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BTME-143: Procedure and Operations in the Tourism Business

BTME-143: Procedure and Operations in the Tourism Business

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BTME-143 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Procedure and Operations in the Tourism Business, you have come to the right place. BTME-143 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAVTM courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BTME-143/2021-22

Course Code: BTME-143

Assignment Name: Procedure And Operations in Tourism Business

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Assignment A


Answer the following in about 500 words each.


Q1) Define passport and visa and explain their various types. 20

Ans) Definition of passport and visa is listed below:

Passport: A passport is an official identification document issued by your country of citizenship that is required to travel internationally. To re-enter your home country, you will almost always need to present a valid passport. Your full name, nationality, date of birth, and an up-to-date photograph are all included in your passport. It also includes blank pages that are stamped when entering or exiting certain countries. Most modern passports are biometric, which means they have an electronic chip embedded in them that contains biometric data that can be used to verify the holder's identity.

Visa: A visa is a document that allows the holder to travel to and enter the territory of another country. A visa can be issued for a variety of purposes and can be issued as a single or multiple entry document. Depending on your destination, you may be able to obtain a visa in advance of departure from an embassy or consulate, or at a border entry checkpoint by submitting a visa on arrival application. Many countries now allow travellers to apply for an electronic visa via the internet, greatly speeding up the process.

Types of Visas Available in India

Conference Visa - “C Visa”: Foreign nationals who wish to visit India for recognised and approved international conferences, seminars, workshops, knowledge transfers, and other activities on a variety of topics are granted Indian Conference Visas. Conference Visas are issued to delegates from various countries who have received the necessary invitations and credentials to attend any international conference, seminar, workshop, knowledge transfer session, etc. organised by any Department or Ministry of the Indian Government, any State Government, Central Educational Institutions, Publicly Funded Universities, Public Sector Undertakings, United Nations or any UN agency, NGOs, etc.

Diplomatic Visa - “D Visa”: Foreign nationals with diplomatic or official passports are eligible for these visas. Except for official, diplomatic, and service passport holders from the UK who wish to travel to India on a private Visa, these Visas can only be processed by the Indian Embassy and Indian Consulates. They must submit their Visa application through Cox & Kings Global Services.

Entry Visa - “X Visa”: Entry Visas are given to those persons who are:

  1. Of Indian origin, meaning that they have held and Indian nationality at some point in their lives. These applicants must apply under Entry Visa instead of Tourist Visa, even if their travel to India can be defined as requiring a Tourist Visa.

  2. Spouses/children of persons of Indian origin.

  3. Spouses/children of foreign nationals that are travelling to India on Employment Visas, Business Visas, Research Visas, Student Visas, or other long-term Visas.

Journalist Visa - “J Visa”: Professional journalists, photographers, videographers, etc. must apply through this category of Visa in case they wish to enter India to conduct journalism-related activities. This Visa has a processing time of just 3 to 5 days.

Medical Visa - “MED Visa”: Foreign nationals who wish to seek specialized medical treatment in India at reputed and recognized medical treatment centres must apply through this Visa category.

Missionaries Visa - “M Visa”: This is a single-entry Visa issued to those foreign nationals who wish to enter India for religious reasons and purposes. Processing time for such Visas can go up to 3 months.

Research Visa - “R Visa”: Professors, students, environmentalists, doctors, archaeologists, and other professions that require special Visas to enter India for the purposes of conducting research are allowed entry to India through the Research visa or ‘R’ Visa.

Student Visa - ‘S Visa’: Student Visa to India are issued to those individuals who wish to travel into India for the purpose of pursuing their education at a recognized and accredited Indian university or college. Student Visas are issued for the entire duration of the selected course, or a maximum of 5 years, subject to renewability.

Tourist Visa: Indian Tourist Visa are issued to those people who wish to travel to India for sightseeing, recreation, holiday, or for a casual visit to friends or relatives. This Visa is not for commercial, business, research or educational purposes.

Q2) Describe the various ways an Indian citizen can apply for a passport. What are the various requirements for Tatkal Passport service? 20

Ans) A Passport is an essential travel document for those who are travelling abroad for education, pilgrimage, tourism, business purposes, medical attendance and family visits. During the last few years, the growing economy and spreading globalization have led to an increased demand for Passport and related services. To meet this increased demand, the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) launched the Passport Seva Project (PSP) in May 2010. Passport Seva enables simple, efficient and transparent processes for delivery of passport and related services. This project creates a countrywide networked environment for Government staff and integrates with the State Police for physical verification of applicant's credentials and with India Post for delivery of passports.

Ways to Apply for Passport

  1. Apply for Passport via e-Form Submission

  2. To apply for fresh or reissue of passport via e-Form Submission, users need to register on Passport Seva Portal.

  3. After registering, login to the Passport Seva Portal.

  4. Download the e-Form for fresh or reissue of Passport.

  5. Fill the downloaded e-Form and click the Validate & Save button. This will generate an XML file which will be required later for uploading in the system.

  6. Upload the XML file through the Upload e-Form. Do not upload the PDF form at this stage as only XML file is accepted by the system.

  7. After uploading the form for fresh or reissue of Passport, click the "Pay and Schedule Appointment" link to schedule an appointment at Passport Seva Kendra (PSK).

  8. Search for Passport Seva Kendra (PSK) location and select your PSK.

  9. After booking the appointment at selected PSK, you can make an online payment through Credit/Debit Card (MasterCard & Visa), Internet Banking (State Bank of India (SBI) and Associate Banks Only) or SBI Bank Challan.

  10. You can calculate the fee for passport services through Online Fee Calculator.

  11. Users can take print of the application receipt containing Application Reference Number (ARN) or Appointment Number.

  12. Visit the Passport Seva Kendra (PSK) where appointment has been booked, along with original documents- External website that opens in a new window such as Proof of Date of Birth, Identity proof with photograph, Proof of residence and Proof of nationality.

  13. Apply for Passport via e-Form Submission

  14. 1Documents Required- External website that opens in a new window

  15. Tracking Application Status

Tatkal Passport

A ‘passport’ is an official document which ensures smooth immigration into another country. It also doubles up as an authentic official document, helping us to avail various government and private services as it acts as an address and identity proof. While the passport application process is an exhaustive one, the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) has made arrangement for quick dispensation of passports under the ‘Tatkaal scheme’. Known as Tatkaal passports, applicants needing to travel abroad urgently can apply for and receive their passport within a few days.

Requirements for Tatkaal Passport Service

The jurisdictional passport office has the final say for issuance of passports under this scheme. This would depend on the urgency coupled with other compelling factors of the applicant. Applicants falling in the category below cannot apply/reapply for a passport under the Tatkaal scheme.

  1. Citizens born to Indian parents outside India (Indian descent)

  2. Indian citizens who've been granted citizenship status on the basis of naturalization/registration

  3. Applicants who've been deported to India from other countries

  4. Applicants who've been repatriated from a different country at government's cost

  5. Name change - major

  6. Residents of Jammu & Kashmir and Nagaland

  7. Naga origin citizens residing outside Nagaland

  8. Children adopted by Indian and foreign parents

  9. Minor children with single parent

  10. Minors residing in Nagaland

  11. Short passport validity renewal applicants

  12. Reapplication due to lost or stolen passport

  13. Application due to passport being damaged beyond recognition

  14. Change in sex or appearance

  15. Change in personal credentials such as signature



Assignment B


Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.


Q3) Discuss the importance and types of alliances in the tourism industry. Also outline the role of major organisations/association in forming tourism alliances. 10

Ans) When aims of partnerships and strategic alliances in tourism are analysed, it becomes clear that it is important to separate it under two sub-groups for efficient and meaningful analysis. The separation may be as; business-oriented partnerships and destination-oriented partnerships since their aims and focused resources are quite unique and different from each other.

The functions of partnerships and strategic alliances in tourism industry may be sub-grouped under 4 different categories:

  1. Research Limitations/Implications: The first constraint for the data collection process is time; this results in a limited number of samples for analysis. Furthermore, the analysis is primarily based on secondary data, whereas primary data usage and application of a quantitative research on the same topic and problem statement is suggested for future research.

  2. Practical Implications: Tourism and destination companies/organizations should be innovative and open in their mutual agreements and applications when it comes to strategic partnering. PPPs and clusters may be effective methods for achieving synergy in strategic alliances and partnerships.

  3. Originality/Value: In the tourism industry, the analysis of partnerships and strategic alliances as a means of effective marketing and innovative management applications.

  4. Category: Strategic partnerships, Strategic alliances, tourism industry, PPP (public-private partnership), Clusters in tourism, DMO.

Purpose and Functions of Alliances

Collaboration and partnerships are increasingly used in tourism to achieve business and community goals. These alliances are forming in a traditionally fragmented sector. The tourism industry has begun forming partnerships with non-tourism businesses.

The primary motivation for collaboration is that aligning resources and objectives benefits all partners, private or public. Partnerships can be formed to create new products or services, improve efficiency or scale, open previously closed markets, or simply pool financial and/or human resources. When promoting a destination, partnerships help maximise marketing dollars and reach a larger and more desirable audience. Instead of trying to build a large following and a global reach, partner with someone who already has it.

Q4) Give an overview of the various legislations that directly or indirectly affect and regulate tourism. 10

Ans)  The primary goal of tourism law is to create a regulatory framework for the correct use, development, and control of tourist activities, which is backed by the United Nations World Tourism Organization. Essentially, the existence of the legislation will aid in the preservation of cultural traditions as well as the conservation of natural resources, among other social, political, and economic benefits.

Travel Law

The law of travel or travel law refers to the regulations that control both corporate and individual behaviour in the travel industry, whereas international law of travel refers to the laws, processes, agreements, and treaties that control international travel. Travel law is a somewhat specialized topic of law that might be particularly intriguing since it may require pursuing a claim in a foreign jurisdiction. It addresses a wide range of difficulties, such as international accident litigation, contractual recovery processes against foreign suppliers, package travel regulations, and international and national regulatory compliance.

According to the  online website, the objective is to promote legal principles such as public law, tort law, trust law, employment law, and contract law, as well as to govern international travel law. Contract law, employment law, tourism and hospitality practices, antitrust restrictions, regulatory and agency compliance, and knowledge of particular international agreements and treaties are all included into international travel law to provide a comprehensive set of rules for the travel industry.

The various types of tourism related laws, enacted in different countries, relate to protection of tourists, border controls, quality of services, protection of environment, conservation of historical sites and monuments, tourism industry regulations and the relationship between the various segments of the travel.


Tourism and hospitality are intimately linked with rules and regulations. It helps to guarantee that tourists and industry personnel work in a decent and equal environment. Because it is also necessary for company owners to grasp it in order to prevent a legal complaint or penalties.

Q5) Give an account of the history and evolution of Centralised Reservation System (CRS) and Global Distribution System (GDS). Explain any one of them with the help of an example. 10

Ans) History and evolution of CRS and GDS:

Centralised Reservation System (CRS)

The central reservation system (CRS) that hotels know today traces its history back to the 1950s, following a chance encounter between the CEO of American Airlines and a senior IBM sales representative. The earliest versions of a CRS debuted in the 1960s, and by the following decade, hotels had begun widely using that technology. By the 1990s, the CRS had evolved into a complex, interconnected network used to manage rates and reservations across a multitude of channels. Starting in the 2000s, the creation of brand websites and online travel agencies (OTAs) offered new ways to sell direct to travellers. Hotels could distribute far and wide through a range of channels, opening doors to new markets around the world.

Global Distribution System (GDS).

The history of global distribution systems dates back to the 1960s when a more sophisticated method was needed to keep track of flight schedules, availability, and prices. As early as the 1970s GDSs were some of the first companies in the world to facilitate business to business (B2B) electronic commerce (now more commonly known as ecommerce). Airlines realised that by automating the reservation process for travel agents, they could make the travel agents more productive and essentially turn them into an extension of the airline’s salesforce.

Example of GDS

The three biggest GDS systems are: Amadeus, Sabre and Galileo (now owned by Travelport). Travel agencies use GDS to get real-time availability, and preferred rates on flight tickets, hotel rooms and car rentals all over the world as it allows them to be very reactive when asked for a quote.

Assignment C


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.


Q6) Explain the different types of tour operators and the role of various partners in the tour operation business. 6

Ans) Tour operators are basically categorized into four types. These are categories on the basis of their nature of the business and its operations.

  1. Inbound Tour Operators: Technically, the operators who receive guests, clients/tourists, and handle arrangements in the host country are called inbound tour operators. 

  2. Outbound Tour Operators: Tour operator who promotes tours for foreign destinations, maybe business tour or leisure tour is called outbound tour operators.

  3. Domestic Tour Operators: Domestic tour operators are those who assemble, combine tourist components into inclusive tours and sell it to the domestic travellers. In general, these tour operators provide travel services within the tourist’s native country.

  4. Ground Operators: These are commonly known as handling agencies and their main function is to organize tour arrangements for incoming tourists on the behalf of overseas operators.

Role of Tour Operators

Tour Operators are involved in planning, development, promotion, administration and implementation of tourism products. They oversee all day-to-day tasks and also supervise, motivate and train staff. They are employed by tour or transportation companies, resorts or attractions.

Q7) Write short notes on the following: 4 x 1.5 =6


a) Frequent Flyer or Miles programme

Ans) A frequent-flyer program is a loyalty program offered by an airline. Many airlines have frequent-flyer programs designed to encourage airline customers enrolled in the program to accumulate points (also called miles, kilometres, or segments) which may then be redeemed for air travel or other rewards. Points earned under FFPs may be based on the class of fare, distance flown on that airline or its partners, or the amount paid. There are other ways to earn points.

For example, in recent years, more points have been earned by using co-branded credit and debit cards than by air travel. Another way to earn points is spending money at associated retail outlets, car hire companies, hotels, or other associated businesses. Points can be redeemed for air travel, other goods or services, or for increased benefits, such as travel class upgrades, airport lounge access, fast track access, or priority bookings.

b) GATS - General Agreement on Trade in Services

Ans) The General Agreement on Trade in Services is a treaty of the World Trade Organization which entered into force in January 1995 as a result of the Uruguay Round negotiations. The treaty was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service sector, in the same way the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provides such a system for merchandise trade. All members of the WTO are parties to the GATS. The basic WTO principle of most favoured nation (MFN) applies to GATS as well. However, upon accession, members may introduce temporary exemptions to this rule.

c) Future trends in reservation

Ans) Consumers expect modern, intuitive, and convenient solutions to everyday problems and situations. Like making appointments, booking reservations, and signing up for events.

Modern Trends in Online Reservation Systems

Trend 1 - Smart, Efficient Booking Processes: Once the booking is made online, the appointment guidelines you define take care of the rest. Bookings go on the customer’s and employee’s calendars. Reminder emails and SMSs go out. Location space is scheduled. It’s super-efficient and less prone to errors and frustration than the systems of the past.

Trend 2 - Booking forms Designed for Shorter Attention Spans: Tech-savvy consumers might feel comfortable and confident with a fast-tracked booking process, but others might not be. It is important to build a form that asks for the minimum while still capturing all of the information you need from the user.

Trend 3 - Transparent Data Privacy Practices: Rather than try to quickly usher them through the process of booking a generic “Consultation” service, for instance, take the time to add details to the page. Customers who want to know more, will look at the custom photos, appointment details and restrictions, service descriptions, providers, locations, and more.

Trend 4 - Social-friendly Booking Sites: They have the option of sharing a link to their site’s booking page or to the booking microsite with their social media customers. This allows them to offer bookings wherever their customers are online, but this ensures that it’s a consistently high-quality experience every time and for every customer.

Q7) Quick service and Fast-food restaurants

Ans) A fast food restaurant, also known as a quick service restaurant within the industry, is a specific type of restaurant that serves fast food cuisine and has minimal table service. The food served in fast food restaurants is typically part of a "meat-sweet diet", offered from a limited menu, cooked in bulk in advance and kept hot, finished and packaged to order, and usually available for take away, though seating may be provided. Fast food restaurants are typically part of a restaurant chain or franchise operation that provides standardized ingredients and/or partially prepared foods and supplies to each restaurant through controlled supply channels.


Q8) Discuss the essential elements in planning and costing a tour itinerary. 6

Ans) Careful planning is required when developing an itinerary for your tour. A helpful exercise is to take a tour which will be similar to the tour you wish to develop and obtain copies of other tour brochures for comparison. This will help you develop ideas for your tour, give you an idea of what is already in the marketplace, give you detailed information on terms and conditions and provide possible ideas for brochure design and content.

Every itinerary should have 4 A, they are attraction, accessibility, accommodation, and amenities. Attraction is anything which attracts travellers to visit. Itinerary should mention what is the main attraction of the program. Then mention how to reach there, that is accessibility. It can be drive, fly, trek, raft etc. Next important feature is to mention where to stay. It can be hotel, camp, lodge etc. Finally, every itinerary should mention service elements like what they enjoy, see, visit etc.

Essential Elements of our Costing

Some tours offer a minimum of elements; others are all-inclusive:

  1. Travel cost.

  2. Administrative cost.

  3. Accommodation cost.

  4. Transfer cost.

  5. Marketing cost.

  6. Sight seeing and activity cost, and

  7. Miscellaneous cost.

Q9) What is the necessity of planning in transport management? Discuss main issues in tourist transport management. 6

Ans) The transport system is the pivotal element in a logistics chain and can consume perhaps one third of the total cost of logistics. The transport system has an overarching impact on the overall performance of production procedures right through from manufacturing to distribution. Given its critical role, transport planning is essential and good planning reaps rewards in efficiencies that add to the bottom line. Probably every organisation already has a transport plan of some description. Like all plans, a robust review by relevant experts should be applied at intervals to refresh it in light of current operating conditions and advances in relevant technology and techniques. Otherwise, the plan may be leaking costs unnecessarily and will continue to do just that until it is made good.

Issues in Transport Management

One can make or break a transport operation by securing lucrative routes.

Type of vehicle will depend on the demand and its suitability for use. A demand may exist

for sophisticated modern vehicles but if the roads on the route are bad the vehicle owner will

find it a losing proposition to run the vehicle because of high maintenance and workshop

costs. Drivers’ hours of work should be restricted to 5 hours of continuous driving with an hours

rest. Total numbers of driving hours should not exceed 8 hours in a day or 48 hours in a week.

The driver should be familiar with the route and addresses. They should also know the procedures and regulations at airports or railway stations etc. There is a general complaint from tourists that transporters fail to provide services as per commitment, may in terms of quality of services or schedules.

Q10) Discuss the functions of major departments in hotels. 6

Ans) The major four departments of hotels are:

Housekeeping Department

The housekeeping department is in charge of cleaning guest rooms and public areas. Close communication between housekeeping and front office is required to keep guest room information current. Simply put, housekeeping is housekeeping.

Food and Beverage Service Department

The hotel's food and beverage department are vital, and customer focused. It prepares food, beverages, and tobacco on demand. Exceptional food and beverage service. Food and beverage companies offer a wide range of services.

Food Production or Kitchen Department

There are skilled chefs and all necessary equipment, tools, and utensils in the kitchen to prepare food items as per guest orders and standard recipes. Chefs prepare food items according to guests' orders. It cooks food from a menu, which comes in two varieties. These are:

A’ la carte menu (it is a choice menu where food and beverages are individually priced)

Table d'hdte (it is a fixed menu where the price of food and beverages are taken at once)

Front Office Department

It is one of the many hotel departments that directly interacts with guests upon arrival. This department's staff is visible to the guests. Front desk agents handle hotel-guest transactions. The staff welcomes guests, attends to their needs, and creates a first impression of the hotel.

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