and growth.

b) Market Expansion: Seeking new markets and customers to expand business operations and reach.

c) Business Growth: Scaling up and diversifying operations to improve market presence and competitiveness.

d) Innovation: Constantly enhancing goods and services to meet customer demands effectively.

Social Objectives:

a) Employment Generation: Providing job opportunities and contributing to reducing unemployment.

b) Supply of Quality Goods: Offering high-quality products or services that meet customer needs.

c) Fair Pricing: Ensuring reasonable pricing of goods, avoiding profiteering or unfair practices.

d) Ethical Practices: Abiding by fair business practices and contributing positively to society.

Human Objectives:

a) Fair Treatment of Employees: Ensuring fair compensation, incentives, and favourable working conditions for employees.

b) Job Satisfaction: Fostering a work environment that promotes job contentment and growth opportunities.

c) Employee Welfare: Prioritizing employee well-being and offering avenues for professional development.

The purpose of business is not limited to the pursuit of financial gain; rather, it occurs within the context of society and takes into account economic, social, and human aspects. Its characteristics include a wide range of commercial activities, and its goals go beyond monetary profits to include charitable contributions to the community, the health and happiness of its workforce, and ethical business practises. One definition of a successful firm is one that successfully strikes a balance between economic growth, social responsibility, and the satisfaction of its employees.

Q2) Differentiate between recruitment and selection. Explain the internal and external sources of recruitment along with their respective advantages and disadvantages.

Ans)Difference between recruitment and selection:

Sources of Recruitment:

Internal Sources:

a) Internal Promotions: Promoting existing employees to higher positions within the organization.

b) Employee Referrals: Encouraging current employees to refer suitable candidates for open positions.

c) Internal Job Postings: Advertising job vacancies within the organization to allow current employees to apply for the position.

External Sources:

a) Advertisements: Using various media channels to advertise job vacancies externally.

b) Job Portals: Posting job openings on online platforms or job boards.

c) Placement Agencies: Collaborating with recruitment agencies to find suitable candidates.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

Internal Sources:


a) Cost-Effective: Generally, cost less compared to external recruitment methods.

b) Motivational: Boosts employee morale, leading to increased loyalty and retention.

c) Known Quantity: Familiarity with organizational culture and practices.


a) Limited Talent Pool: Restricts the options to existing employees.

b) Potential Nepotism: May create biases or conflicts if promotions are not based on merit.

External Sources:


a) Wider Talent Pool: Access to diverse skill sets and experiences.

b) Fresh Perspectives: Brings in new ideas and approaches.

c) Specialized Skills: Opportunity to hire candidates with specific expertise.


a) Higher Costs: Generally, involves higher expenses, especially in advertising and hiring fees.

b) Unknown Factors: Candidates' cultural fit and performance might be uncertain initially.

c) Lengthy Process: Finding the right external candidate might take longer.

Effective recruitment strategies blend internal and external sources to access a broad talent pool. The choice depends on organizational needs, job roles, and the urgency of hiring, ensuring the best fit for the position.

Section B

Answer the following in about 250 words each.

Q3. Differentiate between Sole Trader organisation and Partnership form of organisation.

Ans)Difference between Sole trader organisation and partnership form of organisation:

Q4. Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each:

Q4a) Important Characteristics of an Entrepreneur.

Ans) Entrepreneurs possess several key characteristics that drive their success in business ventures:

a) Visionary: They are able to recognise opportunities in places that others would not, providing them with a clear vision and foresight.

b) Risk-Taker: a willingness to accept the inherent uncertainties of business and to take risks that have been well considered.

c) Innovative: They have the ability to think creatively and frequently present novel concepts, products, or services to competitors in the market.

d) Resilient: Being able to recover quickly from failures, gaining knowledge from them, and utilising them as stepping stones in one's career.

e) Adaptive: Able to quickly adjust to shifting market conditions and enthusiastically embrace emerging technology or trends.

f) Leadership Skills: They excite and inspire those around them, setting a good example for others to follow and effectively mentoring teams.

g) Networking: Competent in establishing and maintaining relationships, as well as in utilising networks to obtain support and possibilities for advancement.

h) Passion and Commitment: they are motivated by their enthusiasm for their work, they are committed to their endeavours, and they are willing to put in the effort that is necessary for success.

i) Flexibility: willing to modify plans in response to changing market needs or obstacles, as well as open-minded and flexible.

j) Resourcefulness: able to make the most of limited resources and develop solutions in difficult situations without sacrificing effectiveness.

Q4b) Span of Control.

Ans) The span of control is a fundamental concept in management theory that delineates the number of subordinates or employees a manager can effectively supervise and manage within an organization. It serves as a crucial determinant in shaping the organizational structure and operational dynamics of a company.

A narrow or small span of control typically characterizes a hierarchical organizational structure where managers oversee a limited number of employees. This setup allows for closer supervision and more direct control over subordinates' actions and performance. However, it can result in a bureaucratic and slow decision-making process due to the multiple layers of management involved. Communication channels may also become convoluted, leading to delays in disseminating information and responding to challenges.

In contrast, a wide or large span of control suggests that a manager supervises a larger number of subordinates. This flatter organizational structure encourages quicker dissemination of information, promotes employee empowerment, and fosters a more agile decision-making process. Employees under a wide span of control often feel more autonomous and empowered to make decisions within their realm of responsibility. Additionally, it reduces administrative costs associated with maintaining numerous managerial positions.

Determining the optimal span of control requires a careful balance between the need for close supervision and the benefits of streamlined communication and decision-making. Factors such as the nature of work, complexity of tasks, managerial capabilities, and organizational culture play significant roles in this determination. For instance, highly complex tasks may necessitate a narrower span of control to ensure adequate oversight and support, whereas routine tasks may be managed effectively under a wider span.

Organizations should regularly reassess their span of control to adapt to changing business environments and operational requirements. This may involve redistributing managerial responsibilities, redefining reporting structures, or investing in training and development programs to enhance managerial capabilities. Ultimately, an optimal span of control fosters organizational efficiency, employee engagement, and adaptability in the face of evolving challenges and opportunities.

Q5) Why is training of employees important? Describe two methods of conducting training.

Ans) Employee training is crucial for various reasons:

a) Skill Development: Training improves the skills and knowledge of employees, ensuring that they are able to carry out their responsibilities in an effective and efficient manner. It assists in adjusting to new processes and technology, which ultimately leads to improved performance on the job.

b) Increased Productivity: Employees who have received enough training are typically more productive. Because they have a better understanding of their jobs, they make fewer mistakes and produce better results.

c) Employee Morale: It is important to demonstrate to employees that the firm prioritises their personal growth and development by investing in training. By doing so, morale and job satisfaction can be improved.

d) Adaptation to Change: Whether it be new policies, processes, or market trends, employees are more prepared for changes within the firm when they have received training. They are able to adjust more easily as a result.

Two common training methods:

a) On-the-Job Training (OJT): This method involves learning while performing tasks. New employees work alongside experienced ones to learn the ropes. It is practical and allows immediate application of learning. However, it might lack structure and can be time-consuming for the mentor.

b) Off-the-Job Training: This method involves training away from the actual work environment. Examples include workshops, seminars, e-learning modules, or simulations. It provides a structured approach to learning, covers a wide range of topics, and can be cost-effective. However, it might not replicate real work scenarios accurately.

Employers often combine these methods to create a comprehensive training program that suits their organization's needs.

Section C

Answer the following in about 100 words each.

Q6) Describe the hierarchy of managers and their skill requirements.

Ans) The hierarchy of managers typically includes:

a) Top-Level Managers: These are the executives responsible for strategic decisions. They need visionary, leadership, and decision-making skills.

b) Middle-Level Managers: They implement the top-level strategies. They require leadership, communication, and problem-solving skills.

c) First-Level Managers: Directly oversee operational activities. They need technical expertise, team management, and problem-solving abilities.

Each level demands a mix of technical, interpersonal, and conceptual skills. Technical skills are specific to the job, while interpersonal skills involve communication and teamwork. Conceptual skills revolve around understanding complex ideas and strategic thinking.

Q7) Explain the concept and process of delegation of authority.

Ans) The process of passing responsibility and decision-making power from a superior to a subordinate while maintaining overall accountability is referred to as delegation of authority. Assigning duties, delegating authority, and providing individuals with the authority to act on behalf of the manager are all components of this process.

The process includes:

a) Assigning Responsibility: Allocating tasks and defining expectations.

b) Granting Authority: Providing the necessary power and control.

c) Creating Accountability: Holding individuals answerable for their actions and outcomes.

d) Maintaining Control: Monitoring progress and providing support when needed.

Delegation enhances efficiency, develops employee skills, and allows managers to focus on strategic tasks while empowering their team.

Q8) Explain the meaning and purpose of Articles of Association (AoA).

Ans) Articles of Association (AoA) are documents that provide an outline of the rules and regulations that govern the internal administration and activities of a corporation. The aims of the company, its internal structure, the rights and responsibilities of shareholders, the nomination of directors, corporate meetings, and the distribution of dividends are all outlined in these documents.

The AoA serves several purposes:

a) Internal Governance: Defines internal procedures and responsibilities.

b) Protection of Stakeholders: Safeguards shareholders' rights and interests.

c) Clarity and Consistency: Provides a framework for decision-making and operational guidelines.

d) Legal Compliance: Ensures conformity with company law and regulatory requirements.

e) Conflict Resolution: Offers a mechanism to resolve disputes within the company.

Q9) Explain the importance and characteristics of planning.

Ans) It is essential for the success of an organisation to engage in planning because it provides a focus, direction, and a road map for accomplishing goals..

Its significance lies in:

a) Goal Achievement: Defines the goals and actions that must be taken in order to find success.

b) Resource Utilization: The effective distribution of resources such as time, money, and human labour.

c) Risk Mitigation: Prepares for potential obstacles and anticipates potential hurdles.

d) Coordination: Aligns efforts across departments for cohesive action.

e) Decision Support: Assists in informed decision-making and problem-solving.

f) Adaptability: Provides the ability to adapt methods in response to shifting conditions of the environment.

Q10) What are the main differences between autocratic, democratic and free rein leadership styles?

Ans)The main differences between autocratic, democratic and free rein leadership styles are:

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