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MCFT-006: Applied Social Psychology

MCFT-006: Applied Social Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MCFT-006 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Applied Social Psychology, you have come to the right place. MCFT-006 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MSCCFT courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MCFT-006 / TMA-6 / ASST-6 / 2022-23

Course Code: MCFT-006

Assignment Name: Applied Social Psychology

Year: 2022 - 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Note: - (i) Answer all the questions in both sections.

(ii) Answers to questions of Section “A” should not exceed 300 words each.


Section A - Descriptive Questions (10X6= 60 marks)


Q 1. Discuss areas and characteristics of adjustment in the context of a teenager.

Ans) Adjustment in the context of a teenager refers to the process of adapting to the various physical, emotional, and social changes that occur during adolescence.


The following are some areas and characteristics of adjustment in teenagers:

  1. Physical changes: Adolescents undergo various physical changes such as puberty, growth spurts, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. These changes can affect their self-image and self-esteem.

  2. Developing a sense of independence: Teenagers should be self-reliant and at the same time take protection when required.

  3. Emotional changes: Adolescents experience intense emotions and mood swings. They may feel overwhelmed by their emotions, leading to stress and anxiety.

  4. Social changes: Adolescents form new relationships and face new social challenges, such as peer pressure, bullying, and dating. They may also struggle to find their place within a peer group.

  5. Developing a sense of confidence: Teenagers should be confident and be able to trust others, which is largely reinforced by a warm and trusting environment.

  6. Cognitive changes: Adolescents develop abstract reasoning and critical thinking skills. They may question authority and become more independent.

  7. Developing personal values and philosophy of life: Adolescents should develop personal values, ethics and mores which are of societal acceptance.

  8. Identity formation: Adolescents develop a sense of self and explore their beliefs, values, and interests. They may try out different identities and experiment with their appearance and behaviour.

  9. School-related issues: Adolescents may struggle with academic and behavioural problems in school, leading to feelings of frustration and failure.

  10. Developing a sense of responsibility: A teenager would be responsible in their behaviour and actions. Responsibility could be towards people we are close to, as well as towards people we are working for.

  11. Family dynamics: Adolescents may experience conflicts with parents and siblings, as they seek independence and form their own identity.


In conclusion, the teenage years can be a challenging time for adjustment, as adolescents navigate physical, emotional, and social changes. It is important for adults to support and guide them through this process.


Q 2. Does religion influence emotions and well-being in any way? Discuss your answer with examples.

Ans) The relationship between religion and emotion is a long and intimate one, for

religion has always been a source of intense emotional experience. Silberman suggests three ways in which religion and spirituality influence emotion:

  1. Religion prescribes appropriate and inappropriate emotion and the extent of their intensity;

  2. Beliefs about the nature and attributes about God may give rise to specific emotions as well as influence overall emotional well-being; and

  3. Religion offers the opportunity to experience a uniquely powerful emotional experience of closeness to the sacred.


Religion can influence emotions and well-being in other ways:


Positive influence: Religious or spiritual involvement has been linked to a longer life, less heart disease, less high blood pressure, more health-promoting behaviours, a lower risk of depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and suicide, better illness coping, and a higher quality of life. Sacred emotions like gratitude, awe, reverence, and hope help the inner self overcome challenges without anger, feel unbeatable, and not feel alone and uncared for. These feelings motivate people to help others, which boosts their mental, social, and spiritual health.


For example, religious beliefs and practices can offer a supportive community, help individuals overcome adversity, and foster positive emotions such as gratitude, forgiveness, and peace. Additionally, religious practices such as prayer, meditation, and rituals can help individuals manage stress and improve mental health.


Negative influence: People who have bad feelings and can't deal with stress well are more likely to get physical problems that have nothing to do with their bodies. These can be avoided and dealt with by learning how to control your emotions, deal with stress, deal with anger, and solve conflicts. How we feel and act is based on what we believe, which is shaped by our religious beliefs and how our families work.

For example, feelings of guilt, shame, and low self-esteem can arise when individuals are unable to meet religious standards or when they have questions or doubts about their beliefs.


Q 3. With the help of examples, discuss the issue of mutuality of influence in parenting relationship.

Ans) It is generally assumed, erroneously, that the direction of influence is one way; from the parents to the child. The common belief is that parenting influences the child. This, however, is not the complete story. The reverse direction of influence is equally a reality. Thus, the nature of parenting, at least partly, is a response to the characteristics and temperament of the child. Studies indicate that parents are more controlling and less involved when they perceive their children to be difficult. There is increased recognition of the child’s role in the socialization process, as well as the bi-directional nature of parent-child interactions. It is important to acknowledge this aspect, so that it can be accommodated.


At the same time, it is also vital to recognize the fact that since the sub-systems in the family (including dyadic) are inter-dependent; one usually has to reckon with multi-directionality of influence. For instance, the quality of husband-wife relationship has consistently been linked with the quality of parenting, and vice-verse.


Mutuality of influence refers to the idea that both parents influence each other in their parenting roles, rather than one parent being the sole influencer. This means that the behaviour and attitudes of one parent can affect and shape the behaviour and attitudes of the other parent.


For example, if one parent is consistently authoritarian in their parenting style, this may influence the other parent to adopt a more lenient approach in order to balance the household dynamics. Conversely, if one parent consistently shows a lot of warmth and affection towards their children, this may inspire the other parent to adopt a similar approach.


Another example is when one parent is struggling with a personal issue, such as depression or stress, and their behaviour and mood can have a significant impact on the other parent's ability to be an effective parent. The supportive actions of the other parent can also have a positive effect on the first parent's well-being and ability to parent.


It is important for parents to recognize the mutuality of influence in their relationship and to be mindful of the ways in which their own behaviour and attitudes can impact each other. This can help promote positive, collaborative parenting and lead to better outcomes for the children.


Q 4. How are the processes of family cohesion, adaptation, and resilience inter-related? Explain, giving examples.

Ans) Family cohesion, adaptation, and resilience are inter-related concepts that describe the functioning and well-being of a family.

Family cohesion refers to the bonds that exist within a family, including emotional, social, and intellectual connections between family members. It refers to the degree to which family members feel close to each other and feel a sense of belonging within the family unit.


Adaptation refers to the ability of a family to adjust and respond to stressors and changes in their environment, both internal (such as family conflict or illness) and external (such as a natural disaster or job loss). A family's level of adaptation is influenced by their degree of cohesion. A family with high levels of cohesion is more likely to be able to effectively adapt to stressors, as they have strong support networks within the family unit.


Resilience refers to a family's ability to recover from stressors and challenges, and to bounce back from adversity. Resilience is related to both cohesion and adaptation, as a family that is cohesive and has adapted well to stressors is more likely to be resilient.


An example of the inter-relatedness of these concepts is a family that experiences a major change, such as the loss of a job. A family with high levels of cohesion is more likely to support each other through the stress of this change, adapt to the new situation, and be resilient in their ability to recover from the adversity. Conversely, a family with low levels of cohesion may struggle to adapt to the change and may have a harder time recovering.


All processes involve family and individual mechanisms. Family members must work together to stay together, but their adaptability and resilience may vary. Cohesion is essential for group and family resilience and adaptation. People understand cohesion, adaptation, and resilience differently. It's important to realise that more than just family type, size, and composition affect these family processes. Before offering advice, a therapist must understand the family's and each member's strengths and weaknesses.


Q 5. Describe the conflict resolution process.

Ans) The conflict resolution process is a series of steps that are taken to resolve a disagreement or dispute between individuals or groups. The process typically includes the following steps:


1. Awareness: Disagreements have the potential to escalate into full-blown brawls if they are accompanied by "hot" feelings such as anger or irritation. You should be aware that there is a problem whenever a fight is on the verge of breaking out. The sooner a problem is recognised, the higher the probability that a straightforward answer will be discovered.


2. Setting Limits: The point or points to be debated are set (limits of the conflict). You can't argue about other things besides these. For example, a brother and sister got into a fight about going to the market last week. Today, they are fighting about something else. But if they bring up a problem from last week when they are fighting, the problem won't be solved. In this case, they need to understand each other's points of view, or they might end up complaining about each other. So, it's very important to set limits.

3. Arguing: The objective is to have a deeper comprehension of each other's points of view. The differences of opinion are brought to the forefront. There are both verbal and non-verbal messages being sent.


4. Negotiating: When trying to solve a problem, it's important to bargain and talk things out. It is a way for people to work out their differences with each other. There are both verbal and nonverbal communication skills, and possible solutions are suggested. They look for areas where they can agree.


It is important to note that the conflict resolution process is not always linear and may involve going back to earlier steps if the resolution is not working effectively. Additionally, the process may involve the use of third-party mediators to help facilitate the resolution of the conflict.


Q 6. Analyse factors that influence marital harmony.

Ans) Marital harmony refers to the level of agreement and understanding between partners in a marriage. There are a number of factors that can influence marital harmony, including:

  1. Life goals: The ultimate aim of marriage and life, is the willingness to raise a family and perform other roles and responsibilities as relevant for the growth of the family.

  2. Love: If you love someone you want to live the rest of your life with that person. In the Indian context, love comes after marriage.

  3. Similarity: The partner may have similar likes and dislikes, value systems similar to you or it can be just the opposite. Depending on the need gratification of the person choice of mate is made.

  4. Expectations: The expectations of the persons from each other and from life influence marital happiness and compatibility of the same is a point of concern for marital stability.

  5. Socio-economic Status: Marriages take place among varied socio-economic status. The background regarding the education, family values, cultural group, ethnicity, and clan lineage are some of the factors which are considered at the time of marriage.

  6. Temperament and Personality: There are some qualities which were and are still appreciated among the two sexes. Female is liked to be warm, caring, submissive, etc. while male is liked to be confident, warm, caring and who can take decisions.

  7. Proximity: The person selected has to have physical proximity. These days internet services and technology are also being increasingly used to narrow the physical distance.

  8. Physical Appearance: Attraction towards another person may also depend on the personal choice and physical appearance.

  9. Mutual Preferences: Individual choice and compatibility of interest, attitudes, likes, dislikes, hobbies play an important role in mate selection.

  10. Finding the Right Person: Most important is the factor of finding the right person at the right time.


Section B - Short Answer Type Questions (40 Marks)


Q 1. Write short notes (in 150 words each) on the following: (5X8= 40 marks)


i) Goodness of fit

Ans) "Goodness of fit" means the child's biological traits and social environment, including their relationship with their parents, match. If the child's traits, abilities, and parents' expectations match, the child will succeed and grow well. A bad fit will cause more conflicts between the child and others, which will hinder development. All important aspects of the child's environment are considered to determine fit. Home, school, neighbourhood, and others are examples.


Goodness of fit is a statistical term for how well a model fits the data that has already been collected. It checks how well the model can predict the future and how well it can explain the relationship between variables. A good fit means that the model matches the data closely, while a bad fit means that the model doesn't match the data well. There are different ways to measure how well something fits, such as R-squared, the mean squared error, and the adjusted R-squared.


ii) Positive self-talk

Ans) Change the way you talk to yourself inside your head. This is another very effective way to deal with anger (also known as self-talk). People often have conversations with themselves every day that can either make them more upset or put them in a better mood. The things we tell ourselves have a lot of power and can definitely change how we feel and what we do next.


Positive self-talk refers to the practice of speaking positively to oneself in order to build confidence and increase one's overall well-being. It involves recognizing negative self-talk patterns and replacing them with positive affirmations, statements, and visualization exercises. Positive self-talk has been shown to have a positive impact on mood, motivation, stress levels, and overall self-esteem. The goal is to develop a more optimistic and encouraging inner dialogue that supports personal growth and happiness. Practicing positive self-talk regularly can lead to improved mental and emotional health, as well as better decision-making and problem-solving skills.


iii) Johari window

Ans) The Johari Window is one of the communication models that can help people understand their relationships and how they talk to each other better. Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham are the ones who came up with the word "Johari." This tool helps a person learn about himself or herself and deal with personal problems with the help of feedback from other people. With the Johari model, a person is shown as a four-paned window or quadrant. Each of these has personal information about the person, like how they feel or what drives them, and shows if the person or other people know or don't know that information.


The Johari Window is a psychological tool used to help individuals better understand their own self-awareness and the self-awareness of others. The model consists of four quadrants representing different levels of self-disclosure and self-awareness: open, hidden, blind, and unknown. The goal of using the Johari Window is to increase self-awareness and understanding of interpersonal relationships through improved communication and feedback.


iv) Work spill over

Ans) Spill over is the tension between roles and responsibilities as a family member, like a spouse or parent, on the one hand, and as an employee, on the other. Work spill over happens when feelings, attitudes, behaviours, and work from the workplace make their way into family life, or when work gets in the way of spending time with family. Work spill over is the effect that stress and demands at work have on a person's life outside of work and their relationships with other people. This can happen when the lines between work and personal life start to blur, which can lead to problems like less job satisfaction, less happiness, and less effectiveness in both personal and professional areas. Work spills can affect marriages, parenting, home maintenance, and leisure time. Role conflicts are inevitable since everyone has multiple jobs. Workers are overworked. Because they have multiple roles, working families often feel overwhelmed and at odds.


v) Gender roles and sexuality

Ans) A person's gender role is how they are expected to act because of their gender. Roles for men and women are an important part of every society. They show how people feel about men and women and what they value, and they often affect how people act and relate to each other. India has mostly been a patriarchal society, which means that the name of the father is passed down from generation to generation. This has made it more of a masculine society in the past.


There are different rules for how men and women should act sexually. The traditional view is that a man's body is always clean, but a woman's body gets dirty during her period and after every sexual encounter. Men can lose their virginity whenever they want without losing respect, but a woman's virginity is the most important factor in figuring out her chastity and character. The woman's status and honour are based on how she uses her body language in her everyday life.


vi) Co-parenting

Ans) Co-parenting refers to the arrangement where two individuals (usually, but not always, the biological parents of a child) raise a child together, despite not being in a romantic relationship. It requires effective communication, cooperation, and the ability to put the needs of the child first. The goal is to provide a stable, loving, and supportive environment for the child despite the absence of a traditional two-parent household.


Co-parenting is another option that comes up when both parents share custody of their children. It is possible if both people want to do it and they live in the same place. These plans work best when the parents get along well and can talk to each other freely. Both parents share in making decisions and taking care of the child in other ways (ren). Children also live with each parent in turns, which is fair. When there is a custody battle in court, it makes it hard for the parents to work together. The kids live with one parent or the other, and they see the other parent less and less.


vii) Functions of emotions

Ans) Emotions are important because they add more feeling to our thoughts and how we see ourselves and the world around us.


Some are enlisted as follows:

  1. Preparing us for action: Emotions are a link between what happens in the outside world and how a person acts in response to it. They give you ideas for what to do in different situations. For instance, when we see a dog coming at us, the feeling of fear makes us want to run away.

  2. Shaping our future behaviour: Emotions help us learn information that will help us respond in the future in the right way. For example, if we have bad experiences at a store, we are less likely to go back.

  3. Helping us to regulate social interaction: Emotions help with both verbal and nonverbal communication because they help the person listening or watching understand what we're feeling.


viii) Visual imagery

Ans) Visual imagery refers to the creation of mental pictures or images in the mind's eye. It is a cognitive process that allows an individual to mentally visualize and manipulate images and scenes, often used in daydreaming, memory recall, and visualization for problem-solving or goal setting. Visual imagery can be used in various fields, such as sports, art, and psychology, to enhance performance, promote creative thinking, and improve mental health.


Steps to initiate visual imagery:

  1. Visual Imagery can be done anywhere. You can close your eyes momentarily to your current surroundings and allow your imagination to replace it with a setting more conductive to

  2. relaxation.

  3. As with other relaxation techniques, mental or visual imagery requires sound concentration.

  4. Choice of mental images is unlimited. Begin by deciding the purpose of your visualization. Promote a healthier lifestyle.

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