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MCO-01: Organization Theory and Behaviour

MCO-01: Organization Theory and Behaviour

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

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Assignment Code: MCO-01/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: MCO–01

Assignment Name: Organisation Theory and Behaviour

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

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Q1)What are various principles of management? How are modern organizations different from typical classical organizations, in terms of practices of various principles of management?

Ans) Henri Fayol's General Principles of Management are some of the most comprehensive management principles.

  1. Division of Work: It has a lot to do with specialisation. When work is split up, it encourages people to learn more skills for each job, which makes them more efficient.

  2. Authority and Responsibility: Authority is the power a person has because of the position they hold. Both having power and being responsible go hand in hand. To do the jobs that have been given due to the need of authority.

  3. Discipline: Fayol meant by discipline obedience, hard work, energy, and respect. The punishments should be used wisely, and the people in charge should be knowledgeable and fair.

  4. Unity of Command: A subordinate should only listen to one person in charge. Fayol knew that if there wasn't one person in charge, authority would be weakened, discipline would be at risk, order would be thrown off, and stability would be at risk.

  5. Unity of Direction: Fayol said that there should only be one plan and one person in charge. Individual Interests Should Come After Organizational Interests: An organization's interests should come before an individual.

  6. Remuneration: Fair pay should be the norm, and everyone should try to find the best way to pay people.

  7. Centralisation: For control over the whole organisation, there should be one main point. Through delegation of authority, appropriate decentralisation can be done in organisations that are large.

  8. Scalar Chain: Power should flow from the top to the bottom in a straight line. Through scalar chain, different people in an organisation are linked in a certain way, and the direction of communication depends on how the chain is set up. But in many situations, people at lower levels can move faster if they talk to each other directly.

  9. Order: People and things should be where they need to be when they need to be there. A job should be given to the person who is best suited to do it.

  10. Equity: When employees have equity, they are more loyal and devoted to their jobs.

  11. Stability of Staff: The organisation works better when the people who work there are consistent.

  12. Initiative: Organizations should encourage people to take the initiative and make it clear that mistakes are okay.

  13. Esprit de Corps: An organisation can get stronger by encouraging team spirit and getting people to care about each other. More casual interactions and good communication help bring people together in an organisation.

Fayol has given 14 management principles, but there are other management principles that are explained below:

  1. Harmony of Objectives: Organisations perform more effectively when all functions are directed towards harmonised grand objective.

  2. Universality of Management: A good management principle can be used by any kind of organisation, no matter what they do or where they are.

  3. Primacy of Objectives and Planning: In an organisation, goals and planning come before anything else.

  4. Control by Exception: Staff in lower positions should take care of routine tasks, while management should oversee special control and supervision that has a bigger effect on the organisation.

  5. Decision by Exception: A manager should make decisions that are within the limits of the job's authority. If something goes past that line, the higher authority should decide.

  6. Equality of Authority: Power, Responsibility, and Accountability: In a group, there should be a good balance between authority, power, responsibility, and accountability. If not, there will be hostility, friction, anger, dissatisfaction, and conflict. If an organisation isn't well-balanced, it could lead to its demise in the long run.

  7. Coordination: Coordination is the key to making sure that the organisation works well. Every activity in the organisation, as well as the work of the people who work there, should be coordinated.

The basic management principles listed above can be used as a guide for running an organisation well. When these principles are used in an organisation, it becomes more efficient and effective. But should keep in mind that some management principles are universal and never change, while other principles need to be flexible to keep things running smoothly in an organisation. Modern organizations differ from classical organizations depends on various principles of management.

  1. Hierarchy and Bureaucracy: Classical organizations often had rigid hierarchies and extensive bureaucracies with clear lines of authority. Modern organizations tend to have flatter hierarchies, emphasizing flexibility and decentralization. Matrix structures and cross-functional teams are more common.

  2. Division of Labor: Classical management emphasized specialization and a narrow division of labour, which could lead to repetitive tasks. Modern organizations recognize the importance of job enrichment and multi-skilling to enhance employee engagement and reduce monotony.

  3. Communication: Classical organizations relied on formal and top-down communication channels. Modern organizations prioritize open and informal communication, encouraging feedback, collaboration, and the use of various communication tools.

  4. Technology and Automation: Technology was less advanced, and automation was limited.

  5. Modern organizations heavily rely on advanced technology and automation to enhance productivity, streamline processes, and collect data for decision-making.

  6. Employee Engagement: Classical management focused on efficiency but often neglected employee well-being and motivation. Modern organizations prioritize employee engagement, job satisfaction, and work-life balance, recognizing that motivated employees are more productive.

Q2a) What is effective communication? Discuss the significance of communication in an organisation?

Ans) Organizational goals can only be reached if people can talk to each other well. Without communication, no organisation or group can stay together. Work can't be coordinated, and the organisation will fail because no one can talk to each other. People can't work together because they can't tell each other what they want and how they feel. Every time people talk to each other, they affect the organisation in some way. It is the thing that ties together the different parts of an organisation that depend on each other.

Organizational activity will end when it stops. Even a great idea isn't useful until other people hear and understand it. When communication works well, it tends to lead to better work and a happier job. People know more about their jobs and feel more invested in them when they do.

Effective communication is the key to getting other people to do work for an executive. So, a successful executive must know how to talk to people. Communication is also a way to get employees excited about doing their jobs and carrying out company plans. It is the way that behaviour is changed, goals are reached, and changes happen.

The first job of an executive is to set up and keep up an effective communication system. It is often said that communications are to an industrial system what nerves are to a human body. Management has been defined as getting people to do work, so it is important to explain what the management hopes to achieve with the different tasks the organisation has taken on.

Communication is also a problem between managers. It's what keeps the people in an organisation working together. Through communication, they can come to a shared understanding of the organization's goals and work together to reach those goals. A two-way flow of information from the top down and the bottom up is a must for good communication. It's like a big river on whose banks everything in business is built.

McGregor thinks that communication is one of the most important ways to influence other people. Communication is a part of every social interaction. In an organisation, communication goes both up and down. Goals, orders, and policies are sent down, while wants and complaints are sent up. A good executive should be able to take in, understand, and pass on information. So, being able to communicate well is an important management skill.

Communication is the link between what you know and what you need to know. Having knowledge is useless unless it can be turned into information. So, knowledge alone is not enough to make a good manager; one also need to be able to communicate clearly. The popular saying "knowledge is power" should be changed to "applied knowledge is power," and to apply it, you need to be able to talk to people well.

Communication helps get work orders to the people who need to do them. It also helps people do the work, buy raw materials, advertise, and sell the product. It is the way to hire, fire, promote, praise, urge, criticise, convince, etc. Communication is a big part of how to deal with problems between an employer and an employee, how productive an employee is, and pretty much any other human relations issue. Often, the cause of many problems is bad communication. Secrets lead to rumours and keeping things quiet leads to harmful rumours.

Management should give employees as much useful information as they can. People who work for a company are very interested in what the company plans to do with, say, computers, bonuses, or DAs. If the management doesn't give out information, the employees will make it up through word-of-mouth, which could hurt the company. To avoid these kinds of problems, it is the management's job to share all the important information through the right channels at the right time.

Communication doesn't just happen between employees. Management must talk to customers, owners, people in the community, and potential and current employees. But we will only talk about communication between people and communication within an organisation.

Q2. b)What do you mean by Organisational Culture? Discuss the main characteristics of organisational culture?

Ans) Culture is what holds a group or society together. It decides how members treat each other and how they treat people from outside the group. Stoner, Freeman, and Gilbert have all defined culture as the complex mix of beliefs, behaviours, stories, myths, metaphors, and other ideas that make up what it means to be a member of a certain society. But this chapter is only about studying the culture of the organisation.

Institutionalization is the process by which an organisation takes on a life of its own, separate from any of its members, and becomes immortal. When an organisation becomes an institution, its members tend to know what is and isn't acceptable behaviour on their own. Organisational culture is the set of important ideas that everyone in an organisation share, such as norms, values, attitudes, and beliefs. "System of shared meaning among members" is the most important part of an organization's culture, according to what we know about it now.

Eliott Jacques says that an organization's culture is the usual or traditional ways of thinking and acting that all members of the organisation share to a greater or lesser extent and that new members must learn and at least partially accept to be accepted into the firm.

Several studies have found that the following are the most important aspects of an organization's culture:

  1. Innovation and Risk Taking: The degree to which employees are encouraged to be creative and take calculated risks.

  2. Attention to Detail: The degree to which employees are expected to pay attention to details.

  3. Outcome Orientation: The degree to which management focuses on results instead of processes to achieve results.

  4. People Orientation: The extent to which management thinks about how decisions will affect the people who work in the organisation and its shareholders.

  5. Team Orientation: The degree to which work is organised around teams rather than individuals.

  6. Aggressiveness: The extent to which people are aggressive or competitive rather than easy-going.

  7. Stability: The degree to which keeping things the same is emphasised overgrowth.

  8. Individual Autonomy: The degree to which people in an organisation have responsibility, independence, and chances to take the lead.

  9. Structure: The number of rules and regulations and the amount of direct supervision that are used to watch and control behaviour.

  10. Support: The amount of help and care that managers give to their employees.

  11. Identity: The degree to which members identify with the organisation rather than with their work group or professional field.

  12. Performance-Reward: The extent to which rewards in an organisation are based on how well employees do their jobs.

  13. Conflict Tolerance: The level of conflict in relationships between peers and work groups, as well as the willingness to be honest and open about differences.

  14. Attitude Towards Change: The response to new methods, ways, and values.

  15. Focus: The way the people in charge of an organisation describe its goals and objectives.

  16. Standard and Values: The levels of performance and behaviour that formal and informal criteria deem acceptable.

  17. Rituals: Events that support and reinforce the standards and values of the organisation.

  18. Openness, Communication, and Supervision: The amount and type of communication that is allowed; communication can go down, up, across the organisation, or in other directions that are set by the culture.

  19. Market and Customer Orientation: The extent to which the organisation is responsive to its markets and customers.

  20. Excitement, Pride, and Esprit De Corps: A good feeling about the organisation and what it does that can be touched.

  21. Commitment: The willingness of the people to keep working toward their goals.

Q3) Comment briefly on the following statements:

Q3. a) positional power is the most powerful power in the organisation.

Ans) The person's formal power comes from their position in the organisation. It is based on the structure of the organisation and the positions that people hold in that structure. The person in charge of a position in an organisation has more power the higher up that position is on the organisational chart.

When a person accepts a formal position in an organisation to take on daily tasks and responsibilities, the organisation gives that person formal power and authority to do the tasks and duties. Most of the time, people with formal power in an organisation are more powerful than those with informal power. In organisations, there are four types of formal power. There are four kinds of power: legitimate, reward, force, and information.

  1. Legitimate Power: It is the ability to control and use the organization's resources to reach the goals of the organisation. The legitimate power gives a person the legal right to control the resources of an organisation. In the truest sense, a person's power in an organisation comes from his or her legitimate power. It is also more than just the ability to force or reward someone. It means that members of an organisation accept the authority of their positions. With this power, a manager not only has control over the resources of the company, but also over how their subordinates act.

  2. Reward Power: The exact opposite of coercive power is reward power. The reward can be something one can touch, or something can't. It means having the power to give a subordinate a promotion, praise, a raise, a project, or some other kind of reward. It also lists helpful coworkers, important information, preferred work shifts, and other things. One with power over others is one who gives out rewards that other people find valuable.

    This power is useful if the people under me value the rewards. But a person with the power to give rewards may find it hard to motivate subordinates when he or she needs real rewards. It's interesting that how much a person wants these rewards affects how much managers can give or withhold them and, in turn, how much power they have over that person.

  3. Coercive Power: Fear is what makes coercive power work. It is the power to punish or not punish someone. People respond with this power because they are afraid of what might happen if they don't follow the rules. When someone uses force, they can fire, demote, or suspend someone else. It means making other people unhappy by limiting their movement or taking away their basic physiological or safety needs by force, as well as by withholding praise and goodwill. fact, coercive power may be the most often used, most often criticised, and hardest to control type of power. Coercive power can come from a person's physical strength, his loud voice, his use of foul language, or his ability to give or take away emotional support from others.

  4. Information Power: This power is used by people who have access to and control over the information. Because of their position or because they have access to and control over the information, they can get other people in the organisation to do anything they want. The power of information grows the more people can access and control it.

Q3. b) Comment briefly on non-financial motivators play a significant role in motivation.

Ans) Non-financial motivators, often referred to as intrinsic motivators, play a significant and sometimes even more profound role in motivating individuals compared to financial incentives alone. While financial rewards certainly have their place, they primarily address extrinsic motivations, such as the need for necessities and financial security. Non-financial motivators, on the other hand, tap into intrinsic motivations, which are rooted in an individual's inner desires, values, and sense of purpose.

  1. Sense of Purpose: Non-financial motivators, such as meaningful work and a sense of contributing to a greater good, provide individuals with a sense of purpose. Knowing that their work has a positive impact on others or aligns with their personal values can be highly motivating.

  2. Autonomy and Control: Giving employees autonomy to make decisions and control over their work can be a powerful motivator. People want to feel that they have a say in how they accomplish their tasks and can exercise their creativity and judgment.

  3. Recognition and Appreciation: Acknowledging and appreciating employees' efforts and achievements is a non-financial motivator that boosts morale and job satisfaction. Feeling valued and recognized for their contributions is a strong motivator.

  4. Personal Growth and Development: Many individuals are motivated by opportunities for personal and professional growth. Non-financial incentives, such as training, mentorship, and career advancement, can be highly appealing to those seeking to enhance their skills and knowledge.

  5. Work-Life Balance: A positive work-life balance, which allows individuals to fulfil their personal and family needs, can significantly motivate employees. Flexible work arrangements and policies that support work-life balance contribute to job satisfaction.

  6. Job Enrichment: Non-financial motivators can include enriching job experiences, where employees are given challenging tasks that require creativity and problem-solving. Variety in tasks and opportunities to learn and grow can be intrinsically rewarding.

  7. Alignment with Values: When an organization's values align with those of its employees, it creates a strong sense of identity and belonging. Knowing that one's work is in line with personal values can be a driving force in motivation.

  8. Intrinsic Satisfaction: Some tasks and roles are inherently satisfying to individuals. When people find joy and satisfaction in what they do, they are naturally motivated to excel and put forth their best effort.

  9. Social Connections: Building positive relationships and a sense of belonging within a team or organization can be a significant non-financial motivator. Social support and camaraderie can enhance job satisfaction and commitment.

Q3. c) Comment briefly on Stress is both positive and negative.

Ans) Stress is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that can have both positive and negative effects on individuals depending on its nature, duration, and how it is managed. It's important to understand that not all stress is detrimental; some stress can be beneficial and even necessary for personal growth and performance.

Positive Aspects of Stress

  1. Motivation: Stress can serve as a powerful motivator. When faced with a challenging task or deadline, the pressure to perform can drive individuals to work harder, focus better, and achieve their goals. This is often referred to as "eustress" or "positive stress."

  2. Enhanced Performance: Moderate stress can enhance cognitive function and memory, making individuals more alert and responsive. It can lead to improved problem-solving abilities and creativity.

  3. Adaptation and Resilience: Dealing with manageable stressors can build resilience and coping skills. Overcoming challenges and setbacks can lead to personal growth and a greater ability to handle future stressors.

  4. Increased Alertness: In situations requiring heightened awareness and quick reactions, such as emergencies or competitive sports, stress can sharpen an individual's focus and responsiveness.

  5. Social Connection: Stress can bring people together and strengthen social bonds. In times of adversity, individuals often find support and comfort in their relationships with others.

Negative Aspects of Stress

  1. Health Implications: Prolonged or chronic stress can have significant negative effects on physical and mental health. It has been linked to conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure, anxiety disorders, and depression.

  2. Impaired Performance: While moderate stress can enhance performance, excessive stress or anxiety can impair cognitive function, disrupt concentration, and lead to errors and poor decision-making.

  3. Burnout: Chronic stress without sufficient relief can lead to burnout, characterized by emotional exhaustion, reduced effectiveness, and a sense of cynicism or detachment from work or life.

  4. Interpersonal Conflict: High stress levels can lead to irritability, conflict, and strained relationships. Stress can affect one's ability to communicate effectively and empathize with others.

  5. Reduced Well-Being: Overall, chronic stress can diminish an individual's quality of life. It can lead to feelings of overwhelm, helplessness, and a reduced sense of well-being.

Q3. d) Comment briefly on Laissez faire leadership style is just the opposite of autocratic style.

Ans) Autocratic style of leadership is the exact opposite of "let things happen on their own" style. When a manager takes on this style, he completely gives up his role as a leader. The subordinate group is given the power to make decisions, and each member is free to do what they want. No one is taking on the role of a leader. The people in the group have full freedom to set goals and act on them. Because of this, there is chaos and poor management of the group's goals.

Laissez-faire leadership, also called the "hands-off" or "delegate" style, is when a leader doesn't get too involved in making decisions or running day-to-day business. In this style, leaders give team members a lot of freedom, letting them make their own decisions and handle their own work.

The laissez-faire approach works in the following situations:

a) When a leader wants to give full decision-making power to someone else.

b) Subordinates have been trained well and know a lot.

c) Organisation goals have been communicated well.

Both styles represent distinct approaches to leadership with their own advantages and drawbacks

Laissez-faire allows for greater employee autonomy, encourages creativity, and empowers team members. It can be effective in situations where employees are highly skilled and self-motivated.

Autocratic leadership emphasizes control and efficiency but may stifle creativity and limit employee engagement. It can be effective in situations where a clear direction and immediate decision-making are critical.

Q4 a) Difference between autocratic style and democratic style of leadership.

Ans) Autocratic leadership is characterized by centralized decision-making and limited input from team members, while democratic leadership involves shared decision-making, open communication, and active participation from team members.

Q4. b) Difference between legitimate power and coercive power.

Ans) Legitimate power is based on an individual's recognized authority and the belief that they have the right to make decisions and give orders. It is typically associated with formal positions and roles in organizations and society. Coercive power, on the other hand, relies on fear and intimidation to gain compliance, often resulting in reluctant obedience and potential long-term negative consequences for relationships and organizational culture.

Q4. c) Difference between centralization and decentralization.

Ans) The leadership of the organisation makes choices faster, yet centralisation may hinder adaptability and innovation. Decentralisation divides decision-making power among levels or units, promoting flexibility, creativity, and collaboration but challenging accountability and risk management.

Q4. d) Difference between hygiene factors and motivators.

Ans) Hygiene elements prevent unhappiness and provide a baseline job contentment, whereas motivators immediately increase satisfaction and motivation, resulting in superior performance and employee engagement.

Q5) Write short notes on the following:

Q5. a) Factors influencing politics in the organisation.

Ans) There are many things that can affect how people act politically in an organisation.

They can be put into two main groups: individual and organisational factors.

Individual Factors: Some people get involved in politics to meet their own needs, such as to gain power and control and to have a say in how the group makes decisions. They want to have more power over more places. In a power struggle, no one wants to lose power because power can be used to get what want. Also, some people go into politics because they have a strong need for power. They are mostly internals and people who watch themselves. People also get involved in politics because they want to get ahead quickly in life no matter what.

Organizational Factors: Some of the organisational factors that cause people to play politics in organisations are listed below.

  1. There aren't many resources in the organisation. Every person and department in the organisation want to have the best resources possible. Because of this, people get involved in politics to get the most out of how resources are shared.

  2. There are many ways to look at limited resources like position, power, promotion, etc. So, anyone who needs those resources feels like he or she will lose them in the process of giving them out. Because of this, they use politics in the organisation to help them.

  3. When rules and policies aren't clear and making decisions is hard because of that, some people play politics to take advantage of the situation.

  4. When performance evaluations and their results are subjective, qualitative, and not clear, people play politics to get the result they want.

  5. People sometimes go into politics because they feel like they must do well. It's just to get the authority to let go of control and lower the performance goal.

  6. The organization's culture of democratic and shared decision-making can also lead to politics, since everyone wants to show how important they are and give their opinion.

  7. When people at the top of an organisation play politics, it's only natural that politics will also happen at the bottom.

Q5. b) Write short notes on communication process.

Ans) The communication process is a fundamental aspect of human interaction, whether in personal or professional settings. It involves the transmission of information, ideas, thoughts, or feelings from one individual or entity to another.

  1. Sender: The communication process begins with a sender, the person or entity who initiates the message. The sender encodes the information they wish to convey into a message that can be understood by the recipient.

  2. Message: The message is the information, idea, or content that the sender intends to communicate. It can take various forms, such as verbal language, written text, visual images, or non-verbal cues like body language and facial expressions.

  3. Encoding: Encoding is the process of translating thoughts and ideas into a format that can be transmitted to the recipient. It involves choosing words, symbols, or gestures to convey the message effectively.

  4. Channel: The channel is the medium through which the message is transmitted. It can be face-to-face conversations, written documents, emails, phone calls, video conferences, or any other means of communication.

  5. Receiver: The receiver is the individual or entity for whom the message is intended. They play a crucial role in the communication process by decoding and interpreting the message.

  6. Decoding: Decoding is the process of interpreting and making sense of the message received. It involves understanding the words, symbols, and context to extract meaning from the communication.

  7. Feedback: Feedback is a crucial component of effective communication. It involves the recipient responding to the sender's message, indicating whether they have understood it correctly or need further clarification. Feedback ensures that the message's intended meaning aligns with the perceived meaning.

  8. Noise: Noise refers to any interference or barriers that disrupt the communication process. It can be external noise, such as loud background sounds, or internal noise, like personal biases and distractions, which hinder the message's clarity and reception.

  9. Context: The context encompasses the circumstances, setting, and situation in which the communication occurs. It greatly influences how the message is interpreted and understood. Context includes factors like cultural norms, social dynamics, and the timing of the communication.

  10. Barriers: Communication barriers can impede the effectiveness of the process. These barriers may include language differences, misinterpretation, emotional filters, physical distance, and technology limitations.

  11. Purpose: Every communication has a purpose, which can be informative, persuasive, expressive, or relational. Understanding the purpose helps both the sender and receiver align their expectations and responses.

  12. Effectiveness: Effective communication occurs when the message sent matches the message received and leads to the desired outcome or understanding. Effective communication enhances collaboration, decision-making, and interpersonal relationships.

Q5. c) Write short notes on dimensions of organisational climate.

Ans) Many studies have examined organisational climate. Leadership, motivation, communication, decisions, goals, and control are Likert's six organisational climate indicators.

Litwin and Stringer have come up with seven aspects of organisational climate: conformity, responsibility, standards, rewards, organisational clarity, warmth and support, and leadership. A lot of attention has also been paid to the motivational framework of organisational climate. The climate's driving force comes from the following:

  1. Achievement: Care about doing well.

  2. Expert Influence: Care about influencing other people.

  3. Control: Care about authority and order.

  4. Extension: Care about others and big picture issues.

  5. Dependency: Care about being close to other people in a meaningful way.

  6. Affiliation: Care about building and keeping close relationships with other people.

Pareek has found twelve processes of organisational climate based on his review of different studies and conversations with managers.

  1. Orientation: Members' top priorities can range from wanting to follow the rules to wanting to do their best and succeed.

  2. Interpersonal Relationships: Depending on how the relationships are set up, it could lead to a climate of cliques, of control, of dependence, etc.

  3. Supervision: Depending on how the boss manages, the atmosphere could be one of extension, affiliation.

  4. Problems: Problems can be seen as opportunities or annoyances. A manager can solve a problem on his or her own or with the help of subordinates.

  5. Management of Mistakes: People can be tolerant of mistakes or annoyed by them. How people feel about mistakes affects the climate of an organisation.

  6. Conflict Management: Conflict can be seen as an opportunity or a threat, and how people see it affects the climate of an organisation.

  7. Communication: The climate of an organisation is affected by how, where, when, and what people talk about.

  8. Decision Making: Organizational climate is affected by the levels at which decisions are made and the amount of participation in those decisions.

  9. Trust: Organizational climate is affected by how much trust there is or how little there is.

  10. Management of Rewards: The climate of an organisation is affected by how people think things are rewarded there.

  11. Risk Taking: It has an important effect on the weather.

  12. Innovation and Change: Styles of managing change and innovations are critical in establishing climate.

Q5. d) Write short notes on delegation of authority.

Ans) Delegation is the process by which a manager divides the work that has been given to him so that he can do the part that he can do well because of his position. Delegation is giving a manager or employee the right to act in a certain way. It lets him work on his own without having to talk to his boss, but within the limits set by his boss and the normal goals, policies, rules, and procedures of the organisation. So, delegation means giving someone else work to do, giving them the power, right, or authority to do the work, and making the person who accepts delegation responsible for doing the work.

One of the most important parts of organising is passing on power to other people. Organizations have a network of activities and roles that make them what they are. Delegation is the process of putting people in their different roles in an organisation in touch with each other.

Delegation is important because it is physically impossible for one person to run a large organisation on his own. For a manager to be successful, he or she needs to be able to multiply himself through other people. Today's organisations are not only big, but also very complicated. No manager can say that he or she has all the skills and knowledge to do all the different kinds of jobs. Again, there isn't just one place where big business is done. It could have more than one branch or unit in more than one place. An organisation keeps things going. Even though managers come and go, the organisation keeps going. Delegation keeps things running smoothly in an organisation. Delegation helps managers get better at what they do in an organisation.

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