top of page
BTMG-171: Culture in Indian Subcontinent I

BTMG-171: Culture in Indian Subcontinent I

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BTMG-171 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Culture in Indian Subcontinent I, you have come to the right place. BTMG-171 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAVTM courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BTMG-171 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BTMG-171/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BTMG-171

Assignment Name: Culture in Indian Subcontinent

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor



Answer the following in about 500 words each.


Q1) Write a note on the social concerns developed during National Movement.

Ans) The Indian National Movement was a massive political and social movement that took place in India from the late 19th century to 1947, when India gained independence from British colonial rule. During this period, various social concerns emerged among different groups of people in India, which shaped the course of the movement and had a profound impact on the future of the country. The major social concerns that arose during the National Movement in India.

  1. Caste System and Social Reform: The caste system was a rigid social hierarchy that divided Indian society into different groups based on birth. This system placed certain castes at the top of the hierarchy, giving them greater access to wealth, education, and political power, while relegating others to the lowest rungs of society. Many social reformers, including Mahatma Gandhi, saw the caste system as a major obstacle to India's progress and advocated for its abolition. Efforts were made to promote inter-caste marriages, to encourage the education of lower castes, and to eliminate discrimination based on caste.

  2. Women's Rights: Women's rights were another important social concern during the National Movement. Women were traditionally relegated to domestic roles and had limited access to education, employment, and political power. Women's organizations and activists played a vital role in pushing for greater rights for women. They campaigned for women's education, suffrage, and representation in political bodies.

  3. National Identity and Unity: The National Movement was also driven by a desire to create a strong, united India that would be free from colonial rule. This required a sense of national identity and a shared vision for the country's future. Nationalist leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi emphasized the need for unity and the importance of a shared national identity that transcended regional, religious, and caste divisions.

  4. Economic Development: Economic development was also a major concern during the National Movement. India was a primarily agrarian society, and there was a pressing need to modernize and industrialize the country. Nationalist leaders believed that India's economic development could only be achieved if the country was free from colonial rule and had control over its own resources.

  5. Human Rights and Civil Liberties: Human rights and civil liberties were another important concern during the National Movement. British colonial rule was often marked by human rights abuses and violations of civil liberties. Nationalist leaders campaigned for greater civil liberties and the protection of human rights, such as freedom of speech, assembly, and the press.

  6. Education: Education was seen as a key tool for social and economic progress. Nationalist leaders emphasized the importance of education and worked to establish schools and universities that would provide Indians with the skills and knowledge necessary to build a modern, independent India.


The social concerns that developed during the National Movement in India were many and varied. These concerns played a vital role in shaping the course of the movement and influencing the future of the country. They highlighted the need for social and economic reform, as well as the importance of creating a strong, united, and independent India. Today, many of these concerns remain relevant and continue to shape India's social, economic, and political landscape.


Q2) Explain the salient features of ancient Indian architecture.

Ans) Ancient Indian architecture is a rich and diverse architectural tradition that has evolved over several centuries. It is characterized by a unique blend of artistic, cultural, and religious influences, which have given rise to some of the most magnificent and awe-inspiring structures in the world. The salient features of ancient Indian architecture.

  1. Use of Symbolism: Ancient Indian architecture is known for its use of symbolism, with buildings and structures often designed to represent complex religious and philosophical concepts. For example, many ancient Indian temples were designed to represent the cosmos, with the central sanctum symbolizing the spiritual center of the universe.

  2. Ornamentation: Ornamentation was an important feature of ancient Indian architecture, with buildings often adorned with intricate carvings, sculptures, and paintings. These ornamental features were often used to depict religious stories, myths, and legends, as well as to provide a sense of beauty and elegance to the structure.

  3. Use of Natural Elements: Ancient Indian architecture often made use of natural elements, such as wood, stone, and clay, which were readily available in the region. These natural materials were often used to create intricate carvings, sculptures, and other ornamental features, as well as to provide structural support to the building.

  4. Symmetry: Symmetry was an important feature of ancient Indian architecture, with buildings often designed to be perfectly balanced and symmetrical. This was seen as a way of creating a sense of order and harmony, which was considered important for both religious and aesthetic reasons.

  5. Integration of Water: Ancient Indian architecture often made use of water, which was seen as a symbol of purity and renewal. Many buildings were designed with pools, fountains, and other water features, which were not only aesthetically pleasing but also had practical uses such as providing a source of drinking water and cooling the surrounding area.

  6. Vaastu Shastra: Vaastu Shastra is an ancient Indian architectural treatise that outlines the principles of design, layout, measurements, ground preparation, space arrangement, and spatial geometry. It is an important guide for architects and builders, and many ancient Indian buildings were designed according to its principles.

  7. Stupas: Stupas are dome-shaped structures that were used to house relics of the Buddha and other important religious figures. They are an important feature of ancient Indian architecture and were often elaborately decorated with carvings, paintings, and other ornamental features.

  8. Temples: Temples are another important feature of ancient Indian architecture, with many elaborate and ornate temples being constructed throughout the country. These temples were often designed to be grand and imposing, with intricate carvings, sculptures, and paintings adorning the walls and ceilings.


Ancient Indian architecture is a rich and diverse tradition that has evolved over several centuries. It is characterized by a unique blend of artistic, cultural, and religious influences, which have given rise to some of the most magnificent and awe-inspiring structures in the world. The salient features of ancient Indian architecture include the use of symbolism, ornamentation, natural elements, symmetry, integration of water, Vaastu Shastra, stupas, and temples. These features have contributed to the beauty and grandeur of ancient Indian architecture and have inspired architects and builders around the world.


Answer the following in about 250 words each.


Q3) What are the religious practices of the Garos?

Ans) The Garos are an indigenous tribe inhabiting the Garo Hills of Meghalaya in north-eastern India and the neighbouring regions of Bangladesh. The Garos follow a unique blend of animistic and Christian religious practices, reflecting the cultural diversity of the region. The key religious practices of the Garos:

  1. Animistic Beliefs: The Garos believe in a variety of spirits that inhabit the natural world, such as the spirit of the mountains, rivers, and forests. They also believe in ancestral spirits and perform elaborate rituals to appease them. The Garos believe that these spirits are powerful and can bring good or bad fortune to the community.

  2. Nokpante: Nokpante is a major festival celebrated by the Garos to honour their ancestors and ask for their blessings. During the festival, the Garos perform rituals to appease the spirits and offer them food and drink. The festival is also a time for the community to come together, exchange gifts, and celebrate their cultural heritage.

  3. Christianity: Christianity was introduced to the Garo Hills by British missionaries in the 19th century, and many Garos have since converted to Christianity. The Christian Garos attend church on Sundays and observe religious holidays such as Christmas and Easter. However, even the Christian Garos continue to practice animistic beliefs, which are deeply ingrained in their culture.

  4. Chambil Mesara: Chambil Mesara is a traditional dance performed by the Garos during the harvest season to thank the spirits for a bountiful harvest. The dance involves rhythmic movements and is accompanied by traditional musical instruments such as the drum, flute, and gong.

  5. Wangala: Wangala is a harvest festival celebrated by the Garos in November to thank the gods for a successful harvest. During the festival, the Garos perform a traditional dance and offer food and drinks to the gods.


Q4) Discuss the works of Kalidas.

Ans) Kalidas was a renowned ancient Indian poet, playwright, and scholar who lived during the 4th-5th century CE. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest poets and dramatists in Sanskrit literature, and his works continue to be celebrated for their beauty, elegance, and timeless appeal. Some of his most famous works include:

  1. Abhijnana Shakuntalam: Abhijnana Shakuntalam is a play that tells the story of King Dushyanta, who falls in love with Shakuntala, a beautiful maiden living in a forest. The play is celebrated for its lyrical language, vivid imagery, and rich characters, and is considered one of the greatest works of Indian literature.

  2. Meghaduta: Meghaduta is a poem that tells the story of a Yaksha (a supernatural being) who is exiled to the Himalayas and sends a message to his wife through a cloud. The poem is known for its evocative descriptions of nature and its exploration of themes such as love, separation, and longing.

  3. Raghuvamsa: Raghuvamsa is an epic poem that tells the story of the kings of the Raghu dynasty, culminating in the birth of Lord Rama. The poem is celebrated for its elegant style, poetic imagery, and its portrayal of the ideals of kingship and heroism.

  4. Kumarasambhava: Kumarasambhava is an epic poem that tells the story of the birth of the god Kartikeya, the son of Shiva and Parvati. The poem is known for its rich descriptions of nature, its exploration of the themes of love and desire, and its celebration of the power of creativity.


Kalidas' works are characterized by their lyrical beauty, vivid imagery, and deep insight into human nature. He is celebrated for his ability to weave together intricate plots, rich characters, and beautiful language, and his works continue to inspire generations of readers and writers. Kalidas' legacy continues to be celebrated as a cornerstone of Indian literature and culture, and his works remain an essential part of the Indian literary canon.


Q5) Describe the features of Rock cut architecture.

Ans) Rock-cut architecture is a style of building that involves excavating and carving structures from solid rock. It is a form of architecture that has been used by various ancient civilizations, such as the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Indians, to create elaborate temples, palaces, and tombs. The key features of rock-cut architecture:

  1. Natural Setting: Rock-cut structures are typically situated in natural landscapes, such as mountains, cliffs, or hillsides. This allows the structures to blend seamlessly with their surroundings and creates a sense of harmony between the built environment and nature.

  2. Elaborate Carvings: Rock-cut structures often feature elaborate carvings and decorations, such as reliefs, sculptures, and inscriptions. These carvings are often highly detailed and intricate, and can depict religious, mythological, or historical scenes.

  3. Monolithic Construction: Rock-cut structures are typically carved out of a single piece of rock, which creates a sense of continuity and unity in the design. This also allows for greater precision and control in the construction process.

  4. Use of Light and Shadow: Rock-cut structures often feature intricate interplays of light and shadow, created by the patterns of openings, niches, and chambers. This creates a sense of drama and mystery and can also have symbolic or spiritual significance.

  5. Adaptation to the Environment: Rock-cut structures are often designed to adapt to the natural environment in which they are situated. For example, structures may have sloping roofs to prevent water from seeping in, or they may be oriented to face the sun to maximize natural light.

  6. Functionality: Rock-cut structures are designed to serve a specific function, such as a temple, tomb, or palace. The interior spaces are often highly organized and functional, with chambers, niches, and corridors arranged in a logical and efficient manner.


Rock-cut architecture is a testament to the ingenuity and creativity of ancient civilizations, and its legacy continues to inspire architects and designers today. The complex interplay between form, function, and the natural environment creates structures that are not only beautiful, but also highly functional and responsive to their surroundings.


Answer the following in about 100 words each.


Q6) Write main forms of Hindustani music?

Ans) Hindustani music is one of the two main classical music traditions of India, the other being Carnatic music. It is characterized by its melodic improvisation, rhythmic complexity, and use of ragas (melodic modes) and talas (rhythmic cycles). The main forms of Hindustani music:

  1. Dhrupad: Dhrupad is one of the oldest and most complex forms of Hindustani music. It is a highly structured form of singing that involves elaborate alap (introduction), jor (middle section), and jhala (conclusion) sections.

  2. Khayal: Khayal is a more recent form of Hindustani music that emerged in the 18th century. It is a more flexible and improvisational form of singing that allows for greater freedom and creativity.

  3. Thumri: Thumri is a light classical form of Hindustani music that is known for its emotive and romantic themes. It is typically performed by female singers and is characterized by its gentle, lyrical melodies.

  4. Ghazal: Ghazal is a poetic form of Hindustani music that is typically performed in a more intimate setting, such as a gathering or concert. It is characterized by its highly stylized lyrics and expressive melodies.

  5. Bhajan: Bhajan is a devotional form of Hindustani music that is often associated with religious festivals and ceremonies. It typically involves the singing of devotional hymns or songs and is known for its simple melodies and repetitive rhythms.


Q7) List ancient Indian scientific literature.

Ans) India has a rich tradition of scientific literature dating back thousands of years. The most important ancient Indian scientific texts:

  1. Rigveda: The Rigveda is one of the oldest and most important religious texts of ancient India. It contains hymns and prayers that offer insights into early Indian views on astronomy, mathematics, and cosmology.

  2. Atharvaveda: The Atharvaveda is a collection of hymns and mantras that were used for ritual purposes. It also contains some of the earliest references to medicinal plants and their uses.

  3. Charaka Samhita: The Charaka Samhita is a treatise on Ayurvedic medicine that was written in the 2nd century BCE. It covers topics such as anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment, and provides detailed information on the properties and uses of various medicinal herbs.

  4. Susruta Samhita: The Susruta Samhita is another important Ayurvedic text, written in the 3rd or 4th century BCE. It covers surgical techniques, including plastic surgery, and provides detailed instructions on the use of surgical instruments.

  5. Aryabhata's Works: Aryabhata was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who lived in the 5th century CE. He wrote several influential works, including the Aryabhatiya, which introduced the concept of zero and made significant contributions to the study of astronomy and mathematics.


These texts represent a small sample of the rich scientific literature that has been produced in India over the centuries, and they continue to be studied and celebrated for their insights into the natural world and the human condition.


Q8) What is “folk theatre”?

Ans) Folk theatre refers to a type of theatrical performance that is rooted in the traditions, customs, and cultural expressions of a specific community or group of people. It is often performed by non-professional actors and is usually passed down from one generation to the next through oral tradition. Folk theatre can take many different forms, depending on the specific cultural context. In some cases, it may involve traditional dances and music, while in others, it may feature storytelling, puppetry, or other forms of visual art.


One of the defining characteristics of folk theatre is its focus on community participation and engagement. Rather than being a passive audience, viewers of folk theatre are often invited to actively participate in the performance, whether through call-and-response interactions or other forms of engagement. Folk theatre has a long and rich history in many parts of the world, and it continues to be an important part of cultural expression and identity for many communities today.


Q9) What is Vesara Temples?

Ans) Vesara temples are a type of Hindu temple architecture that combines elements of both Dravidian (South Indian) and Nagara (North Indian) styles. This style emerged during the 7th and 8th centuries in the Deccan region of India, which includes parts of present-day Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.


The term "Vesara" is derived from the Sanskrit word "Vaidisha," which means "mixed" or "hybrid." Vesara temples typically feature a Dravidian-style tower (vimana) above the main shrine, while the mandapa (entrance hall) and other elements of the temple are constructed in the Nagara style.


One of the key features of Vesara temples is their elaborate and intricate carvings, which often depict scenes from Hindu mythology and the daily life of people in the region. The temples also often feature large, open courtyards (prakara) and other structures, such as gopuras (gateways) and pavilions, that serve various religious and social functions.


Q10) What is “Jataka Tales”.

Ans) The Jataka Tales are a collection of stories that recount the previous lives of the Buddha, when he was still a bodhisattva (a being who is on the path to becoming a Buddha). The tales are an important part of Buddhist literature and were originally written in Pali, the language used by early Buddhist scriptures.


The Jataka Tales describe the Buddha's previous lives as animals, humans, and supernatural beings, and each story is intended to illustrate a particular moral or lesson. The tales often depict the bodhisattva making sacrifices and performing good deeds to help others, and they emphasize the importance of kindness, generosity, and other virtues that are central to Buddhist teachings.


The Jataka Tales are an important part of Buddhist culture and have been widely circulated throughout Southeast Asia and other regions where Buddhism has had an influence. The tales have also been the subject of art and literature in many different languages and continue to be a popular source of inspiration for people around the world.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page