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BTME-141: Tourism Undertaking

BTME-141: Tourism Undertaking

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BTME-141 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Tourism Undertaking, you have come to the right place. BTME-141 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAVTM courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BMTE-141/2021-22

Course Code: BTME-141

Assignment Name: Tourism Undertaking

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A


Answer the following in about 500 words each.


Q1) Discuss the contribution of transportation in evolution of tourism. 20

Ans) Evolution of tourism in the world has taken thousands of years to reach the present level. It has been the product of various kinds of interactions of human being with their environment and surroundings and has evolved in different stages. In this lesson, an attempt has been made to discuss the evolution of tourism in different time periods. Since the ancient times education and religion have been seen as factors for the growth of tourism. Tourism also got impetus due to growing need of trade and commerce. Silk and spice trade routes which took place in the past and are getting attention once again in the present times.

Tourism in Early Periods

People have been moving around for centuries in search of food, trade, religion, and even education. But for many reasons, this travel was limited to nearby destinations. There were no roads, no food, no security on the roads, and no knowledge of places or routes. Traveling was sometimes made easier by royal patronage. This type of travel dates back to the Maurya period in 262 BC. Aristocrats could travel to exotic locations like Patliputra (Patna), Lumbini, Kapilvastu (Sarnath), and Gaya. Travellers could rest at memorials and rest houses at each location.

Trees were planted along the road to make travel more pleasant. The route from Greece to India was via Persia or Mesopotamia. There were chariot roads and horses, elephants and camels were used in India according to Greek accounts. Travellers were accommodated in hotels. The Mughal emperors travelled extensively and helped build roads and other infrastructure. Milestones, sarais, and a network of roads and paths still exist today, connecting all parts of this vast country.

Tourism in Colonial Period

Vasco da Gama arrived in Calicut, Kerala, in 1498, paving the way for trade between India and Europe. Then came the Dutch and the Brits. The internal strife among Indian kingdoms allowed foreign traders to gradually gain political influence. Among them, the British won and gradually displaced the Indian rulers. Their power grew over time until they ruled the entire country. They soon built a railway network in India, which proved to be a great way to travel.

Tourism in Modern Period

Indian Railways was the most important domestic transport infrastructure. The first train ran between Bombay (Mumbai) and Thane in 1853. India's rail network made comfortable travel possible. With the advent of air travel, the number of foreign tourists increased rapidly. The first flight from Allahabad to Naini Junction, about 10 km away, took place on February 18, 1911. But the real start was on October 15, 1932. On this day, JRD Tata flew from Karachi to Mumbai in a single-engine plane (then Bombay). He is the founder of Air India and the father of Indian Civil Aviation. These two times are crucial for transportation. Roads and waterways have existed since ancient times. Transport has greatly aided the tourism industry.

Tourism after Independence

Due to the country's diverse physical and climatic conditions, India has a long list of tourist destinations. India is a country rich in culture, religion, ethnicity, development, natural beauty, history, and more. India has built huge infrastructure for tourism growth and development. The improvement of transport facilities in independent India has boosted tourism. Tourists have been very well accommodated. Tourism will be boosted by the golden quadrilateral connecting Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, and Mumbai the North-South corridor connects Srinagar to Kanyakumari, while the West-East corridor connects Porbandar to Silcher.

The Golden Triangle connects Delhi, Agra, and Jaipur in northern India. This triangular route is popular with both foreign and domestic tourists. Similarly, the Golden Quadrilateral connects Puri, Konark, and Bhubaneshwar in the east. People travel to India in search of better and cheaper medical facilities, which has boosted India's tourism industry. This is also because ancient medical systems like Ayurveda and Panchatattava attract many tourists to India.

Q2) Explain the role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in travel and tourism business. 20

Ans) In the tourism and hospitality industry, effective and high-speed ICT infrastructure and software applications are critical for tourism development. ICTs enable customer-management relationships and supply chain management to be combined into a single source that streamlines a variety of operations such as product selection, ordering, fulfilment, tracking, payment, and reporting. ICTs reduce costs by allowing providers to communicate directly with customers, and they also have an impact on employment due to the need for ICT equipment maintenance. Management in tourism companies uses ICTs to perform a variety of tasks that improve employee efficiency in the workplace, including online reservations.

Changes in demand and supply have resulted from the advancement of ICTs. As a result of increased ICT use, there is a higher demand for flexible, individualised options and high-quality information, which has personalised leisure and tourism behaviour. Customers can share information and research ratings on destinations, hotel and restaurant quality, and environmental and social conditions using new technology and social and economic ratings (e.g., social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and blogs). By posting links to press releases or promoting new packages on Twitter, a number of hotels (e.g., Marriot Hotels and Resorts, Ritz Carlton Hotels, Hyatt Hotels and Resorts) have strengthened their brand image and communicate directly with their customers.

E-Tourism Demand and Technology-driven Revolution

The Internet has revolutionised consumer choice as well as service delivery processes. Customers have become much more discerning and sophisticated. This is because they have received excellent service and their standard of living has increased significantly. As a result, tourists have become more demanding, demanding high-quality products and, perhaps more importantly, value for their time. This reflects the fact that people are short on time. Experienced, sophisticated, and demanding travellers rely heavily on electronic media to obtain information about destinations and to communicate their needs and wishes to suppliers quickly after being exposed to a variety of tourism products and destinations.

E-Tourism Impacts on Marketing Mix

ICTs offer innovative organisations a one-of-a-kind opportunity to redesign tourism products to meet individual needs and satisfy consumer desires. ICTs have also become a core product, particularly for business travellers who now expect certain amenities during their trip. Tourism promotion and communication have been transformed by the internet and the World Wide Web. ICTs can help you save money on commissions. Expedia, eBookers, to emerge and gain a significant market share, causing the distribution channel to reinter mediate.


We can conclude that information and communication technology (ICT) plays a significant role in the development of tourism and is thus an unavoidable part of the industry's expansion. The majority of hotels and tourism organisations need to be updated with the most up-to-date ICT trends. Travel is one of the most important aspects of tourism, so online reservations, particularly for lodging, are crucial. In India, more information process awareness is needed, as well as ICT training at various levels of tourism, travel, and hospitality enterprises. As a result, ICT trends should be emphasised in tourism education in India.

India should work to increase mass adoption of ICT, which is critical to its success. It should be noted that this is the most efficient method of conducting business in the tourism industry. In this vein, tourism organisations should provide more services to customers that are easily accessible to all visitors to their destinations. The Indian government bears a significant amount of responsibility for streamlining ICT usage among stakeholders (B to B) and clients (B to C). Websites for tourism should be upgraded and updated on a regular basis. More options for B2C and B2B customers to pay for their reservations using their mobile phones are needed.


Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.


Q3) Discuss contributions of ITDC and various hotel brands to Tourism Development in India. 10

Ans) ITDC was founded in October 1966 and has been a driving force behind the country's progressive development, promotion, and expansion of tourism.

The Corporation's main goals are:

  1. To build, take over, and manage existing hotels, Beach Resorts, and Travellers' Lodges / Restaurants; To provide transportation, entertainment, shopping, and traditional services; and to market hotels, Beach Resorts, and Travellers' Lodges/Restaurants.

  2. To create and distribute promotional materials for tourists;

  3. To provide consulting and management services both in India and abroad;

  4. To operate as full-fledged money changers, restricted money changers, and other types of money changers;

  5. To provide cutting-edge, dependable, and cost-effective solutions to the tourism and engineering industries, including consulting and project implementation.

Hotels and restaurants for tourists are operated by the Corporation in a variety of locations, and transportation services are provided by the Corporation. Visitors can enjoy entertainment and duty-free shopping while they are here, thanks to the Corporation's efforts in producing, distributing, and selling promotional literature for the tourism industry. A number of new areas and services have been added to the company's portfolio, including Full-Fledged Money Changer services, engineering consulting services, and so on.

The Ashok Institute of Hospitality and Tourism Management, a subsidiary of the Corporation, provides tourism and hospitality training and education. Currently, ITDC manages eight Ashok Group hotels, six joint venture hotels, two restaurants (one of which is an airport restaurant), 12 transportation units, one tourist service station, 37 duty-free shops at international and domestic customs airports, one tax-free outlet, two sound and light shows, and one sound and light show.

Q4) Discuss in detail new concepts and developments in Accommodation sector.10

Ans) According to industry experts, the new trends in the hospitality industry will completely reshape the way hotels are serving their guests. Today, in this world of technology, guests are getting used to these advanced facilities. And so, they’re expecting the same with the hotel industry. Slowing and steadily, the hotel industry is getting aware of the fact that;

Therefore, with the tremendous changes in the taste and expectations of guests, all hotels (from small to large) are actively looking into the new techniques to offer the optimal guest experience. These facts cannot be avoided and inadvertently, you as a hotelier ought to focus on the latest hotel trends which you know will help in your hotel’s growth. The trends in the hospitality industry will help you improve loyalty and communicate better with the guests than ever before.

Latest hotel industry trends to focus on:

  1. Chatbot to assist you 24*7

  2. Mobile app for easy access

  3. Digitized room keys for quick room access

  4. Self-check-in to minimize guests’ waiting time

  5. Voice-activated virtual assistants for anything, and everything

  6. Technology to run hotels and bring bookings

  7. nstant messages for direct communication.

Alternative Accommodations

Today’s travellers have a myriad of options for accommodations; besides traditional hotels, they can choose between vacation rentals, hostels, serviced apartments, treehouses, and even underwater hotels. As people travel more frequently and for longer durations - and as platforms like Airbnb allow any accommodation provider to reach a large audience online - the characteristics of accommodations themselves are changing. Before long, “alternative accommodations” won’t be strictly an alternative, but part of the mainstream.

Q5) Explain in detail the concept of Freedom of Air. 10

Ans) Freedoms of the air refer to a set of commercial aviation rights and privileges granted to a country which facilitates that country’s entry and landing in another country's airspace. Freedom to fly is also classified by the ICAO, and there are many different kinds of rights that they grant to airlines to use the airspace of other countries. These rights can be classified into two broad ranges, transit rights and traffic rights. Transit rights allow you to fly over a country without picking up passengers, and traffic rights allow you to pick up and drop off passengers in another country.

Currently there are Nine Freedoms of the Air

  1. The right to fly over a foreign country, without landing there.

  2. The right to refuel or carry out maintenance in a foreign country on the way to another country.

  3. The right to fly from one's own country to another.

  4. The right to fly from another country to one's own.

  5. The right to fly between two foreign countries during flights while the flight originates or ends in one's own country.

  6. The right to fly from a foreign country to another one while stopping in one's own country for non-technical reasons.

  7. The right to fly between two foreign countries while not offering flights to one's own country.

  8. The right to fly between two or more airports in a foreign country while continuing service to one's own country.

  9. The right to do traffic within a foreign country without continuing service to one's own country.

The first two freedoms are formulated in the Chicago convention on civil aviation. The other freedoms are usually exchanged between countries in bilateral or multilateral air services agreements.

Assignment C


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.


Q6) Explain Tour Package and discuss its types. 6

Ans) Package tours are excursions or holidays which “package” a variety of services together to make a single “combined” trip. Commonly they combine such things as transport, accommodation and meals. They may also include the provision of a tour guide and/or leader. Tours can be long or short in duration and distance. They may be a one-day or overnight package, or they could be a period of a month or more.

Types of Tour Packages

A travel agency/tour operator deals with variety of ‘tour packages,’ catering to the diverse needs

of tourists such as adventure, beach, architecture, cultural, business, conference, incentive

tours, ayurvedic packages, Buddhist, religious, incentive tour, special interest tours, cruise tour

group tour, educational tour, heritage, monuments, wildlife lovers, etc.

These are broadly classified into five categories:

  1. Independent Tours

  2. Escorted Tours

  3. Hosted Tours

  4. Incentives Travel/Tours

  5. Freedom Tours.

Q7) Explain the role of hotels in tourism industry. 6

Ans) When it comes to providing travellers with shelter, food, refreshments, and other services and goods, the primary goal is to provide them on a commercial basis with things that are typically furnished in homes but not available to people who are on a journey away from home. Hotels have historically performed a wide range of other functions, including serving as business exchanges, canters of sociability, places of public assembly and deliberation, decorative showcases, political headquarters, vacation destinations, and permanent residences, among others. The hotel as an institution, and the hotel industry as a whole, transformed travel, accelerated the settlement of the continent, and increased the reach of urban culture throughout the world.

Q8) Write short notes on the following: (3 x 2=6)


a) Inland Waterways Authority of India

Ans) The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) is a statutory body responsible for the administration of India's waterways. The IWAI was established by the Indian Parliament in 1985 through the IWAI Act. Its headquarters are in the city of Noida, in the state of Uttar Pradesh. India has a vast network of inland waterways in the form of rivers, canals, backwaters, and creeks, all of which are interconnected. The total navigable length is 14,500 kilometres, with approximately 5200 kilometres of river and 4000 kilometres of canals available for use by mechanised vessels. India's use of waterways for freight transportation is significantly underutilised when compared to other large countries and geographic areas such as the United States, China, and the European Union, among others.

b) Online Travel Agencies (OTAs)

Ans) On an online platform, an online travel agency (OTA) arranges and sells accommodations, tours, transportation, and trips for travellers. They are independent contractors who sell services on behalf of other businesses. Online Travel Agencies or Online Travel Agents are two terms for the same thing. In general, third-party internet / online bookings or reselling sites that primarily sell hotel rooms, tours, flight tickets, car rentals, vacations, cruises, local experiences, and so on are known as Online Travel Agents.

They cover virtually every aspect of researching, planning, and booking travel, from selecting the best airline seat to reading personal hotel reviews to deciding what to do once you arrive in a destination. As the use of the internet has grown dramatically over the years, a large number of consumer-oriented systems, such as OTA, have become available directly on the guests' mobile phones or other internet-connected devices.

Q9) Differentiate between Travel Agency and Tour Operator. 6

Ans) A Travel Agent offers a variety of holiday packages put together by a tour operator to the consumer. They do not, in theory, put together any of their own packages; instead, they sell a variety of vacations put together by a variety of tour operators. They usually do not design or create the vacations they sell, and they do not act as a principal; the tour operator whose product they sell is responsible for the vacation, not the travel agent. As a result, the agent typically lacks an ATOL licence or any bonding, relying instead on the tour operator to cover these costs.

A Tour Operator is a person or company that comes up with holiday ideas, researches them, creates the holiday itinerary and content, contracts the services required for the vacation, such as lodging, transportation, guides, tour leaders, or resort reps, and then markets the final package. They can sell the package directly to the customer or through a travel agent. A tour operator sells a product that they have created themselves. They don't sell other people's packages; they only sell their own. And a tour operator is a "principal" in law, which means that they take responsibility for the package they create and cover that liability with (usually) an ATOL licence and/or some form of bonding to ensure that the consumer gets their money back if the tour operator fails or is flown home if they are abroad when the tour operator fails.

Q10) Discuss the impact of Covid-19 on tourism business. 6

Ans) The COVID-19 pandemic has largely destroyed the global tourism industry and posed a threat to the recovery of destinations in developing countries, which are increasingly vulnerable to the pandemic's increasingly severe waves. Although many studies have attempted to assess COVID-19's overall impact on specific tourism destinations over the course of the pandemic's many waves, very little research has been conducted to assess its overall impact on specific tourism destinations.

A typical emerging city in Vietnam with three COVID-19 pandemic waves was chosen as a case study. The study recruited 40 tourism-related representatives for in-depth interviews and distributed 280 questionnaires to participants from various tourism organisations. The pandemic severely impacted most tourism-related businesses in the case study, with only a few surviving the first wave of infection. Sadly, after the third wave, tourism businesses were found to be bankrupt or permanently closed. There was a noticeable decline in the number of tourists visiting, revenue from tourism, service facilities and exploitation, as well as employee reductions in all tourism enterprises studied. Among tourism stakeholders, travel agencies and hotels have the most economic losses.

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