top of page
MCD-001: Development of the Child: Birth to Eight Years

MCD-001: Development of the Child: Birth to Eight Years

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for MCD-001 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Development of the Child: Birth to Eight Years, you have come to the right place. MCD-001 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in PGDECFE courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

MCD-001 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MCD-001/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MCD-001

Assignment Name: Development of the Child: Birth to Eight Years

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer the following question in 1000 words each.

Q1) What characteristics can be observed in the language development of a child between 3-6 years of age? How can the caregiver enhance the language abilities of the child during preschool years?

Ans) Between the ages of 3 and 6, children undergo significant linguistic growth, marked by various developments in their language abilities and communication skills. This period is crucial for language acquisition and refinement, characterized by several observable characteristics:

Vocabulary Expansion:

Children who are in this age range demonstrate a significant rise in the vocabulary that they possess. They have a rapid expansion of their vocabulary, with an average increase of several thousand words in their vocabulary. They begin to comprehend and make use of words to describe more complicated ideas, things, actions, and feelings, allowing them to demonstrate a deeper comprehension of the world that surrounds them.

Sentence Complexity:

Their sentence structure tends to get more complex and diversified as time goes on. In the beginning, kids begin by constructing sentences that are straightforward, but as time goes on, they construct sentences that are longer and more complicated. They acquire the ability to mix words and make use of conjunctions in order to articulate more sophisticated concepts and thoughts.

Grammar and Syntax:

During this stage of development, children develop a deeper comprehension of grammar and syntax. They start to have a better understanding of grammatical rules, and they demonstrate an increased proficiency in the use of prepositions, pronouns, plurals, and verb tenses. Notwithstanding this, it is possible that mistakes will still be made as they traverse the complexities of language norms.

Narrative Skills:

They experience a huge improvement in both their capacity to generate and interpret stories. Imaginative narratives can be created by them, as well as the ability to narrate events and explain experiences. The significance of this development lies in the fact that it demonstrates their understanding of sequences, linkages between causes and effects, and the general framework of storytelling.

Conversational Skills:

They get more skilled at participating in conversations as time goes on. It is clear that they have increased their ability to take turns, listen attentively, and answer correctly. As individuals gain the ability to successfully communicate their thoughts and emotions, their communication becomes more coherent and coherent.

Phonological Development:

During this time span, improvements in an individual's phonological awareness and pronunciation are noticeable. Their ability to articulate sounds improves, which ultimately results in a more distinct manner of talking. In addition to this, they begin to recognise and produce rhymes, which demonstrates that they have an awareness of the sound patterns that are present in language.

Pragmatic Language Skills:

Children gain a greater comprehension of pragmatic language abilities, which include the ability to perceive non-verbal cues such as body language and facial expressions, as well as the ability to recognise social nuances and use appropriate language in a variety of circumstances.

Metalinguistic Awareness:

Metalinguistic awareness, which entails understanding and discussing language as an abstract idea, is something that they start to display. It's possible that children will begin to recognise and talk about the meanings of words, as well as synonyms, antonyms, and word relationships.

Cultural and Contextual Language Learning:

Language is acquired by them within the setting of cultural and contextual backgrounds. Their exposure to various forms of media, books, and educational environments, as well as their relationships with family, friends, and caretakers, all have a role in the development of their language skills.

Individual Differences:

It is of the utmost importance to recognise that there are individual variances in the development of language. There are a number of factors, including environment, exposure, and individual learning speed, that might cause some children to demonstrate more advanced linguistic skills than others within the same age group.

When it comes to the development and improvement of a child's language skills, the caregivers who are present during the preschool years have a crucial influence. It is possible to make a major contribution to the development of a child's language skills by providing them with a rich language environment and by participating in a variety of activities.

Conversation and Interaction:

Have talks with the youngster that are purposeful and meaningful. They should be encouraged to express themselves, open-ended questions should be asked, and they should be actively listened to when they respond. By participating in conversation, one can improve their vocabulary, sentence organisation, and communication abilities.

Reading Together:

Keep up a consistent reading routine with the child. You should select resources that are diverse and appropriate for their age in order to introduce children to a variety of genres, stories, and terminology. In order to improve comprehension skills, it is important to encourage participatory reading, which includes asking questions, making predictions about the text, and discussing images.

Storytelling and Narration:

Inspire the child to tell stories or talk about their experiences by encouraging them to do so. The imagination is stimulated, language is improved, and narrative abilities are enhanced by participation in this activity. Moreover, it strengthens one's self-assurance in the expression of ideas and thoughts.

Play and Pretend:

Engage in imaginative play activities. Pretend play encourages the use of language in different contexts, allowing children to create scenarios, describe roles, and develop storytelling skills.

Singing and Rhymes:

Sing songs, nursery rhymes, and chants together. Music aids in memory, rhythm, and language patterns. Rhymes and repetitive songs enhance phonological awareness and pronunciation.

Vocabulary Building:

Introduce new words and concepts regularly. Label objects, describe actions, and discuss their meanings to expand vocabulary. Engage in conversations about their interests and encourage them to express ideas related to those topics.

Encourage Writing and Drawing:

Provide opportunities for drawing and writing. Encourage scribbling, drawing, and eventually writing letters and words. This practice enhances fine motor skills and language expression.

Exposure to Language-Rich Environment:

Expose the child to diverse language experiences. Enroll them in storytelling sessions, museums, libraries, and cultural events. Exposure to different languages, cultures, and experiences broadens their understanding and language repertoire.

Limit Screen Time, Encourage Interaction:

Limit screen time and encourage interactive activities instead. While some educational programs may aid learning, real-world interactions and activities facilitate better language development.

Encourage Curiosity and Questioning:

Support the child's curiosity and encourage them to ask questions. This stimulates critical thinking, reasoning, and language development as they seek answers and engage in discussions.

Provide Positive Feedback:

Praise the child's efforts in language development. Positive reinforcement boosts confidence, motivation, and willingness to engage in language-related activities.

Model Effective Communication:

Be a role model by speaking clearly, using correct grammar, and demonstrating effective communication. Children learn by observing and imitating caregivers.

By incorporating these strategies into daily interactions and activities, caregivers can create a nurturing language-rich environment that fosters a child's language development during the crucial preschool years. These practices encourage a love for language, promote communication skills, and lay a strong foundation for future academic success.

Q2) What do you understand by the term ‘attachment’? Describe the development of attachment during infancy with examples. Delineate behaviours of caregivers that help in attracting the infant’s attention and serve to maintain social interaction.

Ans) An attachment is a profound emotional relationship and connection that develops between a young kid or infant and their primary caregiver, who is often a parent or guardian. Attachment can be exhibited by both parties. This significant and long-lasting relationship is an essential component in the child's growth in terms of their social, emotional, and cognitive abilities.

According to the attachment theory, which was developed by John Bowlby, the quality of the early tie that exists between a child and their caregiver has a substantial impact on the kid's socio-emotional development as well as the relationships that they will have in the future. It highlights the natural human urge to seek proximity to a secure figure, particularly during times of anguish or uncertainty, that is fundamental to the human condition.

Beginning in infancy, the process of attachment formation is a gradual process that continues to develop as the kid grows. In the beginning, infants are dependent on their caretaker for comfort, security, and the fulfilment of their fundamental need. Children develop expectations regarding the degree to which their caregiver will be responsive and available to them in times of need as the link between them grows stronger.

A kid is said to have a secure attachment when they experience feelings of safety, comfort, and confidence when they are in the presence of their caregiver. The development of safe attachments is facilitated by caregivers who are continuously responsive, caring, and attuned to the requirements of their children. When children are in connections like this, they are able to feel secure enough to explore their surroundings, knowing that they have a safe place to return to when they are feeling stressed.

On the other hand, unstable attachment, on the other hand, can take many various shapes. An anxious-ambivalent attachment is a type of attachment that arises when a caregiver makes inconsistent responses, which causes the kid to experience feelings of fear and insecurity. The development of avoidant attachment occurs when a caregiver is habitually unresponsive or neglectful, which leads to the child developing a sense of independence yet having difficulties obtaining comfort from other people within the family.

The relevance of connection should not be limited to the period of infancy. It has an impact on a child's ability to build healthy connections later in life, as well as their social skills, emotional regulation, and self-esteem. In addition, the patterns of attachment that are created throughout childhood frequently influence the patterns of behaviour and emotional responses that are observed in maturity.

When it comes to human development, attachment is an essential component that plays a significant role in influencing how individuals perceive themselves, others, and the world around them. This highlights the vital need of providing care that is both caring and responsive in order to contribute to the development of good emotional well-being and development in children.

Attachment formation throughout infancy is a gradual and complex process that is characterised by a variety of stages and behaviours that reflect the link that exists between the newborn and their primary caregiver.

In order to convey their requirements, newborns will display instinctive behaviours such as clutching, sucking, and wailing during the first few months of their lives. As a means of laying the groundwork for connection, they look for their caregiver to provide them with proximity and comfort. For example, when a newborn cries and is comforted by their caregiver, the baby learns that their distress signals generate a reaction, which fosters a sense of security in the baby.

Approximately between the ages of 6 and 8 months, newborns start exhibiting evident attachment behaviours. Smiling, reaching out, or seeking comfort from their primary caregiver are typical ways in which they demonstrate their preference for that caregiver. For instance, when a newborn is experiencing anxiety or is exploring their surroundings, they may turn towards their caregiver. However, they should be sure to check back frequently to confirm that the caregiver is still present.

Specific attachment patterns are formed in newborns between the ages of 8 and 12 months. Infants that are securely bonded show signs of distress when their caregiver leaves, but they regain their composure quickly after the caregiver returns. An illustration of this would be a young child that starts sobbing when their parent leaves the room, but then rapidly stops crying when the parent comes back. Infants who are insecurely attached may exhibit a variety of behaviours, including avoidance or excessive discomfort, when they are separated from and then reunited with their parents.

Through a variety of behaviours and interactions, caregivers play a significant role in attracting the attention of an infant and promoting social interaction in the child. The cognitive, emotional, and social development of the newborn is dependent upon these behaviours, which are necessary for their care.

Eye Contact and Facial Expressions:

Caregivers naturally engage in eye contact with infants, capturing their attention and establishing a connection. They often use exaggerated facial expressions, such as smiling, making eye contact, and mirroring the infant's expressions, which serve to maintain the infant's focus and interest.

Talking and Vocalization:

Caregivers use infant-directed speech characterized by a higher pitch, slower tempo, and exaggerated intonation. This speech pattern, often termed "baby talk" or "motherese," captures the infant's attention and aids in language development. Caregivers also respond to infant vocalizations, encouraging turn-taking in communication.

Physical Interaction and Touch:

Physical touch, such as gentle stroking, cuddling, and holding, fosters a sense of security and comfort in infants. Caregivers engage in interactive games like peek-a-boo or tickling, which attract the infant's attention and strengthen the bond between the caregiver and child.

Object Play and Exploration:

Caregivers encourage exploration by providing toys, objects, or colourful items that capture the infant's interest. They demonstrate how to play with these objects, encouraging the infant to explore, manipulate, and learn through interaction with their environment.

Responsiveness and Promptness:

Attentive and responsive caregiving ensures the infant feels heard and attended to. Prompt responses to the infant's cues, such as feeding when hungry or comforting when distressed, create a sense of security and trust in the caregiver-infant relationship.

Imagination and Creativity:

Caregivers engage in imaginative play, storytelling, or creating songs and rhymes, stimulating the infant's imagination and cognitive development. Creative interactions captivate the infant's attention and encourage active engagement.

Repetition and Routine:

Establishing predictable routines and repeating familiar activities creates a sense of stability and security for the infant. Predictable patterns help infants anticipate events, reducing anxiety and promoting engagement.

Positive Reinforcement and Encouragement:

Caregivers use praise, encouragement, and positive reinforcement to acknowledge the infant's efforts, fostering confidence and motivation. Celebrating milestones and achievements nurtures the infant's self-esteem and encourages further interaction.

Joint Attention and Shared Activities:

Engaging in joint attention by focusing on the same object or activity as the infant fosters social interaction and communication. Shared activities like playing, reading, or exploring together facilitate bonding and learning.

Playfulness and Affection:

Caregivers create a playful and affectionate environment, using playful gestures, expressions, and affectionate touches to attract and maintain the infant's attention. This playful interaction builds a positive emotional connection.

Q3) You have to prepare a project on conservation tasks keeping an 8-year-old child in mind. Discuss activities for any 3 conservation tasks that you would you plan for this project using the material available at home.


Title: Exploring Conservation: A Project for 8-Year-Olds


When it comes to conserving the natural riches and biodiversity of our planet, conservation is absolutely necessary. Through activities that are both interesting and suitable for children of that age, this project intends to teach children who are eight years old about the notion of conservation.

Activity 1: Understanding Habitats

Objective: To familiarize children with different habitats and their importance.


a) Pictures or drawings of various habitats (forest, ocean, desert, etc.)

b) Paper

c) Crayons/markers


Show photographs or sketches of several habitats and talk about the characteristics that set them apart from one another.

Instruct the youngsters to draw their preferred habitat and identify the components that make it up.

Take a moment to discuss the reasons why various plants and animals require diverse habitats.

Activity 2: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

Objective: To teach children the importance of waste management and recycling.


a) Recyclable items (plastic bottles, paper, cardboard)

b) Trash bins labelled for recycling


a) Educate students on the proper way to classify recyclable materials by collecting them and demonstrating its proper classification.

b) This section will provide a concise explanation of the concept of reducing waste by recycling or reusing items, which is presented below.

c) Encouraging children to create artwork using materials that have been repurposed is something that should be promoted.

Activity 3: Planting and Growing

Objective: To install the value of trees and plants in maintaining the environment.


a) Flower pots

b) Soil

c) Seeds or small plants


a) You should give each youngster a flowerpot, some dirt, and some seeds or plants to sow.

b) Provide an example of how to plant seeds or small plants and how to properly care for them.

c) In order to provide animals with oxygen and a habitat, it is important to discuss the significance of trees and plants.

Activity 4: Animal Awareness

Objective: To raise awareness about endangered species and wildlife conservation.


a) Pictures or toy figures of endangered animals

b) Books or videos about wildlife conservation


a) Show pictures or toy figures of endangered animals and discuss their plight.

b) Read books or watch videos about wildlife conservation efforts.

c) Encourage children to create posters or drawings to raise awareness about endangered species.


Conservation is everyone's responsibility, including young children. Through these interactive activities, children can learn the importance of protecting our environment, conserving resources, and preserving biodiversity. By fostering a sense of stewardship at a young age, we can inspire future generations to be mindful and proactive in conserving our planet.

Note for Parents/Caregivers:

Encourage children to continue their exploration of conservation at home by encouraging them to engage in everyday activities such as turning off lights when they are not in use, using bags that can be reused, or creating a small garden. It is essential that you stress the significance of their involvement in the protection of the environment.

Recycling Crafts

Objective: To create awareness about recycling and repurposing materials.

Materials Needed:

a) Empty bottles made of plastic

b) Tubing made of cardboard or paper (from toilet paper or paper towels)

c) These are old publications or newspapers.

d) Compound glue, scissors, markers, and paints

e) Any other items that can be recycled that are available at home

Activity Steps:

a) Recycled Bird Feeder: Cut a plastic bottle in half. Decorate the lower half with paint or markers. Make small holes near the top, pass a string through, and fill it with birdseed. Hang it outside to attract birds.

b) Cardboard Tube Binoculars: Use two cardboard tubes, decorate them with paint or paper, and attach them together. Encourage kids to use these homemade binoculars for outdoor exploration.

c) Newspaper/Magazine Collage: Cut out pictures from old newspapers or magazines. Glue them onto a large piece of paper to create an eco-friendly collage, emphasizing the importance of reusing materials.

Planting and Caring for a Mini-Garden

Objective: To teach children about the importance of plants and their role in the environment.

Materials Needed:

a) Small pots or containers

b) Potting soil

c) Seeds or small plants (herbs, flowers, or vegetables)

d) Watering can or spray bottle

e) Marker for labelling plants

Activity Steps:

a) Planting Seeds: After following the directions, put seeds in pots that have been filled with dirt. Put a label on each container. It is important to discuss the significance of sunlight and watering for the growth of plants.

b) Daily Care Routine: The job of watering and monitoring the plants on a daily basis should be given to youth. Persuade children to keep a journal or notebook in which they can document the changes that they witness in their progress.

c) Learning About Plant Needs: Explore the significance of plants in terms of their ability to provide clean air, food, and habitats for animals. Give an explanation of the role that plants play in the ecosystem.

Trash Sorting and Recycling Game

Objective: To educate children about waste management and the importance of recycling.

Materials Needed:

a) Different types of waste (plastic, paper, aluminum cans, etc.)

b) Several bins or boxes labelled for recycling

c) Timer or stopwatch (optional)

Activity Steps:

a) Trash Sorting Race: Set up a number of different containers and give the children the task of sorting rubbish into the appropriate containers as quickly as they can. Make it a fun competition and time them at the same time.

b) Recycling Relay: A relay race should be organised in which youngsters are required to collect recyclable products and accurately place them in the relevant bins. The competition should place an emphasis on both accuracy and speed.

c) Discussion and Reflection: Following the completion of the activity, have a conversation on the significance of recycling and the ways in which it is beneficial to the environment. Inspire people to discuss ways in which they may reduce trash in their own homes.

Not only do these hands-on activities that make use of items that are readily available in the home educate children about conservation, but they also involve them in learning experiences that are both participatory and pleasurable, so promoting environmental stewardship from a young age.


Answer the following question in 400 words each.

Q4) What are the benefits of mother tongue-based multilingual education?

Ans) Mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) refers to an educational approach that uses the child's first language or mother tongue as a medium of instruction alongside the introduction of additional languages. This approach offers numerous benefits to both students and the educational system:

Improved Learning Outcomes:

a) Enhanced Understanding: By learning in a language that is already known to them, children are able to more successfully absorb concepts when they are taught in their mother tongue. Because of this, comprehension is improved, which ultimately leads to improved academic performance.

b) Smooth Transition: Beginning one's education in one's native tongue makes the transition to learning new languages easier to comprehend and manage. In addition, it lays a solid groundwork for the acquisition of additional languages.

Cognitive Development:

a) Stronger Cognitive Skills: When children are taught in their mother tongue, they develop cognitive abilities that are superior to those of adults. They are able to think critically, find solutions to difficulties, and comprehend difficult concepts with more ease.

b) Higher Order Thinking: MTB-MLE encourages analytical thinking and creativity by allowing students to express themselves more fluently and deeply in their native language.

Cultural Preservation and Identity:

a) Preserving Culture: Learning in the mother tongue preserves cultural heritage, traditions, and values. It fosters a sense of pride in one's culture and identity.

b) Cultural Inclusivity: Multilingual education values and respects diverse cultures, promoting inclusivity and understanding among different linguistic communities.

Enhanced Social and Emotional Development:

a) Better Communication: Learning in the mother tongue facilitates effective communication between students, teachers, and parents. It helps build strong relationships and a supportive learning environment.

b) Increased Confidence: Children feel more confident expressing themselves in their native language, contributing to their emotional well-being and self-esteem.

Improved Literacy Rates:

Higher Literacy Levels: Studies indicate that literacy rates increase when education begins in the mother tongue. It lays a solid foundation for reading and writing skills, leading to higher literacy levels overall.

Community Involvement and Engagement:

a) Parental Involvement: MTB-MLE encourages parents' involvement in their children's education. When parents can understand the language of instruction, they are more likely to engage in their child's learning process.

b) Community Support: The community becomes more engaged in the educational process, fostering a supportive network for students' academic success.

Linguistic Diversity and Global Competence:

a) Valuing Linguistic Diversity: MTB-MLE promotes multilingualism, recognizing and celebrating linguistic diversity. It prepares students to navigate a globalized world and appreciate different languages and cultures.

b) Enhanced Global Competence: Multilingual individuals are better equipped to communicate across cultures, promoting tolerance, understanding, and collaboration on a global scale.

Q5) Explain the use of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences in early years education.

Ans) The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, which was suggested by Howard Gardner, posits that intelligence is not a one, fixed entity but rather a diversified range of abilities or intelligences that individuals possess to variable degrees. Individuals possess these intelligences to varying degrees. In the beginning, Gardner defined seven unique intelligences, but he eventually expanded his list to include more intelligences. The incorporation of this theory into early childhood education provides a comprehensive approach that acknowledges and cultivates the different talents and strengths that are present in young children.

Recognizing Individual Differences:

a) Varied Learning Styles: The approach accepts that children have a variety of talents and learning styles throughout their lives. Early educators are able to recognise and accommodate these variances by developing activities that are aligned with the varied intelligences of their students.

b) Avoiding Labelling: Labeling children exclusively on the basis of traditional measurements of intellect (such as IQ tests) is discouraged, and instead, the emphasis is placed on cultivating the distinctive capabilities that each kid now possesses.

Designing Diverse Learning Activities:

a) Multifaceted Curriculum: Early childhood educators can create a curriculum that incorporates activities targeting different intelligences. For example:

b) Linguistic: Storytelling, reading, poetry.

c) Logical-Mathematical: Problem-solving, sorting, patterns.

d) Bodily-Kinesthetic: Movement-based activities, dance, role-playing.

e) Visual-Spatial: Drawing, painting, puzzles.

f) Musical: Singing, playing instruments, rhythmic activities.

g) Interpersonal: Collaborative projects, group discussions.

h) Intrapersonal: Self-reflection, goal setting, journaling.

Personalized Learning and Assessment:

a) Individualized Teaching: Teachers can tailor their teaching methods to match a child's strengths, allowing personalized learning experiences.

b) Diverse Assessments: Assessment methods can be diverse, allowing children to showcase their abilities in various intelligences, moving beyond standardized testing to more holistic evaluations.

Fostering Confidence and Self-Esteem:

a) Strength-Based Approach: Emphasizing multiple intelligences helps children recognize their unique talents, fostering confidence and positive self-esteem.

b) Positive Learning Experience: Success in activities that align with a child's strengths boosts motivation and enthusiasm for learning.

Holistic Development:

a) Comprehensive Skill Development: By cultivating a wide range of skills and abilities, the incorporation of different intelligences contributes to the development of a well-rounded individual.

b) Promoting Creativity: A wide range of mediums provide children with the opportunity to explore their creative potential and talents, which in turn fosters inventive thinking and problem-solving skills.

Inclusive Education:

Inclusion of All Students: The theory is in favour of inclusive education because it acknowledges and values the various abilities that children possess. This ensures that the capabilities of each and every kid are recognised and developed.

Q6) How would you explain to a group of parents the importance of early years highlighting the major principles of development?

Ans) "A pleasant evening to all of you. The purpose of this article is to look into the amazing significance of early infancy and how it lays the groundwork for your child's journey throughout their entire life. A child's cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development are all built upon the foundation that is laid throughout the early years, which span from birth to approximately eight years of age. It is essential for every parent to have a solid understanding of the fundamental ideas that govern this crucial period.

Principle 1: Rapid Brain Development

"There is a great amount of brain development that occurs during the early years. The brain of your child is expanding at a breakneck speed and beginning to build connections at an astounding rate. These neuronal connections are the basis for future learning, behaviour, and overall growth. They serve as the foundation. During this period of development, encouraging them to participate in stimulating activities can have a substantial impact on their future learning capacity."

Principle 2: Sensitive Periods of Learning

"It is important to note that children go through sensitive phases, which are essential windows of time during which they are especially susceptible to learning particular abilities. Early exposure to a language, for example, makes it easier to acquire that language later on. It can be of tremendous advantage to your child's learning and skill development if you acknowledge and encourage these cycles of growth."

Principle 3: Importance of Nurturing Relationships

"Early childhood development is built on the foundation of interactions that are both strong and supportive. The development of a child's emotional security, social skills, and overall well-being are all significantly influenced by the positive interactions that they have with their caregivers and peers. In order to set the framework for good emotional growth, it is necessary to build solid attachments."

Principle 4: Play as Learning

"The act of playing is an important component of childhood. Children learn about the world around them, investigate it, and even experiment with it through the medium of play. Not only does play promote fun, but it also helps children develop their creative abilities, problem-solving skills, and social connections. Promoting playtime is beneficial to the overall development of a child."

Principle 5: Holistic Development

"Child development occurs simultaneously in a number of different areas. All aspects of development—physical, cognitive, emotional, and social—are intertwined with one another. The development of a well-rounded growth trajectory, which establishes the groundwork for success in school and beyond, can be ensured by cultivating a balance between these areas."

Principle 6: Building Resilience and Coping Skills

"The formative years are extremely important for the development of resiliency and coping skills. Children who are equipped with these talents are better able to navigate the obstacles of life, adapt to changes, and feel better about themselves. Developing their capacity to recover quickly from failures is the focus of this endeavour."

Q7) What is the role of peers and media in development of a child in middle childhood years?

Ans) As children reach the middle years of childhood, which generally correspond to the ages of six to twelve, their social networks begin to spread beyond the confines of their families, and they begin to be influenced by their peers and the media.

Social Skills and Relationships:

a) Social Learning: The development of social skills such as cooperation, negotiation, and dispute resolution can be facilitated for children through interaction with their peers. They gain an understanding of social standards, learn how to negotiate friendships, and learn how to handle arguments.

b) Formation of Friendships: Through the provision of support, companionship, and opportunity to gain empathy and compassion, the development of friendships is beneficial to the emotional growth of an individual.

c) Peer Pressure: The concept of peer pressure is introduced when one is exposed to a variety of different peer groups. Within the context of peer dynamics, children acquire the ability to negotiate their identities and choices.

Cognitive Development:

a) Intellectual Stimulation: Engaging in conversations, debates, and finding common ground with one's contemporaries is a great way to encourage cognitive development. Critical thinking, problem-solving, and perspective-taking are all developmentally facilitated by it.

b) Language and Communication: Communication skills, vocabulary, and the capacity to properly express one's thoughts and feelings are all improved through interactions with one's peers.

Emotional Development:

a) Emotional Support: Friends act as emotional anchors, bringing validation and empathy to those who are hurting. Emotional regulation and self-esteem are both improved through the development of peer relationships.

b) Resilience: Resilience can be developed in youngsters by teaching them how to deal with stress and setbacks through the management of peer conflicts and the navigation of social dynamics.

Educational Opportunities:

a) Learning and Information: Media, when used appropriately, offers educational content that supplements school learning. It exposes children to diverse cultures, ideas, and knowledge.

b) Digital Literacy: Interacting with media platforms enhances technological and digital literacy, crucial skills in today's world.

Social and Emotional Impact:

a) Socialization: Media platforms facilitate social connections, allowing children to interact with friends, share experiences, and collaborate on projects.

b) Emotional Influence: Media portrayal of emotions and situations can affect children's emotional responses and perceptions of the world, necessitating parental guidance and discussions.

Cognitive Effects:

a) Critical Thinking: Exposure to media challenges children to think critically about content, discern fact from fiction, and evaluate information.

b) Attention and Concentration: Excessive screen time can impact attention spans and concentration levels, potentially affecting academic performance.

Influence on Behaviour and Values:

a) Modelling Behaviour: Media serves as a model for behaviour, influencing attitudes, values, and norms. Children might mimic behaviours seen in media, both positive and negative.

b) Impact of Advertising: Advertising shapes children's preferences, desires, and consumption patterns, influencing their understanding of needs and wants.

Q8) Explain the relationship between the concepts of ‘zone of proximal developemnt’ and ‘scafolding’.

Ans) The notions of "Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)" and "Scaffolding" are essential elements of Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural theory of learning. This theory places an emphasis on the role that social contact and support play in the cognitive development of a child.

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD):

The gap between what a learner is capable of doing on their own and what they are capable of accomplishing with the assistance of supervision and support is referred to as the zone of proximal development (ZPD). It refers to a variety of activities that are too challenging to be performed on one's own but can be accomplished with the assistance of a more competent someone, such as a teacher, a parent, or a peer.


Scaffolding is a teaching strategy that teachers who are more knowledgeable use to support students who are working within their zone of proximal development (ZPD). The provision of temporary, individualised assistance with the purpose of assisting a student in achieving a higher level of comprehension or proficiency is included. A scaffolding system in education provides aid to students until they are able to independently grasp the topic. This is analogous to the way that a physical scaffolding system provides support for building work.

Relationship between ZPD and Scaffolding:

Customized Support: Scaffolding is tailored to a learner's ZPD. Educators or knowledgeable individuals provide just enough support to assist the learner in accomplishing tasks slightly beyond their current abilities but within their potential to learn.

a) Gradual Withdrawal: Scaffolding aims to gradually decrease support as the learner gains competence. The support provided is adjusted according to the learner's progress, with the ultimate goal of fostering independent learning.

b) Zone Expansion: Effective scaffolding can expand a learner's ZPD by enabling them to tackle more complex tasks or concepts. As learners gain proficiency through scaffolding, their ZPD shifts, allowing them to reach new levels of competence.

c) Guided Learning: Scaffolding involves guiding learners through a task or concept by breaking it into manageable steps. This process ensures that learners are engaged and challenged while receiving the necessary support to move forward.

d) Social Interaction: Both concepts emphasize the importance of social interaction in learning. Scaffolding occurs through dialogue, modelling, and collaboration, as individuals with greater expertise guide and support learners.

e) Cognitive Development: The ZPD and scaffolding are instrumental in promoting cognitive development. They facilitate the acquisition of new knowledge and skills, fostering independent thinking and problem-solving abilities.


Answer the following question in 100-150 words each.

Q9) Briefly explain:

a) Discovery Learning

Ans) Discovery learning is an approach where learners actively explore and investigate concepts, allowing them to discover information and solutions on their own. Rather than being directly instructed, learners engage in hands-on experiences, experiments, or problem-solving tasks to uncover knowledge. This approach emphasizes critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and autonomy.

It encourages curiosity, experimentation, and exploration, fostering a deeper understanding of concepts. Discovery learning promotes active engagement, allowing learners to make connections and retain information more effectively by experiencing the process firsthand. It is a method that supports independent thinking and encourages learners to construct their own understanding through exploration and inquiry.

b) Telegraphic Speech

Ans) Telegraphic speech refers to the early stage of language development in toddlers where they use short, simple phrases consisting of essential words or key information. During this phase, children typically convey their ideas using only a few critical words, omitting articles, prepositions, or less important elements of speech. It resembles telegrams, hence the term "telegraphic." For instance, a child might say, "Dog eat" to convey that the dog is eating. This stage demonstrates the child's initial attempts to communicate meaningfully with limited vocabulary and basic sentence structure.

Telegraphic speech marks a significant milestone in language acquisition, showcasing a child's progress in forming sentences and expressing ideas despite using condensed language structures. Over time, this phase evolves into more complex and grammatically correct speech as language skills develop further.

c) Operant Conditioning

Ans) Operant conditioning, proposed by psychologist B.F. Skinner, is a learning theory that focuses on how behaviours are shaped by consequences in the environment. It involves modifying behaviour through reinforcements and punishments. In operant conditioning, behaviours are either strengthened or weakened based on the consequences they produce. Reinforcement, which can be positive (adding a desirable stimulus) or negative (removing an aversive stimulus), increases the likelihood of a behaviour recurring.

Punishment, on the other hand, involves adding an aversive stimulus or removing a positive one, decreasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated. Through this process, individuals learn to associate actions with outcomes, adjusting their behaviour based on the consequences they experience, ultimately leading to behavioural changes shaped by the environment.

d) Socialization

Ans) Socialization refers to the lifelong process through which individuals acquire the behaviours, norms, values, and social skills necessary to function effectively within a particular society or culture. It begins in early childhood and continues throughout one's life. Through socialization, individuals learn societal expectations, norms, and acceptable behaviours, shaping their identity, beliefs, and interactions with others.

This process occurs within various social contexts, including family, school, peer groups, and the broader community. It involves learning communication skills, understanding social roles, norms, and cultural practices, and internalizing societal values. Socialization is crucial for fostering social integration, enabling individuals to navigate and adapt to diverse social environments while contributing positively to society. It moulds personalities, influences decision-making, and plays a pivotal role in shaping one's perception of self and others.

e) Pruning

Ans) Human development, pruning refers to the neurological process in which the brain eliminates excess synaptic connections and neural pathways, refining its structure to enhance efficiency. During early childhood and adolescence, the brain undergoes a phase of rapid growth and development, creating an abundance of neural connections. Pruning occurs as a natural mechanism where unused or less efficient neural connections are removed while frequently used connections are strengthened.

This process, influenced by genetics and experiences, streamlines brain circuitry, optimizing its functioning. Pruning is crucial for enhancing cognitive abilities, improving information processing, and shaping brain networks, allowing for more effective and specialized neural communication. It contributes to the brain's ability to adapt, learn, and function optimally by eliminating redundancy and enhancing neural efficiency as individuals mature.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page