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BTMC-137: Profile of Modern Tourism

BTMC-137: Profile of Modern Tourism

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: BTMC-137/2021-22

Course Code: BTMC-137

Assignment Name: Profile of Modern Tourism

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

Q1) Why is there a need for policy formulation in tourism development? Highlight the

main points in the National Tourism Policy of 1982 and 2002 respectively. 20

Ans) The tourism policy is an important tool in developing the tourism product and environment of the place. It highlights the important tourist areas, resources and help in tourism development.

The significance of tourism policy is:

  1. The tourism policy gives a direction to the development of tourism by focusing the core areas of tourism in an area.

  2. It defines the responsibility & jobs of various stakeholders and help in developing the tourist activity. The framework takes care of both hosts & guests; and of course, their synchronization.

  3. It examines the present environment and guides the tourism aspects of region by emphasizing on future prospects.

  4. It emphasizes on planning and management. And accentuates on environmental sustainability, socially beneficial ability and economic viability.

  5. It always promotes Intergenerational equity and Intragenerational equity.

  6. It helps in limiting negative impacts and enhancing positive impacts.

  7. It helps in proper land use planning, efficient resource utilization and appropriate planning initiatives.

  8. It not only directs the locals, but also the tourists to understand their rights and of course the duties to the destinations they visit.

  9. It necessitates to develop infrastructure, transport and Suprastructure (if required); without misutilization of resources.

Tourism Policy 1982

Some of the prominent proposals given in the Policy were:

  1. To substantially improve and expand facilities for domestic tourists

  2. To accord high priority to the development of international tourism

  3. To provide adequate tourist facilities at major centres of cultural interest in a planned manner in co-ordination with concerned agencies including the State Governments

  4. To promote the rich heritage of India to attract more international tourists to India

  5. To give increased attention to regional tourism i.e tourism among the countries of the South Asian Region, to which India belong.

National Tourism Policy 2002

The introduction of the National Tourism Policy in 2002, which positioned India as a major engine of growth in economic, social & other aspects. It emphasized on the phenomenal employment and livelihood opportunities created by the tourism industry.

Basic Principles of the National Tourism Policy 2002

  1. Tourism has been recognized as an engine of economic growth throughout the world and if India has to be part of this revolution, it will have to adopt new strategies, tools and techniques. India contributes 0.38% of the world tourist traffic, which is very meager figure.

  2. A framework needs to be developed which is government led, private sector driven and community welfare oriented. The role of both government and private sector is very important.

  3. Our culture plays an important role in Tourism. Hence, improvements and environmental up gradation of the protected monuments and its vicinity is very important.

  4. Effective linkages developed with other departments & sectors such as Aviation, environment, railways, home etc.

  5. Sustainable development is the key factor for the tourism policy.

  6. Concepts like ecotourism concepts should be emphasized and sociocultural aspects such as poverty reduction, no gender disparity, preserving cultural heritage should be promoted.

  7. Special thrust areas such as rural tourism should be promoted, where our original natural and cultural visits exist.

  8. Importance given to rural tourism.

  9. Youth is a new class which has emerged in tourism. Also, this class doesn’t need any elite but ordinary facilities which can be improved through involvements of Panchayats, local bodies and associations.

  10. Special attractions of Indian tourism such as yoga and cuisines developed.

  11. Code of ethics should be there for tourism professionals.

  12. We should properly project our tourism product in International Arena and

  13. make our presence felt.

  14. The civilization issues such as ethics and good governance made part of

    the tourism policy.

Q2) Differentiate between International and Domestic Tourism and outline them respective major characteristics. 20

Ans) The following is a breakdown of the differences between international and domestic tourism:

International Tourism

What it says on the tin is international tourism. Tourism is defined by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) as "travelling to and staying in places outside one's normal environment for not more than one year for leisure, business, or other purposes."

International tourism has increased as a result of more money in people's pockets around the world, as well as the impact of greater globalisation. Global tourism has the greatest impact on developing countries, where the sector is desperately needed to generate revenue. Tourism supports one out of every ten jobs on the planet, and governments around the world spend a lot of money to boost their tourist industries. It's important to remember that comparing domestic and international tourism can be difficult due to differences in state size and activities. When compared to internal visitors in Belgium, Americans who want to vacation in their own state will likely have more to see and do.

Domestic Tourism

Domestic tourism refers to travel within one's own country. For example, if a Canadian from Alberta decides to spend a few days at Niagara Falls, this is considered domestic or internal tourism because you are staying in your own country. The global domestic tourism economy is lucrative, and the growing trend of staycations has boosted it. Internal vacations can be a cost-effective option for individuals, with additional benefits such as increasing residents' awareness of their country's history and culture.

This type of tourism is likely to be less inconvenient for visitors, as there will be no language barriers, currency/food changes, or etiquette differences when visiting another part of your own country. Domestic trips, on the other hand, are typically shorter than cross-border trips, and statistics on domestic tourism are under-reported when compared to international tourism.

Some of the salient characteristics of domestic tourism include the below:

  1. Domestic tourism is one of the earliest forms of tourism that has been documented.

  2. Domestic tourism does not require visitors to leave their home country's international borders.

  3. Domestic tourism does not necessitate the use of any travel documents, such as a passport or visa. Travel formalities are minimal in this area.

  4. Domestic tourism can be for pleasure or for business purposes.

  5. Domestic tourism is more reliant on surface transportation networks like roads and trains.

  6. Domestic tourism includes travel from all income groups within a country, as opposed to international tourism, which is limited to higher income groups.

  7. Domestic tourism demand is determined by factors within a country and can thus be forecasted easily.

  8. When compared to international tourism, domestic tourism demand is more easily controlled.

International Tourism and their Respective Major Characteristics

Three very important characteristics:

  1. For starters, people are moving to and staying in places that are not in their usual country of residence or work.

  2. The second factor is the duration, which can range from a few hours to nearly a year.

  3. Third, the purpose is something other than permanent residence or employment.

Assignment B

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

Q3) Discuss the impact of terrorism on tourism development citing appropriate examples. 10

Ans) Terrorism and security threats have been shown to impact tourism demand. This study examines the short-run effects of the 9/11 attacks on tourist preferences for competing Mediterranean and Canary Island destinations. On proposes a stated preference model based on two samples taken at different times in relation to terrorism. The attacks caused a shock to tourists and a change in destination image. Moreover, while some destinations' image and appeal were severely harmed, others were boosted.

Global terrorism's impact on tourism destinations was estimated using post-attack data from various tourism destinations:

  1. Tourists from far away will try to flee the area if a terror attack occurs.

  2. Tourists enroute to that destination will either return to their origin or move to another destination.

  3. People will soon abandon that idea.

  4. All stakeholders will lose interest in tourism and related businesses.

  5. Those relying on tourism for a living will be hit hard.

  6. Affected tourism entrepreneurs who have no other branches or outlets will have the most problems due to low business turnover.

  7. For a few days, the destination will lose its allure as global media reports on it.

  8. The destination's image will plummet, and it will take a long time to recover.

  9. Security forces will conduct more checks to prevent further attacks in that area.

  10. The media's projection of more security forces may cause viewers to feel uneasy and avoid the destination.

  11. If a terror attack occurs in a non-specific location, the impact can be seen in nearby locations.

  12. Various countries may provide security alerts and warnings to their citizens, dampening the spirit of visitors despite terror attacks.

Example - the deadly attack in Nice, France, in 2016 only adds to the sentiment that France may be an increasingly unstable place to live and do business in. The real threat of global terrorism from an investor's perspective is about the broader picture, not individual incidents. International investment and cooperation are lower in a world full of terrorism.

Q4) Write short notes on the following: 4x 2.5 = 10

a) Staycation

Ans) A staycation, or holistay, is a period in which an individual or family stays home and participates in leisure activities within day trip distance of their home and does not require overnight accommodation. In British English the term has increasingly come to refer to domestic tourism: taking a holiday in one's own country as opposed to travelling abroad.

Common activities of a staycation include use of a backyard pool, visits to local parks and museums, and attendance at local festivals and amusement parks. Some staycationers also like to follow a set of rules, such as setting a start and end date, planning ahead, and avoiding routine, with the goal of creating the feel of a traditional vacation.

b) Volunteer tourism

Ans) Volunteer tourism is a type of tourism in which visitors assist locals/hosts on projects/missions while on vacation. The primary purpose of the trip is to travel, but it also includes a 'volunteer' component. Organizational volunteering can be traced back to the twentieth century on both a national and international level.

Volunteer tourism is a serious form of recreation. This encourages tourists to work creatively while on vacation. It helps to aid or alleviate the material poverty of a few groups in society, as well as the restoration of certain social and environmental environments. Tourists work for no pay while on vacation, but they still have a responsibility to themselves. Self-guided, self-motivated, and self-actualization tourism are examples of this type of tourism. Because there is a common cause of catalysing welfare among the less fortunate, both the giver (tourist) and the receiver (host) receive satisfaction from the task completed.

c) Experiential tourism

Ans) Experiential tourism is a form of tourism in which people focus on experiencing a country, city or particular place by actively and meaningfully engaging with its history, people, culture, food and environment.

Experiential tourism is a new trend in the tourism industry. Travel has evolved to be more experienced based. The travel and tourism industry are looking for new ways to attract new travellers and tourists. Today's tourist is more demanding and wants to share his experiences with friends and family via social media. Industry spends heavily on creativity and innovation. It is the responsibility of all stakeholders in this segment to provide a unique experience to tourists in order to convert them into satisfied and repeat customers. This unit will teach us about experiential tourism.

d) UDAN Scheme

Ans) Ahead of UDAN Day (21st October), the Ministry of Civil Aviation flagged off 6 routes, expanding the aerial connectivity of North-East India, under the UDAN Scheme. Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik (UDAN) was launched as a Regional Connectivity Scheme (RCS) under the Ministry of Civil Aviation in 2016.


To develop the regional aviation market. To provide affordable, economically viable and profitable air travel on regional routes to the common man even in small towns.


  1. Development of new airports

  2. Enhancing the operational capacity of existing regional airports

  3. Capping of base flight fare

  4. Adopts a market-based model wherein interested airlines and helicopter operators submit proposals to the Airport Authority of India (AAI) to operate on un-connected flight routes. Routes are then awarded to a particular operator after a competitive bidding process

  5. Certain concessions are provided by the airport operators and the state governments

Q5) Discuss the seasonality concept in relation to tourism and the methods how it can be measured. 10

Ans) The impact of seasonal climate variations on travel and tourism is significant. Because of climatic changes, the most visible impact is the emergence of tourist seasons. During the summer, people flock to cooler locales such as beaches and mountain resorts, while in the winter, they flock to warmer locales. This phenomenon is primarily responsible for the development of hill stations in India. The hill tops of India are usually cool and pleasant when the mercury rises in the plains of India. As a result, the British rulers in India built several hill stations to provide a comfortable lifestyle during the hot seasons. During the summer months, millions of international and domestic tourists flock to these hill resorts. It is, in fact, a respite from the dreary weather at home. During the winter months, some of them have become popular for winter sports activities.


Seasonal variation is expressed as an index, which is referred to as a seasonal index. It's a figure that can be used to compare an actual observation to what it would be if seasonal variation didn't exist. Each period of the time series within a year is assigned an index value. If monthly data is used, this means there are 12 different seasonal indices, one for each month. Seasonal indices are used in the following methods to measure seasonal variations in time-series data.


Simple averages method

  1. The method of calculating the ratio to the trend is known as the ratio to trend method.

  2. The method of converting a ratio to a moving average is called the ratio-to-moving-average method.

  3. Method of linking relatives.

Assignment C

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

Q6) Differentiate between Medical and Wellness tourism. Describe the types, benefits and challenges in medical tourism. 6

Ans) Cancer treatments, organ transplants, Hep-C treatments, plastic surgery - both reconstructive and non-reconstructive like face-lifts - are all examples of medical tourism. Wellness tourism involves spa-like facilities and treatments that are designed to generally improve one’s strength, overall health, both physical and mental.

Types of Medical Tourism

There are multiple types of medical tourism, however, given below are some types of medical tourism treatment patients visit Worldwide.

  1. Dental or Dentistry

  2. Orthopaedics

  3. Cosmetic/Plastic surgery

  4. Cardiology

  5. Bariatric surgery

  6. Fertility treatment

  7. Eye surgery

  8. Ears, nose, and throat.

Challenges in Medical Tourism

  1. Follow-Up problems. The follow up care is very difficult in case of medical tourism.

  2. Language barriers. Language barriers pose major challenge in medical tourism.

  3. Brain drains.

  4. Lack of infrastructure.

  5. Lack of professionalism.

  6. Difficulties in promotion.

  7. Legal problems.

Benefits of Medical Tourism

  1. Affordability & Cost Effectiveness.

  2. High Quality Healthcare.

  3. Immediate Treatment.

  4. Privacy or Anonymity.

  5. Travel Opportunities.

  6. No or Less Insurance Coverage.

  7. Availability of Medical Experts.

  8. Availability of Advance Equipment’s.

Q7) Write a detailed note on Special Interest Tourism. 6

Ans) Special Interest Tourism term "tourism" refers to leisure travel that is linked to a specific personal interest. Special Interest Tourists seek out unique experiences, form social networks within the niche market, and are the target audience for businesses catering to niche travellers. This type of tourism can be fuelled by a desire to participate in a particular activity or by an interest in a particular feature of a destination. Special interest tourism can be motivated by a desire to immerse oneself in an existing interest or by a desire to pursue a new interest in an unfamiliar or unfamiliar location.

In general, special interest tourism entails individuals or groups seeking customised leisure and recreational experiences based on their specific interests. Some special interest tourism is focused on pursuing a favourite activity, such as shopping tourism, while other tourism is motivated by a desire to visit a specific location. Travelers who visit a destination to pursue a special interest in a particular region or destination are known as special interest tourists.

Q8) Explain the various types of travel motivators and travel deterrents. 6

Ans) Travel Motivators

Basic travel motivators may be classified into three categories:  

  1. Physical Motivators: These motivators are basically related to physical and mental health, escapism from boredom and regular life, relaxation, adventure and sports activities etc

  2. Cultural Motivators: The cultural elements such as language, religion, architecture, paintings, art, entertainment, philosophy, society, food, rituals, fairs & festivals, ceremony, music, folklore, literature, lifestyle, government & political system, education, social system, agriculture, customs & practices, norms, values, and beliefs of a society etc. are the cultural motivators.

  3. Interpersonal Motivators: An enthusiasm to meet new people, new friends, and family and to seek new experience is the interpersonal motivator. These activities require the tourists to meet outsiders or different persons in the destination and provide chances for social gathering.

Travel Deterrents

Travel barriers are of two types such as internal barriers and external barriers.

  1. Internal Barriers: Those barriers which directly affect the travel decisions of the individual internally may be termed as internal barriers. The internal barriers are cost, time, knowledge, family, gender, marital status, health etc.

  2. External Barriers: There are some barriers that exert externally in travel decisions. Such barriers are terrorism, military conflict, an outbreak of disease, high rate of crime and political instability etc.

Q9) What do you understand by the term ‘Partnership’? Explain how the concept partnership is used in the tourism industry. 6

Ans) "A partnership is a group of two or more people formed for the purpose of running a business and profiting from it, in which the partners share the risks, rewards, and responsibility for the initiative's success or failure." Other concepts and terms associated with partnership include collaboration, alliance or strategic alliance, and teamwork. According to a simple definition of synergy, "when two or more entities work together, they achieve more than they could individually and separately." Synergy is created through collaboration, partnership, and teamwork.

A voluntary collaborative agreement between two or more parties in which all participants agree to work together to achieve a common goal or complete a specific task and share risks, responsibilities, resources, competencies, and benefits is usually defined as a partnership. Many travel companies are able to expand because of partnerships. Hotel companies, airlines, cruise lines, destinations, and car rental companies can direct resources and capabilities to revenue improvement projects and growth ambitions by sharing resources and capabilities with others.

Q10) Discuss the role and importance of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the tourism industry.

Ans) The tourism industry in India is closely linked to SMEs because it provides low-cost products and services that satisfy visitors. Hotels, lodges, camps, tour operators, transporters, homestays, and wellness and meditation centres are among the SMEs that provide services to needy tourists. Many tourists prefer to use the products and services of SMEs to save time and money, whereas well-established travel organisations have limited their operations to metros and tier 1 towns. The following are some of the tourism-related SMEs.

The tourism industry has the potential to have a large impact on the regional and national economies. Because of the industry's fragmentation, a rational policy should be developed in order to achieve productive results. Which has the potential to contribute to the balanced growth of the national and local economies. Naturally, when researching such a complicated topic, we must also consider the major trends that exist on a global scale. It is self-evident that the tourism industry's economic impact is dispersed.

Tourism contributes to the creation of new jobs, tax revenue, and the development of adjacent industries. The tourism industry's system can be thought of as a platform that accelerates activities in economically depressed areas and tourist destinations. The importance of SMEs in the tourism industry means that they can be considered important generators of regional and national economic activity. It's worth noting that small and medium businesses are more adaptable and open to market opportunities. As experience has shown, there is no one-size-fits-all recipe that can be applied to all countries.

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