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MCO-01: Organization Theory and Behaviour

MCO-01: Organization Theory and Behaviour

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MCO-01 /ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MCO-01

Assignment Name: Organisation Theory and Behaviour

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Q. 1 What do you mean by bureaucracy? Discuss its characteristics. Do you think that bureaucracy enhances efficiency in the organisation. Give your arguments.

Ans) A social invention called bureaucracy was developed during the industrial revolution to organise and control business operations. It defines a system in which bureaucrats control the government either directly or indirectly. A system of organisation is referred to as bureaucracy when roles, responsibilities, and relationships between individuals and positions are precisely specified, carefully monitored, and controlled in accordance with formal authority, and any deviation from the rules and regulations is taken very seriously. Max Weber systematically created the bureaucratic theory (1864-1920). Weber referred to his organization's ideal type in his formulation.


Every organisation, according to Max Weber, can be described as a framework of actions (means) used to accomplish specific goals (ends). To increase efficiency and production, every organisation creates a system of specialisation (division of duties) and a set of organised norms and practises. Weber emphasised that the bureaucratic form could operate at the highest level of efficiency and is, therefore, formally the most logical method of managing human resources in any organisation. In terms of accuracy, stability, discipline, and dependability, it is superior to every other form.


Weber made an effort to pinpoint the numerous causes and circumstances that the modern bureaucracy's expansion has been influenced by. The growth and extensive spread of bureaucracy in organisations was a direct result of the creation of contemporary organisations and corporations. Despite its inherent flaws, bureaucracy is simply necessary for the smooth operation of complex organisations. Second, the advancement of contemporary technology and the growth of technical expertise have a significant influence in the dominance of bureaucracy.


A significant amount of bureaucratic specialisation is necessary to achieve a high level of organisational efficiency, regardless of the economic system in place. Thirdly, Weber emphasised numerous times how the capitalist system unavoidably contributed significantly to the growth of the contemporary bureaucracy. A stable state and a well-organized government were essential for the efficient operation of a capitalist society. Furthermore, the economic foundation for bureaucratic management itself is thought to be most rational under capitalism.

Characteristics of Bureaucracy


The structural and behavioural traits listed below set the bureaucratic form of organisation apart:


Division of Labour and Specialisation : The foundation of bureaucracy is specialisation based on the division of labour. The job is more affected than the individual by it. Based on the separation of job responsibilities, the tasks of different officials are clearly defined. This results in a clear definition of a person's role within an organisation, which in turn clarifies the goals and objectives of the organisation and aids in the creation of the hierarchical structure of the organisation. It is based on the provision of the incumbent with the necessary authority, the provision of the necessary means of compulsion are clearly defined, and their use is subject to specific conditions. It is based on a specified sphere of competence that involves a sphere of applications to perform functions that have been marked off as part of a systematic division of labour.


Hierarchy : The second essential component of any bureaucratic organisational structure is hierarchy. Each lower officer is under the direction and authority of a higher one, hence there is a distinct line between superior and subordinate officers. The amount of compensation is determined by the type of work and level of responsibility. Seniority and merit are considered while making promotions and career moves.


Rules : The abstract principles that govern bureaucracy are a constant set of guidelines. Weber has emphasised the importance of regulations in order to prevent personal favouritism, arbitrary behaviour, or nepotism from impeding an organization's ability to function. Every discretionary decision made by an authority must be supported by objective goals.


Rationality : Weber's ideal typical model of bureaucracy is strongly tied to his theories on efficiency and logic. He noted that the most logical method now known for obtaining absolute control over people is bureaucracy. Being able to choose means that are rationally and unbiasedly oriented toward the desired purposes allows it to reach a high level of efficiency. Efficiency is also enhanced by the fact that in such a system, personal whims of the leaders and conventional pressures are no longer effective because it is governed by laws and there is a clearer separation between official and private matters. The organization's significantly simpler methods for calculating results also reflect rationality.


Impersonality : All authorities must adhere to it when making decisions and conducting business as usual. Personal whims, fancy, or irrational sentiments have no place in a formal document. A high degree of operational impersonality and business like behaviour characterise official activities. Rule Orientation: The creation of rules and procedures that clearly define the official areas of authority and conduct is the primary means by which rationalism and impersonality are attained. When performing their duties, employees are expected to adhere to the rules.


Neutrality : The cornerstones of a bureaucratic manner of working are impartiality in decision-making and its execution. The definition of bureaucracy calls for it to have a political neutrality. It is only dedicated to the tasks that it is designed to carry out.


Thus, the most basic elements of pure bureaucratic organization are its emphasis on procedural regularity, a hierarchical system of accountability and responsibility, specialization of function, continuity, a legal-rational basis, and fundamental conservatism. The emergence of capitalism and the emphasis on standard currency transactions over and above barter systems created the need for bureaucratic forms of organization in both the private and public sectors. However, the critical elements of the bureaucratic form of organization also can conflict with one another and are often at the base of criticisms that regard bureaucracies as dysfunctional. In sum, what makes bureaucracy work also may work against it.


Q. 2 (a) Explain process of perception. What are the factors those influence perception? (10)

Ans) The four steps of the perceptual process are described by the model. A strategy that considers input-throughput-output can help you understand the model.


Stage 1: It speaks of sensory inputs. All of the stimuli that are present in our environment—information, things, events, people, etc.—are considered perceptual inputs. These inputs are given to the perceiver.


Stage 2: It describes the throughputs or perceptual mechanisms. This is how perceptual inputs are converted into outputs. It entails the three processes of choosing, organising, and interpreting the environmental stimuli. Despite the fact that each person goes through the same three steps, which change perception,


Stage 3: Processing perceptual throughputs results in the creation of perceptual outputs. These consist of one's behaviours, values, attitudes, and emotions. The outputs may suffer from perceptual mistakes. Managers should therefore develop their perceptive abilities.


Stage 4: A contributing element is behaviour. A new set of inputs are created as a result of the perceiver's behaviour, which also causes responses.


Factors Influencing Perception

There are primarily three sets of elements that affect perception: Among the perceiver's factors are the following: 

  1. The perceiver's idea of themselves.

  2. The perceiver's perspectives.

  3. Reasons for perception.

  4. The perceiver's own interests.

  5. Encounters with perception.

  6. A perceiver's expectations.


The following issues are among the factors in the target:

  1. Physical attributes.

  2. Speaking and non-speaking communication.

  3. Status.

  4. Occupations.

  5. Personal qualities.

  6. The target's novelty.

  7. Target movement.

  8. The target's sounds

  9. Dimensions of the objective.

  10. Closeness to the objective.


Following are some relevant circumstances:

  1. Social setting.

  2. Organisational function.

  3. Setting at work.

  4. The site of the event.

  5. Time.


These three sets of variables work together to shape how we view other people.


(b)Discuss individual management strategies of stress. Do you think that they can reduce stress in the organisation? Discuss. (10)

Ans) People automatically take on responsibilities and seek for strategies for coping with stress. More people are thinking about their health. In recent years, an increase in health clinics and health awareness has been seen. The following are some methods people can use to lower their stress levels:


Time Management : Stress management and time management go hand in hand. Greater levels of stress are primarily caused by improper and inadequate time management. Time is used improperly and insufficiently, which causes anxiety. The time management guidelines listed below can aid in reducing stress.

  1. Listing daily tasks in a logical order and identifying them.

  2. Arranging the day's tasks according to significance and urgency.

  3. Creating a plan of activities that makes sense.

  4. Examining and comprehending the daily routine and requirements of the position.

  5. Judiciously allocating time to various tasks according to their demands.

  6. Giving little duties to subordinates so that you can use your time more efficiently.

  7. Preventing unauthorised guests.

  8. Prioritizing undone business for tomorrow.


Physical Management : Understanding one's own biological and physical state is important for managing stress. Understanding one's physiological state involves looking at inherited traits, lifestyle choices, such as smoking and drinking, and physical ailments. By controlling physiological relaxation, stress can be overcome. Exercise is a very effective way to reduce tension and stress. When the body is physically fit, oxygen is properly inhaled, and blood circulation rises. This encourages healthy glandular secretions, and the blood supply to every region of the body keeps every organ functioning. As a result, stress resistance becomes stronger. Exercises might be either proactive or reactive.


Psychological Management : Psychological tensions are the main cause of most stresses. As a result, it is argued that controlling psychological processes results in efficient stress management. Some of the psychological management strategies include the ones listed below.


Relaxation : Mental stresses can be efficiently reduced through relaxation techniques including biofeedback, hypnosis, and meditation.


Behavioural Self-control: Behaviour issues can also cause stress. Stress levels can be reduced by using adequate self-control when interacting with others. Self-examination increases a person's awareness of themselves..


Cognitive Therapy: It is a clinical psychology technique. In order to relieve stress and anxiety, cognitive therapy entails understanding one's own feelings. In this method, the process of self-observation is used to help people identify the factors contributing to their stress.


Yogic Management : Yoga has recently become a popular method for reducing stress. Asana, Pranayama, Mudra, and Kriya are all a part of yoga practise..


Social Management: Creating effective social networks requires assembling groups of people who can generate confidence and are good listeners. This strengthens people's social support. Developing unrestricted interchange of ideas, opinions, and unpleasant experiences, fostering confidence in social support, and encouraging informal groupings to communicate information without restraints all reduce tensions and stress.


Self-awareness Management: Similar to a self-audit or personal audit is self-awareness. Managers must have a fair and open understanding of who they are. They ought to promote open communication and be ready to listen to others, especially when they have flaws. Being conscious of oneself is challenging because people struggle to accept their flaws.


Inter Personal Management: Interpersonal communication is one of the most effective stress management strategies. Interpersonal knowledge, interpersonal attraction, and interpersonal communication all help us better comprehend how others behave. The majority of organisational stressors are brought on by miscommunication, workplace politics, isolating oneself from others, and tolerating unreliable opinions.


Q. 3 Comment briefly on the following statements: (20)


a) Persuasion is a fact of modern life

Ans) We are exposed to various persuasion tactics every day. The goal of persuasion is to influence people's opinions through various forms of communication, such as speeches or advertisements. We'll look at topics like the variables that affect how successful persuasion efforts are as well as how effective they actually are. There are two methods for analysing how persuasion affects attitudes: the traditional method and the cognitive method.


The Traditional Approach : This strategy proposes three components of persuasion.: 

  1. The sender or communicator is the source.

  2. The communication's message.

  3. Recipient is the intended audience.


The traditional approach focussed on a basic question: “Who speaks to whom and how does it affect them? The most noteworthy outcomes of this strategy are:


Experts have greater persuasive power than novices.

  1. Messages that do not seem to be intended to affect our opinions have a greater impact than those that do.

  2. More effective in influencing views than unpopular or unattractive communicators are those who are popular and attractive.

  3. People who have lower self-esteem than those who have higher self-esteem are more susceptible to persuasion, especially from influential or alluring sources.

  4. A two-sided strategy is more effective than a one-sided strategy.

  5. Messages that elicit strong emotions in the audience can improve persuasion.


The Cognitive Approach : The cognitive method makes an effort to understand what people's thoughts are when they are subjected to compelling arguments. There are a number of theoretical models that have been developed to explain this phenomenon, but the Elaboration Likelihood Model is the most well-known of them (ELM).

  1. Depending on how significant or pertinent the topics are to the people who are the focus of persuasions, ELM states that there are two distinct paths to persuasion.

  2. The Heuristic Paradigm of Persuasion is another model that explains the cognitive approach to persuasion.

  3. The cognitive approach offers guidance for selecting the message in adverts for various product kinds.

  4. The cognitive approach to persuasion explains why it is simpler to persuade those who are feeling happy.

  5. The relationship between individual differences and their impact on persuasion is also explained by the cognitive approach to persuasion.


b) Stress is moderated by anxiety and burnout.

Ans) Fred Luthans described stress as an adaptive reaction to an outside circumstance that causes physical, psychological, and/or behavioural aberrations in organisational members. According to Ivancevich and Matteson, stress is the result of a person's interactions with their surroundings. It is an adaptive reaction, mediated by personal traits and/or psychological processes, in response to any action, circumstance, or incident outside the person's control that poses unique physical and/or psychological demands on them. According to Schuler, stress is a dynamic circumstance in which a person is presented with a chance, restriction, or demand that is related to what they want and for which the outcome is seen as being both unclear and crucial.


When a person has needs, desires, wishes, and expectations, and certain forces make it impossible for them to fulfil those needs, desires, wishes, and expectations, stress is the result. Anxiety and stress are not the same things. The emotions brought on by the interactions of environmental cues lead to anxiety. It is limited to the psychological discomfort as a result. On the other hand, stress results from psychological tensions and gradually deteriorates the body or biological system. While anxiety often goes hand in hand with stress, this is not always the case.


In a similar vein, stress and burnout are two distinct ideas. Long-term stress causes burnout. It is a mental state. It happens as a result of ongoing emotional stress. Physical, mental, and emotional tiredness are all experienced by the person. Emotional weariness, depersonalization, and decreased sense of personal accomplishment are characteristics of job burnout. The so-called helping professions like nursing, education, and social work are also strongly linked to burnout.


c) Job design is a continuous process.

Ans) The goal of job design is to improve the balance between human effort and job. The process of job design is influenced by a number of variables. The influence of these factors is explained using a variety of models. Let's become familiar with certain key models.


  1. Task Characteristics Theory: The Turner and Lawrence research produced the Task Characteristics theory.

  2. Job Characteristics Model: Hackman and Oldham proposed the job characteristics model, which was based on the ground-breaking work of Turner and Lawrence.

  3. Motivating Potential Score Model: Using the job characteristics model as a foundation, the Motivating Potential Score Model was created. According to the model, the three potential scores on the three main job characteristics dimensions have an additive effect.

  4. Social Information Processing Model: People are a component of society. They naturally want to connect with and be a part of groups.

  5. Socio Technical Model: Employee importance in organisations was emphasised by the socio-technical model. They should be provided with a high-quality work environment.

  6. Contingency Model: To describe how job design affects performance and satisfaction, a contingency model of job design was created.

  7. Employee Development Model: Organizational development is seen to be achievable with personnel development in modern organisations. Employees were viewed as valuable human resources.

  8. Integrative Job Design Model: Integrative models of work design took into account that it is dynamic. The goal of job design is to make work exciting and enjoyable for employees.


d) Culture is the social glue that helps hold the organisation together.

Ans) Organizational culture serves the following three fundamental purposes

  1. It gives members a sense of identity.

  2. This strengthens adherence to the organization's mission.

  3. It makes behaviour rules clearer and reinforces them.


Child has clarified that one of an organization's strategic control tools is culture. He claims that cultural control benefits four areas:

  1. Strengthening of identification with management objectives.

  2. Creation of semi-autonomous working environments with few formal controls.

  3. Placing a high priority on employee selection, training, and development

  4. Having a climate that prioritises rewards for job security and professional advancement


There is, however, another side to the storey. Even though organisational culture can be a strength, it can also occasionally become a weakness. Strong cultural ties might have negative consequences on an organization's ability to function. The following are some of the obstacles a strong organisational culture, in particular, might create:


Barrier to Change: When dealing with a stable environment, an organisation benefits from consistency of behaviour. However, it could weigh down the organisation and make it challenging to react to environmental changes.


Barrier to Diversity: People from varied cultural backgrounds can bring a variety of strengths to the workplace, especially in multicultural organisations. However, in strong organisational cultures where there is a significant drive for conformity, these different skills and behaviours are likely to decline. Once more, organisational culture can be a liability if it fosters institutional bias or maintains an indifferent attitude toward those with diverse cultural backgrounds.


Barrier to Acquisition and Merger: There is a significant degree of cultural fusion during acquisition and merger. When two or more businesses with different organisational cultures join, everyone involved must develop a distinctive culture for the newly formed company. However, if one or more partners have a very strong culture, it could have a detrimental impact on the entire acquisition and merger experience.


Q. 4 Difference between the following: (20)


a) Classical and neo-classical theory of management

Ans) Following are the major points of distinction between Classical Theory and Neo-classical Theory:


In Classical Theory, it is the difference in the technology that determines the position of trade. It is the technological difference between two trading countries as reflected in their respective labour productivity ratio, which form the basis of trade. Classical theory does not consider how much labour (a factor) each country has. In contrast to Classical Theory, Neoclassical Theory, it is the difference in the factor endowments that determine the pattern of trade. It is the difference in relative factor endowment between two trading countries which form the basis of trade.


The Classical Theory has an assumption that production in all the countries is subject to constant returns to scale. But Neoclassical Theory has released the assumption of constant returns to scale in order to allow for decreasing return to scale.


The Classical Theory believes that two countries differ in technology to produce the goods. Neoclassical Theory believes that two countries have the same technologies to produce goods.


The Classical Theory believes that labour is the only source of value of goods produced in the economy in contrast to Classical Theory. The Neo-classical Theory assumes that there are at least two factors of production labour and capital which are used in the production of goods. Two countries differ only in respect of relative factor endowments: one country being relatively labour-abundant and the other relatively capital-abundant. A country exports those goods that use intensively, its relatively abundant factor of production.


b) Classical conditioning and operant conditioning

Ans) Difference between Classical conditioning and operant conditioning is as follows:

d) Evolutionary and Revolutionary strategies of change

Ans) Difference between Evolutionary and Revolutionary strategies of change is as follows:

Q. 5 Write short notes on the following: (20)


a) Resistance to Change

Ans) An attitude or behaviour that demonstrates opposition to a particular change is known as resistance to change. For change to be successful, it must be overcome. Resistance to change can occasionally act as a signal to revaluate the change that is being proposed. Thus, resistance to change can also work in the organization's favour.


The key to overcoming resistance constructively is to take into account the issues brought up, make the necessary adjustments, and inform the staff of the suggested change. The types of resistance include overt, tacit, instantaneous, and varied. When it is overt and urgent, management can deal with such opposition right away by taking corrective action. Implicit resistance can lead to diminished commitment, diminished drive, more errors, more absences, etc. Over time, opposition that is equally varied poses challenges for management, especially when significant resources have already been used on implementing the change. Change resistance can come from the organisation, the individual, or both.


b) Work Related Attitudes

Ans) Numerous attitudes are covered in the field of psychology. Concerned with attitudes and behaviours relating to the workplace is organisational behaviour. Three work-related attitudes, in particular, have a big impact on the organisation.

  1. Job Satisfaction: Job satisfaction refers to the many viewpoints people have about their work. It consists of people's cognitive, emotive, and evaluative responses to their work.

  2. Job Involvement: It reveals how much people identify with their jobs and whether the results of their labour are linked to their sense of worth.

  3. Organisational Commitment: It illustrates how people feel about the organisations they work for. It is a mindset that expresses how much people connect with, are involved in, and are unwilling to quit their organisations.

Organizations should make an effort to regularly assess employee attitudes at work so that proactive remedial action can be made to ensure desired behaviour there.


c) Group Cohesiveness

Ans) Many people wonder what the team cohesion means. Group cohesiveness/Team Cohesiveness also known as Social cohesion is a degree of unity of any group. Team cohesiveness is a degree to which group members are attracted or motivated by each other. Basically, group cohesiveness is the closeness amongst the group members. It is seen that members of a highly cohesive group develop some common characteristics:

  1. Everyone respects each other

  2. They are fully committed to the decision made by the group.

  3. There is good accountability amongst members.


These are some of the positive impacts of team cohesiveness that increases the overall performance of any group. Organizations consider employees as an asset because the organization is dependent on the people working there. As more and more people are involved in the complex functioning of the company, an organization faces the problem of group cohesiveness and its impact on the overall productivity of the organization as well as the in-office harmony.


If the company wants to achieve the organizational goals it is important that managers encourage all the employees to bond with their team members so that the complete team can work together towards achieving the goal. It is very important that there is a healthy conversation and relation between the team members to work efficiently. Instead of focusing on the competition, it is important that people focus on achieving the goals so that there is no unnecessary tension between the groups.


d) Barriers to Communication

Ans) Communication Barriers are follows:


Psychological Barriers

The psychological condition of the receiver will power how the message is received. Stress management is a significant personal skill that affects our interpersonal relationships. For example, Anger is a psychological barrier to communication. When we are angry, it is simple to say things that we may afterwards regret and also to misunderstand what others are saying. Also, people with low self-esteem may be less self-assured and therefore may not feel comfortable communicating.


Physical Communication Barriers

Communication is usually easier over shorter distances as more communication channels are obtainable, and less technology is obligatory. Although modern technology often serves to decrease the crash of physical barriers, the advantages and disadvantages of each communication channel should be unspoken so that a suitable channel can be used to overcome the physical barriers.


Physiological Barriers

Physiological barriers may affect the receiver’s physical condition. For example, a receiver with condensed hearing may not grab the sum of a spoken conversation, especially if there is significant surroundings noise.


Language Barriers

Language and linguistic aptitude may act as a barrier to communication. However, even when communicating in a similar language, the terms used in a message may act as a barrier if it is not easy to understand by the receiver.


Attitudinal Barriers

Attitudinal barriers are perceptions that stop people from communicating well. Attitudinal barriers to communication may affect from poor management, personality conflicts, and battle to change, or a lack of motivation. Active receivers of messages should challenge to overcome their attitudinal barriers to assist effective communication.

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