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MCFT-001: Human Development and Family Relationships

MCFT-001: Human Development and Family Relationships

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for MCFT-001 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Human Development and Family Relationships, you have come to the right place. MCFT-001 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in MSCCFT, PGDCFT courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code


Course Code


Assignment Name

Human Development and Family Relationships



Verification Status

Verified by Professor

Maximum Marks: 100


(i) Answer all the questions in both sections.

(ii) Answers to questions of Section “A” should not exceed 300 words each.

Section A - Descriptive Questions

(10x6=60 marks)

Q1. Discuss Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. (10)

Ans) Human emotions, which were rarely discussed in Victorian society, and the unconscious mind as a driver of behaviour were Freud's main interests. He felt that basic animal urges, such as sex and violence, were the driving forces behind human behaviour. For hints regarding the basic nature of personality, Freud looked to childhood. Personality, according to Freud, has a defined structure with three main components. The first represents the biological side of the personality, the second represents the psychological side, and the third represents society's contribution to personality. These aren't physical parts of the person's personality, and they don't have a specific physical location within the person. Rather, they are mental processes or systems. Their job is to organise mental life and interact with one another in a dynamic manner in order to affect and modify personality.

The following structures are described in detail:

Id: The id is a mental agency that contains all a person has inherited, present at birth, and fixed in their constitution, particularly sexual and aggressive inclinations. It is unprocessed, animalistic, and unorganised; it has no Jaws, no rules, and remains fundamental to the individual throughout his or her existence. It works on the basis of what Sigmund Freud called the pleasure principle, which entails achieving happy feelings as rapidly as possible by reducing discomfort, suffering, or stress. The basic process, a continuous flow of events containing infantile images and aspirations that need immediate and direct gratification, satisfies needs.

Ego: The ego is the part of the psychic machinery that tries to express and satiate the needs within the confines of both outer reality and the superego. The id gives the ego its structure and functions. The reality principle governs how ego acts now that it has developed from it. The ego has the ability to postpone satisfaction. Food must be sought, found, and consumed by the hungry person. It acts on the secondary process principle, directed mostly by reality consideration but in service of innate urges.

Superego: In order to function effectively in society, a person must develop a set of values, standards, and ethics that are reasonable in comparison to the society. These are gained through the socialisation process. According to Freud, children must acquire a superego through interactions with parents, teachers, and other formative characters, rather than being born with one. Introjection refers to the exact procedures by which the superego acquires its content.

Q2. Discuss the role of adoptive families in the present times. (10)

Ans) The role of adoptive families in the present times:

The natural process of creating a family of parents and offspring is known as procreation. A biological family is one of several types of families. This is the most common family structure in society. A family can, however, be formed through a socio-legal process. Childless spouses adopt a kid or children from known or unknown origins in adoptive families. Adoption is the legal process of putting a kid with a parent or parents other than the "biological" mother or father for the rest of their lives. The birth parent(s)' parental responsibilities and rights are severed by an adoption order, and those responsibilities and rights are transferred to the adoptive parent (s). After an adoption is finalised, there is no legal distinction between adopted children and children born to the parents.

Adopted children frequently become family members after a couple has tried unsuccessfully to have their own children for a long time. Another cause could be that a child has been abandoned and the family has been unable to locate them. People adopt for a variety of reasons, including compassion, religious commitment, and philosophical conviction. Others may prefer to adopt rather than start a family in order to avoid adding to the perceived overcrowding. When someone are unmarried (never married/divorced/separated/widowed), they may choose to adopt.

Many children are older when they are adopted, while others are new-borns. It is easier for children who are adopted at a young age to accept the culture of the household in which they are raised. Until their parents or someone else informs them of their adoptive status, very young children will be unaware of their adoption status. Children who are adopted at a later age are usually aware of their adoption. It is critical to inform children who are uninformed of their adoption status in a positive way. Children who have grown up believing they are their parents' biological children may be devastated to realise that they are not. It's not uncommon for childless couples to have their own kid a few years after adopting. It is critical at this point that parents are not prejudiced towards the adopted child and do not treat the adopted child unfairly or differently.

Q3. How do you apply the developmental theory in day-to-day life? (10)

Ans) Family development is considered as a dynamic process from conception to death, according to developmental theory. It sees the family as a semi-closed system that is in a state of dependency and independence from other social systems. The importance of each family member's duty and place is emphasised. Because the members are so interconnected and interact in a unit termed "family," each change in one member's place in the family has an impact on the other's role and status. This approach acknowledges the stage-by-stage changes that occur in the family and the adjustments that members must make with one another. Each level has its own set of pre-requisites and developmental activities to complete. The significance of this notion stems from the fact that family members encounter developmental demands at different periods of their lives.


There exists a myriad of applications of developmental theories, but here we emphasise on only two:

Family Stress:

This theoretical concept was created by Reuben Hill. Both the family and the individual, he claims, suffer from stress symptoms. Although people perceive and react to stress, it is possible that family resources explain good stress management. Furthermore, the level of stress brought on by an incident is determined by a variety of circumstances. A pregnancy by an unmarried teenager, for example, will not be looked positively, although a pregnancy by a married family member will. As a result, the same occurrence can result in varying levels of family stress. Events frequently repeat themselves, causing tension; for example, consider the following scenario: Moving to a new home, a family member's extended illness, and eventually death. The 'ABCX model' was established by Hill to cope with stress. Patters later linked the "resilience and stress model" with the "family adjustment and adaptation model."

Transition to Parenthood:

According to Hill and Rodgers, a move from one stage of family life to another can be stressful. As a result, marital roles in families deteriorate. It could involve things like parental planning and work-related event timing. The engagement of the father in caring may help to lessen marital stress.

Q4. Describe roles and responsibilities for families with elementary school children. (10)

Ans) The roles and responsibilities for families with elementary school children are:

  1. Families and parents play an important role in the development of elementary and middle school students. Family members and parents should devote quality time to them and show an interest in their schoolwork and activities.

  2. Because the social network of primary and middle school students increases greatly throughout these years, parents of elementary and middle school children face additional obligations and duties. In comparison to peers and other adults outside the family, these youngsters spend less time in the company of adults, family members.

  3. When children start school, the number and types of developmental tasks and influences they face skyrocket. These experiences outside the home require parents to keep a close eye on their children's activities and companion choices, posing new obstacles in nurturing positive behaviour and growth.

  4. Families teach children the fundamental skills they need to have smooth, effective peer relationships. The role of parents in their children's life at school is becoming increasingly important. As the number of teachers and settings grows, parents may have to put in more effort to oversee their children's school experiences. Children's tasks change as they move towards middle childhood.

  5. Parents can help their children develop self-control by exposing them to standards of conduct and models of socially desirable behaviours, as well as rewarding and punishing them in accordance with those standards. Through debate and argument, family members can boost the cognitive component of self-regulation.

  6. Parents acquire increased expectations of autonomy and independence in work at school and at home, including peer group activities, as self-regulation improves. Children are gradually given additional duties by their parents.

  7. Bullying is most prevalent during the middle school years. The best method to protect your child is to sit down and talk about frequent middle school behaviour issues like relational aggressiveness. Bullied children may try to conceal their situation from family members or teachers, so parents should be aware of the indications of bullying so that they may intervene quickly.

Q5. Analyse family developmental tasks in the adolescent stage. (10)

Ans) Family developmental tasks in the adolescent stage:

To establish respect for older persons without becoming reliant on them; to create affection for parents without becoming reliant on them. To learn about different perspectives on family life and having children, as well as to get the skills needed for house administration and, if desired, child raising. A developmental task is one that develops at or around a given point in one's life and whose failure to complete results in the inability to undertake activities connected with the following period or stage.

Developmental Task

Nature of Task

Learning to get along with friends of both sexes.

To learn to look upon girls as women and boys as men; to become an adult among adults; to learn to work with others for a common purpose, disregarding personal feelings; to lead without dominating.

Accepting one's physical body and keeping it healthy.

To accept one's body; to keep it healthy through good nutrition, exercise, disease prevention, and other health practices.

Becoming more self-sufficient.

To develop affection for parents without dependence upon them; to develop respect for older adults without dependence upon them.

Making decisions about marriage and family life.

To explore attitudes toward family life and having children; to acquire the knowledge necessary for home management and, if desired, child rearing.

Preparing for a job or career.

To develop career/vocational goals and ways to reach these goals; to be able to make a living.

Acquiring a set of values to guide behavior.

To develop an outlook toward life based on what is important.

Becoming socially responsible.

To participate as a responsible person with friends at home, and in the community; to develop personal moral values to guide behavior.

Q6. How can one help a person who is facing problems due to ageing? (10)

Ans) One can help a person who is facing problems due to ageing by:

Becoming a Caregiver to Ageing Parents

As you get older, your odds of being a caretaker grow. Long-term care for an elderly parent is one of the most difficult duties for ageing households. A role reversal occurs, with the parent now acting as a child who has to be cared for. A family's resources may be strained by an elderly person who is frail, crippled, or cognitively challenged. Elder care, unlike caring for new-borns and toddlers, is emotionally and physically demanding. As people get older, they become more reliant on others. Physical weakness and handicap add to the difficulty of caring. If the individual has cognitive decline or dementia, the person's behavioural issues add to the difficulties of caring.

Caring is primarily a female function around the world. This is referred to as 'femmization of compassion.' When people get older and become infirm, it can put a strain on their relationships. Many people find the task to be physically, emotionally, and financially taxing. It is difficult for women who work outside the home to take on additional caring responsibilities. Emotional strain can arise from a caregiver's need to balance caregiving with other elements of their life, such as their marital relationship, employment responsibilities, personal interests, health, and so on. Middle-aged people may find themselves squeezed between competing wants and limited resources and strains.

Adults who care for elderly relatives experience physical, mental, and emotional tiredness, which is referred to as caregiver stress and burnout. The impact of elder care on family functioning will be influenced by a number of factors. These factors include the caregiver-recipient relationship's quality, family values and interaction processes, and shared vs independent living arrangements. Long-term caregiving must be planned for by families.

Counselling Issues

Counseling for the elderly is a relatively recent service. Counseling can assist older persons deal with their concerns. It assists families in resolving a variety of intergenerational concerns. Grief, depression, and low satisfaction in the elderly necessitate psychological intervention.

Section B - Short Answer/Objective Type Questions

(40 marks)

Q1. Write short notes (in about 150 words each) on the following: (5x 8 = 40 marks)

i) Household

Ans) A household is one of the many aspects of a family. A household is a separate residential unit from a family. A household is made up of all the people who live in a certain housing unit. A home, an apartment, a set of rooms, or a single room can all be considered housing units. A single family, a single person living alone, two or more families sharing living quarters, or any other group of related or unrelated people sharing living quarters could be among the occupants. These individuals may or may not be connected by blood, for example, domestic assistance or temporary visitors.

As an example,

The Kumar family is a close-knit group of people. Mr. Kumar just relocated to Bangalore and now lives in an apartment there. Mrs. Kumar and her two school-aged children live in a home in Ahmedabad. Once a month, Mr. Kumar pays a visit to his wife and children. They are always in contact with one another, especially when something significant is at stake. On big occasions and festivals, they make it a point to be together. Although the Kumars have two houses (residences), they remain one family. Mr. Suresh Yadav moved to Delhi from Bihar to assist his family, which included his parents, siblings, spouses, and children, as well as his own wife. He lives in a Delhi slum with two other migrants from his village who share his room. Mr. Yadav has two households but just one family here as well.

ii) Stem family

Ans) A family system in which a couple's firstborn lives with them in the family home, their spouse moves in with the in-laws, and the children of the younger couple are raised in the grandparents' home. Upon marriage, the younger children usually move away. Depending on the culture, the inheritance may or may not be favourable to the firstborn. The stem family is made up of the grandparents, the eldest married son, and their children, who all live together under the supervision of the grandfather/household head. The family plot is inherited by the eldest son, and the line continues through the first son. When the other sons and daughters marry, they usually leave the family. The stem family was found in central European countries such as Austria and southern Germany, as well as other cultures around the world.

iii) Taravad

Ans) A Tarawad or Marumakkathayam family is a typical Nair family. Each woman received a series of visiting spouses in her taravad room at night after an official pre-puberty marriage. Her children were all authentic Taravad members. A typical Nair Tarawad is made up of a woman and her children living with their mother's eldest surviving brother or maternal uncle, who is known as Karnavan. The Karnavan has complete control over the family's affairs. Until recently, the fundamental significance of this system was that the women in the family were the heirs to the property, and males were only allowed to benefit from it during their lifetime. The Nair community's naming method used the 'family name' of their mother as a prefix. Kerala's Marumakkathayam system was a legal right that determined inheritance via female lineage. However, under the strain of patriarchal ideology, this system has weakened and vanished in recent years.

iv) Rewards

Ans) If they demonstrate youngsters that they have acted correctly and inspire them to repeat the approved behaviour, rewards such as praise or a special treat for managing challenging situations well have a great instructional benefit. Rewards must be appropriate for the child's age and level of development if they are to be effective. Individuals form groupings in order to increase their advantages. When the expenses of participation outweigh the benefits, joining an organisation is no longer a sensible decision. As a result, the family group is viewed as a source of incentives for its members. If exchange theory is to be applied to families or other groups, generalisable sources of incentives are required. The simplest way to grasp this concept is to consider why young people put off marriage. They do so in order to obtain a socially acceptable standing.

v) Empty nest syndrome

Ans) The term "empty nest" originated as a value-laden term based on the expectation that parents, particularly mothers, would feel lonely and unhappy once their children had grown up and left home; it is sometimes associated with negative stereotypes of the menopausal woman. The old assumptions of the unhappy empty nest mother are particularly paradoxical because both men and women experience hormonal changes at this time of transition. The empty nest can even be described as "bittersweet," reflecting the ambivalence that comes with this stage of life.

Children leaving home provoke a life transformation involving personal alterations in role involvements and social identity, which is the root of such conflicted feelings. Elizabeth Harkins summarises her own research on the empty nest transition and concludes that it has only a minor and temporary influence on women's psychological well-being and no effect on their physical well-being. It is crucial to note, however, that in the Indian family setting, moms may suffer a larger sense of loss once their children have left home to pursue their own dreams. The culturally reinforced family in-group unity makes it difficult for moms to accept the empty nest feeling.

vi) The launching stage

Ans) The launching stage is when children begin to leave home; some may pursue higher education at colleges or universities, or even seek employment, while others may marry. Parents who are launching their children are often between the ages of 40 and 54. It is crucial to emphasise that the birth of the final child cannot be used to define the middle stage of a family's life, as there is a tendency to neglect childless couples, whether they are willing or not. For married couples with children, however, the middle period of life is associated with the birth of children.

Given the variety of family structures, it's difficult to place this stage in a precise chronological order and link it to the middle adulthood stage, but it can be linked to the stage of people who are past childbearing age and have begun to launch their children. Most parents play an active part in effectively launching their young adults into the world over a long period of time. Those who are unable to advise their children in job decisions may confront ambiguity about their children's career choices. Parents take it upon themselves to ensure a seamless transition for their children, which might put a pressure on the filial connection.

vii) Resilient families

Ans) Families with a high level of commitment, emphasis on members' positive and good traits, open lines of communication, similar interests, respect, concern, a willingness to spend time together, a solid value system, and the ability to deal positively with crisis and stress. Commitment, focusing on positive and good qualities of members, free flow of communication, common interest, respect, concern, willingness to spend time together, and a solid value system are the major features of resilient families. Instead than having a fixed vision of family responsibilities and norms, resilient families have a flexible structure that they can alter to match their needs and circumstances.

This enables the family to adjust to changes that may arise as a result of a crisis or adversity. After a disaster, people typically talk of "bouncing back," but resilience can also be thought of as "bouncing forward." In the face of adversity, resilient families bounce and reorganise rather than returning to their pre-crisis state. To guide vulnerable family members through changes in the family, strong leadership with a focus on security and some feeling of regularity is required.

viii) Generation gap

Ans) The generational divide has received a lot of attention. Old and young individuals have different values, attitudes, and living styles, which is unavoidable and clear. From a developmental standpoint, the distinction stems from the fact that young people and parents have different life cycles. The alternative explanation suggested by anthropologist Margaret Mead emphasises historical factors. According to Mead, young people are living in an era of cultural discontinuity in which they are living in fundamentally different periods. This leads to generation gap. Because the young, middle-aged, and elderly belong to various generations, the generation gap is widely discussed. They are socialised differently and live in different environments, which might be quite different. Attitudes, dispositions, and values all influence how people treat one another. Stereotypes about the elderly — that they are slow, rigid, conservative, and so on — have an impact on how they are seen. Likewise, the young may be labelled as reckless, insensitive, impulsive, and so on.

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