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DECE-3: Services and Programmes for Children

DECE-3: Services and Programmes for Children

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: DECE-3 /TMA/2022

Course Code: DECE-3

Assignment Name: Services and Programmes for Children

Year: 2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


All Three Sections  A, B and C of this assignment are compulsory

Total Marks: 100



60 marks


Answer all questions.


Q1. Give 3 salient features of the educational ideas given by the following educationists in 300 words each. (3x4=12 marks)


Q1.(a) Tarabai Modak

Ans) Preschool education was pioneered by Padmabhooshan Shrimati Tarabai Modak. She first met Cijubhai Badeka, another educator in the field of preschool education, when she was the principal of a training college for women in Rajkot, Saurashtra. In Gujarat's Bhavnagar, Badeka started experimenting with preschool instruction. She was significantly inspired by what she seen at Gijubhai's Bal-Mandir plan, therefore she left her position as principal and began working with Gijubhai.


The industrialised west introduced organised and formal child education as a concept and practise to India. Madam Montessori provided the idea of forming children via education a significant kick. Her idea travelled from Europe to India in an astonishing amount of time. Gijubhai Badeka founded his Bal Mandir in Bhavnagar and started to indianize the Montessori method after becoming attracted by her teachings. Tarabai had also joined him by this point. Thus, Tarabai and Gijubhai founded the Nutan Bal Shikshan Sangh in 1926.


Once enough kids had gathered in and around GBSK, Tarabai and Anutai began another odd routine. The compound was overgrown with weeds and grass. The kids would stop by to observe them as they started cleaning it with kurpis, or little sickles. These clever teachers had already stocked up on child-sized kurpis. They offered these and inquired about the kids' interest in helping with the weeding. As more eager volunteers arrived, the activity gained popularity. Drawing, painting, and playing with educational materials started to emerge gradually.


Q1.(b) Maria Montessori

Ans) Montessori education expresses a commitment to three specific fundamental principles of nature:


Individual Liberty

Because the adult values "individual liberty," mistakes can happen in the classroom. Dr. Montessori noted that a child's total freedom of choice is essential for fostering traits like independence and self-control.


Preparation of the Environment

The concept of "environment preparation" looks at the child's surroundings as the root of bad conduct. Control the environment, not the child, is the Montessori method for dealing with disobedience and promoting the child's inner psychic growth. Other kids, an adult, and the actual things in the child's immediate vicinity make up the child's "environment." The adult's own personality—attitudes, values, beliefs, and feelings—resists successful "preparation" noticeably the most. Dr. Montessori valued an adult's inner preparation as being extremely important. Integrity, bravery, patience, and humility are the most important traits of a successful Montessori instructor.


Combining the Principles

These three principles are used by an excellent Montessori teacher with kids as a "control of error" that effectively leads one through a creative process of deliberate disengagement from hands-on interaction with the kid. This procedure, in the words of Dr. Montessori, is "doing nothing." "Personally, please do nothing," the child says when I ask what I can do to help him, the woman said. You are powerless to help me immediately.


Q1.(c) Rabindranath Tagore

Ans) In order for their strengths to be seen and developed, such as their wonder and curiosity, their imagination and creative joy, and their capacity to see unity resulting from their freedom from thought and behaviour patterns (short for an excess of what Tagore refers to as "surplus"), Tagore acknowledges that children are not incomplete adults.


Self-discipline and Self-government

In contrast to Tagore's condemnation of punishment and his support for individual freedom, he places a strong emphasis on discipline. He placed a strong emphasis on simplicity and order during the early years of his Santiniketan school (formerly known as Brahmacharyashram). Even yet, Tagore thought it was important to teach kids self-control because "brutal slavery, in which to drill the juvenile mind (...) is demoralising [and because] faultless obedience [comes] at the cost of individual responsibility and initiative of mind."


He was believed that treating students with tolerance, empathy, and respect for themselves causes them to be more respectful toward others. To an extraordinary degree for his era, Tagore encouraged his students to express their thoughts and engage in critical thought.


Ideal Teachers: Gurus vs. Schoolmasters

Finding qualified instructors for his schools proved to be a challenge for Tagore. He wasn't seeking for Schoolmasters, but rather Gurus. The word "guru" in Sanskrit, which also means "teacher," stresses spiritual knowledge and practises and is linked to the long-standing brahmacaryashram and tapovan heritage. Gurus, in accordance with Tagore, "engaged in the attempts to realise the wholeness of humanity," will give their entire selves to their students as opposed to only imparting the curriculum's required material.


Body and movement

According to Tagore, schools should take seriously both the physical health of their students and the healthy development of their minds. He saw to it that they had a healthy diet and enough exercise. He provided a wide range of athletic activities (ballgames, gymnastics, dance, martial arts such as Lathi and Ju-Jutsu). While engaging the body at the same time as the mind through peripatetic schooling, sense training, excursions, and even travel, Tagore did not treat the physical as a separate domain.


Activities: From Scientific Experiments to Social Engagement

Activities grew in importance as a determining factor in Tagore's curriculum over time. This involved conducting scientific research projects, going on field trips, attempting to solve local problems, picnics, caring for animals, and working around the school facilities. The neighbouring villages were cared for by the Brati-Balakas and Brati-Balikas ("boys and girls who had sworn an oath").


Q1.(d) Friedrich Froebel

Ans) It is crucial that professionals provide kids what they require right away. For instance, some kids might require the autonomy to mix their own paints (using their abilities and procedures, making choices, and making decisions). While some kids might not be ready to mix their own paints and will only waste money if they are allowed to ladle paint around and splash water on it, other kids might be prepared to learn how sand, clay, and gravel react to water. They can gain knowledge of a material's qualities. Another youngster might be prepared to mix paints, but because they are still learning how to do so, they might want a lot of practitioner assistance.


Children's thoughts, feelings, relationships, physical growth, and embodiment must all be fostered by the practitioner. The practitioner must be able to tell when a child needs to be given their own space or when they should be directed toward something more suitable for their age without making them feel guilty for using the paints incorrectly since they don't yet understand. Helping children requires being sensitive and acting in a way that will increase their self-assurance, competence, and independence.


Every child learns in ways that are connected to the official framework documents of their nation, such as the Early Years Foundation Stage in England, The Curriculum for Excellence in Scotland, The Foundation Phase Curriculum in Wales, Aistear in Ireland, or Understanding the Foundation Stage in Northern Ireland, as well as Te Whariki (New Zealand).

Children are self-motivated when given the opportunity to be so, and educators who are sensitive to their needs should not undermine but rather support their innate desire to learn.


Children need their own room to model, design, and construct. However, children also gain by frequently discussing their plans and activities with the practitioner. Children learn to employ symbols in language through conversation and listening to one another, which is a crucial step in their development.


Q2. State the rationale for early childhood development interventions. (500 words: 5 marks)

Ans) The importance of the early years of childhood is becoming more widely recognised. With regard to the disadvantaged kids in developing nations, this acknowledgement has significant significance. restrictions brought on by poverty and its sociocultural effects. prevent young kids from reaching their full potential by causing them to experience many deprivations during their crucial early years of life. Families, particularly those from lower parts, struggle to give their children a healthy environment, proper nutrition, and stimulating possibilities because of cultural and socioeconomic realities and misinformation. Many women, especially those from lower socioeconomic levels, must spend the majority of their time working to support themselves. In these situations, ECCE programmes are required as a planned intervention to alleviate the hardships young children who have working mothers must endure.


Children need to be shown compassionate, loving care and attention because they have the right to live and develop to their full potential as children, not merely because they will one day become responsible adults. In other words, everyone is completely entitled to enjoy their human rights at any stage of their growth. Children have rights as well, and everyone should recognise their right to a healthy development. The "cycle of deprivation" can be broken via ECCE, which is increasingly shown to be the most successful area of intervention. The favourable impacts of early childhood programmes on a child's development have received overwhelming support from the various early childhood programmes that have been implemented around the world. Early intervention can offset the negative impacts of deprivation and poverty for the poor.


Any effort to provide early children care in conjunction with other programmes for women, such as money generating schemes, is sure to be successful since it is such an enormous need felt by the families. For instance, an additional child development programme boosts all fronts in rural development schemes where women come to improve their skills or to work. Similar to this, primary schools that include a portion for children under six find that older students', particularly girls', attendance at school increases while also guaranteeing that preschool-aged children are in a secure and engaging setting. Face the harsh realities of the present without getting caught up in nostalgia for the past or exaggerating the role that children play in our traditions. Today, family structures have changed all across the world. Joint families are quite uncommon; nuclear families are more prevalent. Families with just one parent as well as a sizable proportion of families headed by women are also prevalent. The demographic patterns are also continually changing as a result of migration, which forces males into cities, sometimes with and sometimes without their families. There is regional migration in addition to rural to urban migration, which is prevalent throughout the world as populations quickly urbanise. With no child care options available at their workplaces, more women are entering the paid labour sector. A significant investment in early childhood development programmes is absolutely necessary for many of these reasons.


Q3. (a) How does visual impairment affect the cognitive development of a child? (300 words: 3 marks)

Ans) The normal progression of learning in the domains of social, physical, language, and cognitive development may be adversely affected by the existence of a visual impairment. Low drive to investigate the surroundings, engage in social interaction, and manipulate items is frequently brought on by reduced vision.


The type of experiences the visually impaired youngster gets will have a significant impact on her cognitive development. This could be said to apply to sighted children as well. To comprehend the distinction, read the discussion that follows. If you give it some thought, you'll see that we rely heavily on our vision to comprehend the world and form concepts. Consider a baby under a year old who is blind. The child might have once encountered someone who spoke to her in a really kind and affectionate manner. On another occasion, when they are upset, they become quite aggressive and speak to the other person in a different tone and manner. It could become challenging for the blind child to understand that these people, who seem to be different, are actually the same person.


This association is simple for the youngster who has eyesight since she can actually see the individual using the two different vocal tones. Thus, vision aids in the integration of our experiences and the creation of a complete conceptualization of a given item, concept, or individual. Acquiring the integrated concept is more challenging if one has poor vision. Of course, one may argue that a blind youngster can form an integrated idea through the use of touch. In the scenario above, the youngster would have been able to recognise that the voice on the two distinct occasions belonged to the same person if she had the opportunity to touch and feel the person in both cases. However, there is a significant difference between forming coherent concepts through sight and touch. As long as the eyes are open, one can see, and as long as there are no issues with the internal organs, one can hear.


Q3. (b) What are the ways through which a caregiver can help a child with visual impairment to be mobile? (300 words: 3 marks)


Make it Easy to Move Around.

  1. Plan your space such that moving around is safe and easy. Ensure there is a lot of space. Close cabinets and doors to prevent toddlers from tripping over them.

  2. Clocks, wind chimes, and radios should be placed at various locations throughout the home or day-care. To assist them navigate the environment, encourage them to listen to the sounds.

  3. Help youngsters locate various elements of the structure by pointing out textures like marble counter tops, plastered walls, glass windows, wood, tile, and carpet.

Make it Easier to See.

  1. Use good lighting to help children see better.

  2. Pick out playthings and supplies in contrasting hues. For instance, items in comparable colours of red and orange are harder to see than those in blue and yellow.

  3. Label items with large letters and pictures.


Use words and speak out loud more.

  1. Read aloud tales that foretell future events. You can also want to pick tales that provide intriguing accounts of events or things.

  2. Use electronic “talking books” or books recorded on tape or CD.


Encourage learning through touch for all children.

  1. Use finger painting, collages, play dough, and water and sand play as regular learning activities.

  2. Look for books, toys, and other items that have raised numbers, letters, or other designs that kids may investigate and touch.

  3. Encourage kids to construct horizontally with blocks. Children with visual impairments can feel shapes and arrange blocks in different patterns or end-to-end without experiencing the frustration of falling blocks.


Teach other children how to interact with children who have visual disabilities.

  1. Children should be encouraged to address a youngster who has visual impairments by name to catch their attention.

  2. Encourage kids to articulate their desires with more words. For instance, say "Come over to the playhouse and play dolls with Maddie and me," rather than "Come over here to play."

  3. Instead of using terms like "this," "it," or "that," give them practise naming specific objects like a phone, hat, or car.


Q4. Explain how the preschool teacher/ caregiver can deal with and manage (300 words each: 3 4- 3 = 6 marks)


Q4. (a) a child who shows aggressive behavior

Ans) A young youngster can consult with others through behaviour. Pre-schoolers’ communication and ability to make their demands understood by others determines all behaviour, both positive and negative. When the child begins to exhibit troublesome behaviours, you must be very encouraging and deal with the problems before the behaviours become out of hand.


Make sure a child is aware of the schedule as the first thing you could do. Not only to simplify his own life, but also to help him deal with the anxiety he is experiencing. A schedule gives the youngster the security of knowing what might occur concurrently each day. He won't be grateful for giving you the opportunity to rule your household.


When you start trying to get him under control, his behaviour is likely to get much worse. He'll have tantrums, refuse to go to sleep, toss objects, yell, and wail. Put him inside the bed if he would softly rise from it. He doesn't require an explanation, so stop. They are aware that he must no longer sleep in his parents' bed.


Your concentration on his bedtime ritual will probably cause his behaviour to spiral out of control. He'll yell, strike, bite, and kick. Use the behaviour getting worse as evidence that you're regaining control. If you don't control him before he develops, things are unlikely to work for him and he is not likely to be grateful.


There is a reason for his hostile tendencies, as was already explained. In all circumstances, you must be in front of him as a measure. Have a strategy in place so that you can react appropriately if you find yourself in a conflict. Otherwise, you could be forced to put up your hands and let him do as he pleases. When you're engaged in a conflict, it could feel incredibly overpowering.


Q4. (b) a child who is hyperactive


Don't Withhold Recess

While it may be tempting to deny recess or physical playtime as a form of discipline for hyperactive behaviours, teachers shouldn't usually do that. In fact, preventing physical play in the classroom can exacerbate hyperactivity. Unfortunately, evidence indicates that depriving children of recess as a punishment for misbehaving in class is a prevalent practise.


Pair the Child Up with a Buddy

Consider assigning the student a buddy to help with physical tasks like cleaning the chalkboard, passing out papers, and other physical tasks in the classroom. This tactic allows students to take a break and roam about while also making them feel useful. Take a break at home to engage in physical activities like a game of catch, running, basketball, or other intense sports. This kind of exercise frequently increases tolerance for seatwork while perhaps reducing restlessness.


Allow the Child to Stand

To allow the student to stand while working, think about setting up a standing workstation or work area with a beanbag chair to the side or rear of the classroom. Allow the kid to choose whether to work standing up or move to a beanbag when they feel the need, if doing so helps. Students that struggle with sensory integration, like some hyperactive kids, may benefit from using beanbag chairs.


Use a Stress Ball

Give the kid a stress ball or another soft, quiet toy to keep in their pocket or at their desk. These toys can help students with sensory integration challenges concentrate, in particular.

Encourage Attention to Detail

Encourage the kid to check their work thoroughly before turning it in if they rush through it. This will teach kids to pay close attention so they don't make careless errors that could harm their academic performance. Students with excessive impulsivity can also benefit from task break-down.


Q5. Describe the emotions experienced by parents of children with disabilities. (600 wards: 6 marks)

Ans) Parenting a child with special needs is a very difficult and frequently daunting undertaking. Parenting appears to be parents' lifelong duty since, in their opinion, the child is unlikely to be able to conduct an autonomous, normal adult life. Numerous studies have demonstrated the substantial emotional, monetary, and familial costs associated with raising a kid with special needs (Craig et al., 2020; Hayes & Watson, 2013). The purpose of the qualitative study is to examine how parents emotionally and behaviorally cope with a child who has been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), learning disabilities (LD), or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It also aims to shed light on any differences or patterns in the parents' coping mechanisms. In particular, the study looked at how parents felt and perceived six things looking back: 1) Emotional reactions to the child in relation to various life stages. 2) Emotional states experienced in romantic interactions. 3) The parent's own emotions. 4) Sentimental reactions to the educational systems. 5) Assistance and coping. 6) Future need and outlook.


When raising children with special needs, parents generally face a plethora of practical demands, such as changing the home environment and schedule, having fewer employment options, constantly being under time pressure, having to pay for various specialists and therapists, etc (Power et al., 1988). These demands are difficult and frequently have an impact on all facets of family life and one's own life, including practical coping strategies, interpersonal aspects (such as ongoing conflict or support from others), and intrapersonal aspects (such as ongoing conflict or emotional stress within oneself or one's mind).


Only a small number of research also mentioned the good features of emotional coping, such as cohesion and sharing responsibility. Many studies addressed negative aspects of emotional coping, such as stress, anger, anxiety, guilt, etc. Results showed that the severity of ADHD symptoms was correlated with parenting stress and that parents of children with ADHD experience more parenting stress than parents of nonclinical controls. Parents of children with ASD who reported experiencing high levels of parenting stress, particularly traumatic stressors and trauma-related symptomatology, showed similar effects.


When a child is diagnosed with a handicap, the relationships of parents to children with special needs seem to have varied approaches to coping with their new circumstance. It can either be positive and uplifting or, on the other hand, damaging and detrimental.


One of the most important aspects of raising a child with disabilities seems to be having family, friends, or other people who can assist the parents socially in their daily battle because it helps to mitigate the detrimental psychological and physiological impacts that come with it (Ekas et al., 2016; Lovell et al., 2012). In a study of parents of people with ASD, it was discovered that informal social support helped to bridge the gap between the hardship of raising a child with ASD and the parent's quality of life (Marsack & Samuel, 2017). The parents, particularly mothers, sought more social support than moms of children with usual developmental patterns, according to a new analysis of studies studying the coping mechanisms of parents of children with ADHD (Craig et al., 2020). It is important to notice that informal support from family and friends appears to be the most beneficial type, but formal support from professionals in the community does not appear to have the same impact; this distinction is further discussed below.


Parenting a kid with special needs entails a significant investment of time, effort, and emotion, which frequently causes family tensions. Mothers with children with ASD said they feel as though their entire day is devoted to caring for their children. It is really difficult for such parents to participate in hobbies or other forms of recreation. When compared to moms of typical adolescents, mothers of adolescents with ASD reported spending less time on leisure pursuits and more time on childcare and housework, as well as having fewer opportunity to unwind and enjoy themselves (Nealy et al., 2012).


Q6. Describe the characteristic features of a child with (300 word each: 4-4-8 marks)


Q6.(a) Cerebral palsy

Ans) A collection of conditions known as cerebral palsy affect posture, muscular tone, and movement. It is brought on by harm to the developing, immature brain, most frequently before birth.


Infancy or the preschool years are when signs and symptoms first develop. Generally speaking, cerebral palsy results in movement impairment that is accompanied by heightened reflexes, floppiness or spasticity of the limbs and trunk, peculiar posture, involuntary motions, unstable walking, or some combination of these.


People who have cerebral palsy frequently experience eye muscle imbalance, which causes their eyes to not focus on the same thing, as well as swallowing issues. Due to muscle stiffness, they may also have less range of motion at different joints throughout their bodies.


Cerebral palsy can have a wide range of causes and functional implications. While some cerebral palsy sufferers can walk unaided, others do. Intellectual disability can affect some persons but not others. The presence of epilepsy, blindness, or deafness is also possible. Cerebral palsy is a chronic condition. Although there is no cure, medications can help function.

  1. Stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity), the most common movement disorder

  2. Variations in muscle tone, such as being either too stiff or too floppy.

  3. Stiff muscles with normal reflexes (rigidity)

  4. Lack of balance and muscle coordination (ataxia)

  5. Delays in speech development

  6. Difficulty speaking

  7. Delays in reaching motor skills milestones, such as sitting up or crawling.

  8. Learning difficulties

  9. Slow, writhing movements.

  10. Favoring one side of the body, such as only reaching with one hand or dragging a leg while crawling

  11. Difficulty walking, such as walking on toes, a crouched gait, a scissors-like gait with knees crossing, a wide gait or an asymmetrical gait

  12. Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as buttoning clothes or picking up utensils


Q6.(a) Mental retardation

Ans) A permanent condition of defective or unfinished mental development is known as mental retardation. The most common definition of mental retardation states that it must meet all three of the following criteria: apparent before the age of eighteen; concurrent and connected deficits in two or more adaptive skill domains; and significantly subaverage intellectual performance. 9 A certified person must administer one or more standardised intelligence tests plus a standardised adaptive skills exam to an individual in order to diagnose and categorise them as having mental retardation.


Even though mental retardation of any kind has significant effects on a person's cognitive and social growth, it is a disorder that is frequently difficult to detect. While some people with mental retardation, such as those whose retardation is brought on by Down's syndrome or foetal alcohol syndrome, have recognisable facial features, the majority cannot be recognised only by their outward appearance. Persons with mental retardation may be considered "slow" unless their cognitive impairment is unusually severe (for example, an I.Q. below 40), but the full extent of their impairment is frequently not readily understood, especially by people who have limited contact or knowledge of them, such as police, prosecutors, judges, and other participants in the criminal justice system. Before trials or during post-conviction proceedings, the condition of many mentally retarded capital offenders was not identified.


According to one specialist, a person with mental impairment, "always stands out as the group's dimwit. This causes anxiety, reliance, as well as awful shame and devaluation." People who are intellectually retarded may go to tremendous measures to conceal their condition since they are frequently ashamed of it, misleading those who lack the necessary skills. They might put on a "cloak of competence," concealing their impairment even from those who wish to assist them, such their attorneys. Overworked or inexperienced attorneys may fail to notice signs of retardation, ask for a psychological assessment, or bring up the subject during trial. It happens that even capable attorneys who are eager to assist their clients miss signs of mental impairment or are unable to secure funding for a psychiatric assessment.

Q7 Briefly write about each of the following in 300 words each. (3x4=12 marks)


Q7. (a) Case study method


Step 1

Make the case study presentation by reading it aloud or using audio-visual aids. The group members who are able to read it could also receive copies of the case study from you. To make sure that everyone has heard the important ideas, it would be a good idea to repeat the presentation.


Step 2

Encourage everyone in the group to reflect on and discuss the case once it has been given. Do you agree with the decisions made in the case study? Why do you think they succeeded (or failed)? What could work in this community? are a few possible introductory questions.


Step 3

Encourage everyone to talk about their ideas and experiences. Extracting the insights will assist the group I in making decisions about potential solutions to the identical issue in their own location.


Step 4

Following this conversation, everyone in the group would analyse the case study presentation collectively, and at the conclusion, they would summarise their findings, which might indicate that the community's attitudes had changed.


Q7. (b) Negative effects of labelling

Ans) First of all, the label distinguishes the child from other kids. Everyone wants to feel like they are part of society and that everyone else feels the same way about them. We work hard to appear like other people and act in ways that are acceptable and approved by our culture. The obviousness of a person's or a child's impairment makes that person or child stand out from the crowd. A child with a disability may already be acutely aware of it.


Her sense of difference is heightened when you refer to her by a label, and she can start to believe that she is somehow less than others. If you say: "Oh ! This kid is blind, then! "It makes clear that this child is strange in your eyes.


Second, the label is almost indestructible. Even if there are significant behavioural and functional changes, the child is stuck with it for the rest of her life. Even though she has made progress in many areas of functioning thanks to training and intervention, a kid who has been labelled "mentally retarded" is likely to remain so for many years. In truth, in many aspects, she resembles a typical youngster.


Lastly, the designation carries a stigma. The youngster may experience humiliation, despair, embarrassment, and loss of self-esteem after hearing herself called different names. This can be a painful and unpleasant experience for the parents as well. Unkind adults and kids could make fun of the family's handicapped youngster. The family can start to avoid social interactions. The child may be cut off from the simple pleasures of having a buddy and growing up together—things that are a typical part of childhood for most kids—as a result of this withdrawal, which can be quite detrimental for the youngster.


Q7. (c) Child-to-child strategy

Ans) Children are often compared to "wet clay" in this context. They can be shaped by their life experiences. Children are open to ideas when they are still developing. While doing this, they are picking up knowledge from the people they love and trust as well as from the people and things around them. The behaviours that children form as they mature become deeply ingrained and are challenging to break. Early infancy, when ideas, knowledge, and values are formed, is therefore the optimum period to invest in building this resource. An ideal and welcoming setting for such adjustments to take place is school.


Principles (Objectives) of Child-to-Child Strategy

You may have heard that in many nations, young kids are given the responsibility of "watching after" or "raising" their younger siblings when the mother or other family members are not there. Even when the mother is present at home, she can be preoccupied with housework and delegate the responsibility for feeding, washing, and otherwise entertaining the infants. For the elder kids


Therefore, if these older kids are taught the fundamentals of how to properly feed the younger kids and safeguard their health and well-being, they can have a significant impact on the general health and well-being of young kids in their community. Thus, the goal of the child-to-child technique is to help older kids develop good behaviours and moral principles and to encourage them to share those principles with the younger siblings they are responsible for.


Your Role in Child-to-Child Activities

You can assist the kids in learning useful self-care techniques that they can use to take care of themselves or other kids and family members if they get unwell. They can learn how to grow plants, and you can also teach children about healthy eating, disease prevention, and other topics. You can explain to them in very simple words how diseases spread.


Q7. (d) Barriers in effective communication

Ans) As you can see, the disagreement in each chat was over the son's desire to play in the park rather than study. Both father and son failed to understand one another's points of view during the initial chat because they were both so emphatic. On the other hand, there was an amicable resolution to the problem in the second conversation.


It is imperative to listen to the other person during any meaningful communication, make an effort to comprehend each other's viewpoints, avoid being rigid, and seek out alternative answers. Failures in communication are inevitable if this is not done.


The Sender or Communicator, the Message, the Channel, the Receiver, and the Feedback are the important components in the communication process. Now, let's read about the many hurdles that may obstruct any meaningful connection. Communication can suffer from issues in one or more of these areas. Let's read about some typical obstacles that could appear in any of the elements.


Q8. Describe the characteristics of a good supervisor. giving. examples. (500 words: 5 marks)


Good Communication Skills

It is necessary to communicate with and solicit feedback from others in order to accomplish tasks through them. Depending on the level of formality, good supervision may require both oral and written communication. In the Block before this one, you read about the requirements and characteristics of effective communication. What constitutes effective communication, in your opinion? You might also remember that feedback on what has been said is necessary for good communication in order to make sure the recipient understood the message.


Flexibility in Supervision

People differ, hence diverse approaches to dealing with them are required. While consistency in how we handle people and people-related issues is crucial, good supervisors with experience learn how to manage people in ways that respect individual diversity.


Willingness to take Responsibility.

You now understand that while authority may be transferred, the supervisor retains ultimate responsibility for any tasks assigned, even if they are being carried out by a subordinate. In that regard, it is impossible to really distribute responsibility. Good managers are prepared to accept accountability for both their own actions and those of the employees they supervise.


Insight into Human Behaviour

For those who are responsible for supervising those who work for them, this is a crucial human drill. One can look at issues and pinpoint factors that others might overlook with insight. It enables one to recognise solutions that are invisible to others. Successful managers use this ability to dig deep into a situation and avoid making snap decisions. For instance, insight enables the supervisor to comprehend this denial of responsibility by getting to the root of the issue and offering a solution when one of the employees simply refuses to take up responsibility in an activity (such as organising play activities for children).



20 Marks

In this Section, you have to do any one exercise from among exercises 1, 2, 9 or 10 given in the Practical Manual of this Course, i.e. DECE-3.

It would be useful for you to do all these practical exercises. You may then choose the exercise which you feel you have done the best and submit it for evaluation.

The details of these exercises have been described in the Practical Manual. Read each exercise carefully and do the exercise as indicated. The marks for the various components of each exercise have been mentioned in the Manual itself.


Ans) Exercise No : 2

To visit an organization/institution/a centre for disabled children in your city/district to know about the type of activities being carried out for and the services being provided to the disabled children.

Visiting the Institution.


There would be two aspects to your visit.


A) Interviewing/talking to some people who work in the institution/centre.

The following are the questions were asked the people regarding the institution.


Q 1. When was this institution set up?

Ans) Akshadhaa Foundation "Akshadhaa foundation work with special children and young adults with Autism the opportunities and the means to create better lives for themselves and their families."


Q2. What was the purpose behind setting up this institution? What are the objectives"

of this institution?

Ans) We at Akshadhaa Foundation are aiming to create a meaningful learning environment in order to propel the child towards an independent life. The curriculum design is such that the child gathers the necessary life skills and attains capability to pursue a Vocation of Choice.


Q3. To what group of children does this centre/organization cater?

Ans) Any child or adult with learning disabilities can be enrolled in the center. Akshadhaa Foundation is working to address the needs of the children with Developmental delays, Speech & Language Difficulty, Downs syndrome, Intellectual Disability and Autism to supplement them in the targeted areas which make learning effective.


Q4. What is the age group of children who come here?

Ans) Generally children around the age of 5 to seven years are common.


Q5. What are the working hours of the institution?

Ans) This establishment is functional from 9:00 - 18:00. Hours.

Q6. Is it a residential institution?

Q7. Is it a voluntary organization/a government institution or an international organization?

Ans) Akshadhaa Foundation is registered as not for profit trust in 2012 and is working boldly for children in the spectrum with varied interventions. The parents are getting training and opportunities to learn strategies to work with their children to keep a smooth and generalized approach of teaching. The foundation runs a school program which is also focusing on young adults in the Autism spectrum.


Q8. What activities are carried out for children here? For example,

Medical treatment

Vocational Training




The institution may be providing one or more of the above-mentioned services. Find out the details of each. For example, in what trades is vocational training provided? What is the nature of education (non-formal during preschool years. elementary education, etc.) and so on.

Ans) The activities carried out are: To provide children and young adults with Autism and other developmental challenges, the opportunities and the means to create better lives for themselves and their families.


To be an enabler to achieve maximum independence, accomplished through a safe and quality program of meaningful education leading to specific lifetime goals, therapeutic recreation and to ensure that all affected can reach their full potential in a year-round barrier- free environment.

To work innovatively and relentlessly on the aspect of diversity and inclusion of the affected.


Q9. What are the sources of funding?

The government

Some international agencies

A trust


Ans) Akshadhaa Foundation is an Institute. It is classified as Institute / NGO. It is a Trust Organisation with Trustee members.


Q 10. How many people work in the institution?

Ans) Akshadhaa Foundation has an estimated 35 employees.


Q 11. What are the roles and responsibilities of the various people who work in the institution?

Ans) Some of the responsible Members Are:

1. Anirban Dutta


Anirban is a Mechanical Engineer and a Fulbright Fellow with a stint at the Carnegie Mellon’s Tepper School of Business. He has been in the top talents in his long stint in Volvo and was in the Volvo Top 75 in the Asian Organisation. Anirban’s passion is with Social Enterprises, and he has been instrumental in enabling to start initiatives.


2. Sumana Dutta

Founder Executive Director

The Founder Managing Trustee of the non-profit trust named Akshadhaa Foundation which is working for last 9 years towards rehabilitation for population with autism and intellectual disabilities from age group of 3 years to 18 + and above providing therapeutic intervention, comprehensive school program and vocational skill training.


Q12. What are the other activities of the institution besides the services provided to children? "For example,

publishing a journal/newsletter

organizing workshops

holding exhibitions

organizing camps

Ans) Special Education Occupational Therapy Early Intervention Parent Counselling Behaviour Modification Occupational Therapy Sensory Integration Therapy Cognitive Development Program Speech. Let's celebrate *Onam* with others during this pandemic and bring joy and happiness to those special children who were all affected badly during the pandemic.


Ql3. a) What efforts have been made by the institution in involving the community

in its activities? The community may have been involved in any of the following ways, for example,

generating the initial funds for setting lip the centre

providing land/building for the centre

providing volunteers to work at the institution

generating awareness about the institution


1. Elementary School Program includes Behavioural Intervention, Developmental Intervention and Cognitive Behavioural Interventions. There is considerable overlap in components of the programs, forming unique intervention strategies for the children. The program addresses the deficit areas in all the developmental domains; motor, language, cognitive, communication and emotional.

2. The Middle school program focuses on Developmental skills and goals and contain ongoing objective assessment of progress. Teaching strategies are designed for the generalization and maintenance of skills. The TEACH program takes a major role where the emphasis is on environmental organisation, visual support and teaching of independence and developmental skills.

3. Akshadhaa Foundation Rehabilitation therapy unit follows multi-disciplinary approach where Occupational therapist, Physiotherapist, Speech therapist and Special Educator work in a collective way, share and update their observation, assessment and therapy plan for each child. This helps to maintain consistent therapeutic plan and assess the progress.


Q13. b) If the community is not involved in the activities of the institution, find out the reason for this.

Ans) Akshadhaa Foundation is working to address the needs of the children with Developmental delays, Speech & Language Difficulty, Downs syndrome, Intellectual Disability and Autism to supplement them in the targeted areas which make learning effective. Since it is an independent private organisation there is no need for the community to get involved.


B) Your observation of some of the activities carried out in the institution. Besides talking to the people at the centre, you must observe some of the activities being carried out in the institution. This will help you to confirm the information you have obtained through your interview(s). Request the person you have interviewed to take you around, so that you can see some of the activities that are going on. For example, if vocational training is provided at the centre, visit the rooms where this training is provided - see the equipment available, talk to the person in charge of providing the training to know more about its functioning. You may also talk to children receiving the training. If the institution provides education, then it would be a good idea to sit through an activity session/period. You could observe the method of teaching, use of teaching material and the response of the children. If medical services are provided talk to some of the personnel involved in this. Besides learning about the institution/centre by interviewing people and observing for yourself. you can also collect a brochure or a newsletter which may provide information about it. This will help you to supplement your information. In fact, it would be a good idea to obtain the brochure/ newsletter first, go through it and then formulate your questions based on the aspects mentioned therein.


Writing the Report

Your Report. as you would have understood, will have two aspects to it - the information collected through interviews and your views after you have observed some aspects of the centre 's/institution' s functioning.


The following should be the format of your Report.

Name of the Institution/Centre: Akshadhaa Foundation

Date of visit : 12th August 2021

Address of the Centre/Institution: Our Location Unit 1 Special School and Rehabilitation Service #4 BC - 803, located, 4th 'B' Cross HRBR Layout, 1st Block, Kalyan Nagar, Bangalore - 560 043.


Information collected through interviews and brochures: (20 marks)


Ans)  Information taken from their Brochure:


About Akshadhaa Foundation

We at Akshadhaa Foundation are aiming to create a meaningful learning environment in order to propel the child towards an independent life. The curriculum design is such that the child gathers the necessary life skills and attains capability to pursue a Vocation of Choice.



At Akshadhaa we believe that every Human Being has a right to contribute and make a positive influence on its surroundings. This is also applicable for all the children. And so, at Akshadhaa we work with children and young adults with diversified needs, enabling them to address their own primary needs, to be cognizant of their surroundings and then depending on their capability make them acquire a set of technical and vocational work skill which will enable them to live a life of dignified contentment.


Akshadhaa Foundation is working to address the needs of the children with Developmental delays, Speech & Language Difficulty, Downs syndrome, Intellectual Disability and Autism to supplement them in the targeted areas which make learning effective.



To provide children and young adults with Autism and other developmental challenges, the opportunities and the means to create better lives for themselves and their families.

To be an enabler to achieve maximum independence, accomplished through a safe and quality program of meaningful education leading to specific lifetime goals, therapeutic recreation and to ensure that all affected can reach their full potential in a year-round barrier- free environment.

To work innovatively and relentlessly on the aspect of diversity and inclusion of the affected.


My observations: (20 marks)

Ans) It’s a school that works to make the autistic children independent and trains to help them to cope up with the daily challenges. The team works seamlessly under the able guidance of Mrs Sumana Dutta. Gives a great work satisfaction.


Hands on opportunity to deal with autistic students. The school is led by a very knowledgeable and clued in in charge which gives you ample opportunities to learn and grow in the field.

The work is exciting as well as challenging. To deliver academics to autistic students distributed all over the spectrum is definitely not easy but is satisfying.


Certification of Visit

You would need to get the following certificate signed and attach it to the report you send to your counsellor. This certificate has to be signed by the Director/Supervisor of the institution/centre you visit. A report not containing this certificate will not be considered valid. This certificate has been printed on the following page.





20 Marks

In this Section, you have to do any one exercise from among exercises 6, 7 or 8 given in the Practical Manual of this Course, i.e., DECE-3.

It would be useful for you to do all these practical exercises. You can then choose the exercise which you feel you have done the best and submit it for evaluation.

The details of these exercises have been described in the Practical Manual. Read each exercise carefully and do the exercise as indicated. The marks for the various components of each exercise have been mentioned in the Manual itself.


Ans) Exercise No. 8

Planning the Campaign

Message: Preschool education helps in the all-round development of the child. Send your child to the preschool today'.


Use the following format to write about your campaign.


Q1) Duration of the campaign - State for how many days you plan to organize the campaign. (5 marks)

Ans) Time is an important resource, especially if you have other jobs or only a few people to help with events. We are planning to hold the campaign in the rural regions of Bangalore for around a couple of weeks. Preparations for this campaign are beginning from next week and we hope to star the campaign on the 1st of September,2021. Since we will have quite a few villages to cover we will also be having volunteers to support us in this activity.


Expecting a helping hand, we can plan and organise things better so we can achieve our main gaol of communicating our message effectively and emphasising the need for parents to see the need for and importance of sending their children to preschool, so they are well prepared and interested to learn further for their own development and the community in general.


We are sure all will coordinate for making the campaign successful.


Q2) State the activity/activities you plan to carry out each day. These may be discussions, quiz, competition, wall writings, role play, drama, puppet show, lectures or any other activity. Describe the activity in detail. For example. if it is a story. write the gist of the story. If it is a lecture, give the points of your lecture. If you plan to write slogans on walls, state what the slogans are. (10 marks)

Ans) With a clear understanding of the societal and conversation context we developed a strategy aimed at changing the knowledge and attitudes of parents who till date do not consider preschool education of any importance. Changing knowledge and attitudes is not necessarily enough to change behaviour, but it is usually a fundamental prerequisite. The goal of changing knowledge and attitudes is for members of a community to begin to understand and care about the educating their young ones.


The list below is a sample of some of the many approaches we plan to use to communicate key messages to our audiences:

  1. Lectures

  2. Billboards

  3. Bumper stickers

  4. Clothing and Accessories


Lecture to Community

Importance of Preschool education is that it helps in a child's emotional, social and personal growth and development. ... Although a child learns to talk while at home, in a preschool continuous interaction and exposure with children of the same age group and with teachers helps them to enhance their communication skills. Importance of Preschool education is that it helps in a child’s emotional, social and personal growth and development. When a 3-year-old is able to spend time with adults other that parents they learn to build trusting relationships with adults. Preschool is the first experience of the child in a structured setting, to learn the importance of sharing and learn new things which fosters personal growth.

Although a child learns to talk while at home, in a preschool continuous interaction and exposure with children of the same age group and with teachers helps them to enhance their communication skills. It involves transformation of mental images to languages so that thoughts and knowledge can be transformed into information. Exposure to rich language through role plays, read aloud sessions and stories helps to enhance the child’s vocabulary, thereby promoting language skills.


Importance of preschool education is that in preschool, children don’t just explore their environment but also develop physical coordination skills. Activities involving running, climbing, beading, art and craft help develop hand-eye coordination, and fine and gross motor skills.


Billboards and Bumper Stickers and Clothing

  1. We plan to use the following slogans:

  2. Education is about an exemplary learning community.

  3. A brighter future for all.

  4. A Family of Learning.

  5. A foundation for the future.

  6. A Great Place for Education.

  7. Creating Our Children’s Future.

  8. Educating Students for Success in A Changing World.

  9. Education – Your Door to The Future.

  10. Knowledge Is Power.

  11. Your neighbourhood preschool.

  12. Opening doors through literacy.

  13. Opportunities For Lifelong Learning and other such like ones.


Q3) Mention the group of people towards whom each activity is targeted. The audience for your activity may be opinion leaders, fathers, mothers. Also state how you think your planned activity will help them. (5 marks)

Ans) We scheduled lectures every day for ten days so we could impart this message in a forceful manner. Addressed to the Community and Parents in a local set up hall where the local community members and parents come to listen. Also invited were the village leaders and the Panchayat so they too could see the benefit of encourage parents to send their young ones to preschool learning.


We could help parents derive benefit from lecture on  preschool education The Benefits of Parent Involvement  Parent involvement helps extend teaching outside the classroom, creates a more positive experience for children and helps children perform better when they are in school. It is essential for parents to support the learning that happens in preschool settings at home as well. Parents and Community Benefit in the following main ways:

  1. Preschool teaches children to follow directions. ...

  2. Preschool helps children adjust to kindergarten. ...

  3. Preschool establishes social and emotional development. ...

  4. Publicly funded preschool can save parents money. ...

  5. Preschool provides opportunities for play.


The Benefits of Parent Involvement

Parent involvement helps extend teaching outside the classroom, creates a more positive experience for children and helps children perform better when they are in school. It is essential for parents to support the learning that happens in preschool settings at home as well.


Q4) State whose help you will seek in carrying out each activity. For example, for wall writings, you may request the young boys in the community to help you out. (5 marks)

Ans) Now the task is to put it all together into a plan that we can act on. By now our plan is already for the most part. We also know what our purpose is and whom we need to reach to accomplish it, the best channels we used to reach your intended audience, and how to gain access to those channels. Now it’s just a matter of putting the details together – composing and designing your message was making contact with the people who could help in getting everything in place to start your communication effort.


To be successful in this campaign we organised our volunteers for most part to get all materials ready so that on the very first day we reach we could find the proper place to conduct the lectures and also with the help of the local young boys in the community the various Billboards and slogans could be placed in view of the general public to appeal to this important message. Also, clear placard showing the exact timing of the lectures was displayed in various place to attract the attention of parents to come.


Q5)State the materials you will need for each activity. (5 marks)

Ans) We had to use quite a bit of materials to get things worked up for the campaign to be successful. For example, for the lectures we needed to take along with the sound equipment so many could hear the message.  Then we needed wood, canvas cloth and colouring paint brushes to make the placards and billboards.  We also needed the sticker papers and glue to fix the many slogans we had prepared.


Q6) State the tasks you will have to perform to organize and execute each activity. To know how to write the tasks, refer to Unit 14 of DECE-3 wherein the tasks involved in wall writing have been listed out. (10 marks)

Ans) Organization of a campaign is by far the best communication strategy when all the people in an area need to be given any type of information, so that they can come together and take collective action. Since, campaign is a series of activities organized for a limited period of time using each and every available channel of communication.


In view of the above, we also followed the same procedures and strategies so that we could make our campaign successful and achieve our aim in educating parents to see the importance of preschool education. We understood the successful implementation of any programme, public

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