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BTME-144: Globalization

BTME-144: Globalization

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BTME-144 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Globalization, you have come to the right place. BTME-144 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAVTM courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BTME-144/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BTME-144

Assignment Name: Globalization

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor



Answer the following in about 500 words each.


Q1) Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). What is your opinion on the role of FDI in the economic development of the host country? Explain.

Ans) Foreign Direct Investment is a critical source of capital for economic growth in many countries. FDI is a type of investment where a company based in one country establishes operations in another country. The main objective of FDI is to expand the company’s operations and maximize profits. In this essay, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of FDI and examine its role in the economic development of the host country.


Advantages of FDI

  1. Capital Inflow: FDI brings in large amounts of capital to the host country, which can be used to finance new businesses, infrastructure, and other development projects.

  2. Employment opportunities: FDI can create employment opportunities in the host country. This can lead to the reduction of poverty, and the improvement of the standard of living in the host country.

  3. Technological Transfer: FDI brings new technologies and management practices to the host country. This can lead to improvements in productivity, efficiency, and competitiveness of the host country.

  4. Access to Global Markets: FDI can provide access to global markets for the host country. This can help in increasing exports and can lead to increased foreign exchange earnings.

  5. Tax Revenue: FDI can generate tax revenue for the host country. This can be used to finance social programs, infrastructure development, and other development projects.


Disadvantages of FDI

  1. Risk of Exploitation: FDI can result in the exploitation of the host country by the multinational corporations. This can occur through low wages, poor working conditions, and other unfair labour practices.

  2. Negative Impact on Local Firms: FDI can lead to the displacement of local firms due to the entry of multinational corporations. This can result in the loss of jobs and revenue for the local economy.

  3. Dependence on Foreign Investors: Host countries can become dependent on foreign investors for capital and technology. This can limit their ability to develop their own resources and capabilities.

  4. Repatriation of Profits: Multinational corporations can repatriate their profits to their home country. This can result in a drain of financial resources from the host country.

  5. Adverse Impact on the Environment: FDI can have an adverse impact on the environment. Multinational corporations may disregard environmental regulations in their pursuit of profits.


Role of FDI in the Economic Development of Host Country

The role of FDI in the economic development of the host country is complex and depends on a variety of factors. In general, FDI can be a valuable source of capital and technological expertise for the host country. It can also lead to job creation, increased exports, and improved infrastructure. However, FDI can also result in negative consequences such as the exploitation of workers and environmental degradation.


In my opinion, the role of FDI in the economic development of the host country depends on how it is managed. The host country must have policies and regulations in place to protect workers and the environment. They should also have measures in place to ensure that local firms are not displaced by multinational corporations. The host country should also negotiate fair terms and conditions with foreign investors to ensure that the economic benefits are shared fairly.


Q2) What were the basic reasons for setting up the International Monetary Fund (IMF)? Explain the objectives and functions of IMF.

Ans) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization that was established in 1944 with the goal of promoting international monetary cooperation and facilitating international trade. The IMF was set up in the aftermath of World War II, in order to help countries, deal with the economic turmoil and instability that followed the war.


Basic Reasons for setting up the IMF

  1. International Monetary Stability: During the war, the international monetary system had broken down, and many countries had abandoned the gold standard. There was a need for a new system that would promote stability in the international monetary system.

  2. Economic Development: After the war, many countries were struggling to rebuild their economies. The IMF was created to help countries finance their reconstruction efforts and promote economic development.

  3. International Cooperation: The IMF was established to promote international cooperation and collaboration among countries.


Objectives of IMF

  1. To Promote International Monetary Cooperation: The IMF aims to promote cooperation among countries to ensure the stability of the international monetary system.

  2. To Facilitate International Trade: The IMF works to facilitate international trade by promoting the exchange of currencies among countries.

  3. To Promote Economic Growth and Development: The IMF aims to promote economic growth and development in member countries by providing financial assistance and technical assistance.

  4. To Stabilize Exchange Rates: The IMF works to stabilize exchange rates by providing member countries with financial assistance to help them maintain stable exchange rates.

  5. To Provide a Forum for Consultation and Collaboration: The IMF provides a forum for member countries to consult and collaborate on economic and financial issues.


Functions of IMF

  1. Providing Financial Assistance: The IMF provides financial assistance to member countries that are facing balance of payments problems. The IMF provides loans to member countries to help them deal with their financial difficulties.

  2. Technical Assistance: The IMF provides technical assistance to member countries to help them improve their economic policies and institutions.

  3. Surveillance: The IMF monitors the economic policies of member countries to ensure that they are consistent with the objectives of the IMF.

  4. Capacity Building: The IMF provides training and capacity building to member countries to help them develop the skills and knowledge they need to manage their economies.

  5. Promoting International Cooperation: The IMF promotes international cooperation and collaboration among member countries to help them achieve their economic and financial objectives.


The International Monetary Fund (IMF) was established in 1944 with the goal of promoting international monetary cooperation and facilitating international trade. The IMF has played an important role in promoting economic growth and development in member countries. The IMF provides financial assistance and technical assistance to member countries that are facing economic difficulties. The IMF also provides a forum for consultation and collaboration among member countries on economic and financial issues. The IMF continues to play an important role in promoting economic stability and growth around the world.



Answer the following in about 250 words each.


Q3) How could an Indian firm take advantage of the positive aspects of a regional grouping to step up its exports?

Ans) Indian firms could take advantage of the positive aspects of a regional grouping to step up its exports in the following ways:

  1. Understanding the Market: An Indian firm looking to increase its exports to neighbouring countries needs to have a good understanding of the regional market. This includes understanding the demand for its products in the market, the competition, and the regulations and policies governing exports to those countries.

  2. Adapting to Regional Preferences: Different countries have different preferences and requirements for products. An Indian firm needs to adapt its products to the local preferences of the target market. This may involve modifying the product packaging, design, or features to suit the needs of the regional market.

  3. Leveraging Trade Agreements: Regional groupings often have trade agreements and preferential trade agreements in place, which reduce tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade. An Indian firm can take advantage of these agreements to reduce the cost of exporting to the target market.

  4. Building Networks: An Indian firm needs to build networks and establish relationships with importers, distributors, and buyers in the target market. This involves attending trade fairs, exhibitions, and other events, and building relationships with local partners and stakeholders.

  5. Investing in Marketing and Branding: An Indian firm looking to increase its exports to the regional market needs to invest in marketing and branding to build brand awareness and reputation in the target market. This includes developing a marketing strategy that targets the needs and preferences of the target market.

  6. Quality and Certification: Quality and certification are important factors that influence the success of exports. Indian firms need to ensure that their products meet the quality and certification standards required by the target market. This involves obtaining the necessary certifications and adhering to the relevant regulations and standards.


Q4) Describe various ethical vs. unethical activities of Multinational Corporations.

Ans) Multinational Corporations (MNCs) have a significant impact on the economies and societies in which they operate. While many MNCs adhere to high ethical standards, there have been instances where MNCs have engaged in unethical activities. Here are some examples of both:


Ethical Activities

  1. Respecting Local Laws and Regulations: Ethical MNCs abide by local laws and regulations in the countries in which they operate. This includes complying with labour laws, environmental regulations, and other legal requirements.

  2. Providing Employment Opportunities: MNCs can create job opportunities in developing countries where unemployment is high. This can contribute to economic development and poverty reduction.

  3. Investing in Infrastructure: MNCs can invest in infrastructure such as roads, power plants, and communication networks, which can contribute to economic development and growth.

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Ethical MNCs take responsibility for the social and environmental impact of their operations. They invest in community development, education, and environmental sustainability programs.


Unethical Activities

  1. Exploitation of Workers: Some MNCs have been accused of exploiting workers in developing countries by paying low wages, providing poor working conditions, and denying labour rights.

  2. Environmental Pollution: Some MNCs have been accused of causing environmental pollution and degradation in developing countries through their manufacturing and production activities.

  3. Tax Evasion: Some MNCs have been accused of evading taxes by shifting profits to tax havens, depriving developing countries of much-needed revenue.

  4. Corruption: Some MNCs have been accused of engaging in corrupt activities, such as bribery and kickbacks, to secure business deals and contracts.


Q5) What is marketing mix? Explain the components of marketing mix.

Ans) Marketing mix is a combination of different elements that a company uses to promote and sell its products or services in the market. It is a key strategy that businesses use to create and implement effective marketing campaigns. The four components of marketing mix are product, price, place, and promotion.

  1. Product: This element of the marketing mix refers to the tangible and intangible features of a product or service. A company must understand its target audience and develop products that meet their needs and preferences. They must also ensure that the product is of high quality and meets customer expectations.

  2. Price: The price of the product or service is another crucial element of the marketing mix. The price should be set according to the market demand, competitors, and the perceived value of the product. A company can use various pricing strategies such as discounts, seasonal pricing, and bundle pricing to attract customers.

  3. Place: This element refers to the distribution channels used to get the product to the target market. Companies must ensure that the product is available in the right place, at the right time, and in the right quantity. They can use different distribution channels such as direct selling, wholesalers, and retailers to reach their target audience.

  4. Promotion: Promotion refers to the methods used to create awareness and generate interest in the product. This includes advertising, sales promotions, personal selling, and public relations. Companies must use effective promotional strategies to create a strong brand image and generate sales.



Answer the following in about 100 words each.


Q6) What do you mean by Portfolio Investment?

Ans) Portfolio investment refers to the purchase of securities or financial assets with the objective of earning a return on investment. These securities include stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and exchange-traded funds that are bought with the intention of earning capital gains or dividends. Unlike foreign direct investment, portfolio investment is considered to be a passive investment where the investor does not have control or ownership of the underlying company. Portfolio investors primarily seek to diversify their investments, manage risk, and maximize returns. Portfolio investment can take place domestically or internationally. International portfolio investment involves investing in foreign securities, such as stocks or bonds, with the objective of earning returns on investment. Investors can buy and sell securities in the international market, and the process is facilitated by various intermediaries such as brokers and custodians.

Q7) What do you mean by General Agreement on Trade in services?

Ans) The General Agreement on Trade in Services is a multilateral agreement that aims to regulate international trade in services. It was negotiated as part of the Uruguay Round of the World Trade Organization in 1995 and came into effect in 1995. The GATS covers all services sectors including business, communication, construction, distribution, education, environmental, financial, health, tourism, and transport services. It provides a framework for the liberalization of trade in services, by reducing barriers and increasing market access for service providers.


The agreement requires each member country to provide most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment to other member countries. This means that each member country must provide the same level of market access and national treatment to all other member countries, without any discrimination. The GATS also includes provisions for the protection of intellectual property rights and the recognition of professional qualifications, as well as rules on dispute settlement and transparency.


Q8) What is EPCG Scheme?

Ans) The Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme is a scheme of the Government of India that allows Indian companies to import capital goods at concessional rates of customs duty for the purpose of producing export goods. The objective of the EPCG scheme is to provide Indian exporters with the necessary equipment and technology to enhance their export competitiveness.


Under the EPCG scheme, the importer is required to export the goods manufactured using the imported capital goods within a period of 6 years. The duty savings that are obtained under the EPCG scheme are calculated as the difference between the full rate of duty and the concessional rate of duty. The duty saved can be used by the importer for any other purpose, except for payment of custom duty on any other goods.


To be eligible for the EPCG scheme, the applicant must be an Indian manufacturer-exporter or a merchant-exporter with a supporting manufacturer, and must have a minimum export obligation of six times the duty saved on capital goods imported under the scheme, to be fulfilled over a period of six years from the date of issuance of the license.


Q9) What do you mean by electronic data interchange?

Ans) Electronic Data Interchange is the computer-to-computer exchange of business documents in a standard electronic format between business partners. EDI allows companies to exchange documents electronically, such as purchase orders, invoices, shipping notices, and payments, without the need for paper documents, faxes, or emails.


EDI enables seamless communication between different computer systems of businesses, regardless of the operating system, hardware or software used by each party. EDI standards define the structure and format of electronic documents, enabling businesses to exchange data without human intervention.


The benefits of EDI include increased efficiency, reduced errors, and faster processing times. By eliminating the need for manual data entry and the associated errors, EDI can save time and money for businesses, while improving accuracy and reducing the risk of delays.


Q10) What do you mean by the term Intellectual Property Rights?

Ans) Intellectual Property Rights refer to the legal rights that protect the creations of the human intellect, such as inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, and images used in commerce. The purpose of IPR is to encourage innovation and creativity by providing exclusive rights to the creators of these intellectual works, which can then be used to generate income through licensing or sale.


IPR includes several types of legal protection, including patents, trademarks, copyrights, and trade secrets. Patents protect inventions, while trademarks protect brands and logos. Copyrights protect literary and artistic works, such as books, music, and films. Trade secrets protect confidential information that gives a business a competitive advantage, such as secret recipes or manufacturing processes.


The enforcement of IPR is important because it ensures that the creators of intellectual works are fairly compensated for their efforts, and that consumers can trust the quality and authenticity of the products they buy. Additionally, IPR plays a vital role in stimulating economic growth, by encouraging innovation and the creation of new products and services.

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